Hydraulics & Pneumatics - Hydraulics & Pneumatics is the leading international technical resource for fluid power http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/rss.xml en Use Exonomy Analysis for Your Next Drive Solution http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/use-exonomy-analysis-your-next-drive-solution <div class="field-byline"> Elvira Rakova, Technical University at Dresden </div> <div class="field-deck"> The choice between specifying a pneumatic drive or an electromechanical one sometimes is clear. In many cases, though, choices often involve tradeoffs, so the scientific method presented here can help you make a wise decision. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/use-exonomy-analysis-your-next-drive-solution-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p align="left">Electric and pneumatic drives are widely used to perform a variety of handling tasks. While electric drives are highly dynamic, very precise, and demonstrate tailored control concepts for position, velocity, and force, pneumatic drives are low in installation and maintenance costs, and offer both a flexible and robust design. The bottom line is that compressed air is an expensive source of energy, whereas electric drives present high investment costs. To find the balance between cost, efficiency, and functionality, various factors have to be considered, including fulfillment of the task regarding velocity and forces, expected energy consumption, life cycle costs, and the payback period over the lifetime of the system.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-drill-rig-s-top-drive-drops-uncontrollably">Troubleshooting Challenge: Drill Rig&rsquo;s Top Drive Drops Uncontrollably</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/hydraulic-fan-drive-keeps-engine-cool-and-efficient">Hydraulic Fan Drive Keeps Engine Cool and Efficient</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/different-driver-different-torque">Different Driver, Different Torque</a></p> </div> <p align="left">The major challenge with the high-energy consumption of pneumatic drives is the absence of a defined sizing approach. To solve this problem, a new approach has been developed that can help designers choose the most cost-effective drive solution between different technologies and over the lifetime of the drive&mdash;<em>Exonomy analysis</em>.</p> <p align="left">The starting point for Exonomy analysis is to consider input parameters&mdash;drive configuration, task and operating parameters, and costs. The Exonomy method is comprised of three main steps: <em>exergy</em> (maximum available energy)-based sizing of the actuators; expected energy consumption and definition of possible energy-saving measures; and LCC analysis over the lifetime of the drive (<em>Fig. 1</em>).</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Fig. 1" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Automate-Fig-1.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 595px;" title="1. The Exonomy method is comprised of three main steps: exergy-based sizing of the actuators; expected energy consumption and definition of possible energy-saving measures; and LCC analysis over the lifetime of the drive. " /></p> <h3 align="left">Task Energy Calculations for Actuator Sizing</h3> <p align="left">Pneumatic and electric drives exhibit different principles of energy transmission, which makes their energetic analysis more complicated. In many cases, a standard pneumatic drive shows a lower energy efficiency in comparison to an equivalent electric drive. When electric actuators are chosen according to required power they take into account the dynamic parameters of the task, while pneumatic drives are chosen by considering only load-based parameters. To overcome this difference in approach, most designers choose oversized pneumatic drives for their applications.</p> <p align="left">The key to this approach is in adjusting the energy transmitted by the system to the required energy of the task at hand. To calculate generated energy transmitted by the cylinder, the energy balance includes calculating the exergy and the losses due to friction and damping. The relationship between these values is presented by the <em>sizing factor</em>, <em>SF</em>.</p> <p align="left">The analysis of the exergy, sizing factor, and the task energy required is expressed in an equation to determine the diameter (bore) of the cylinder. Overall, the equation must include the dynamic and static load characteristics of the task&mdash;including damping and friction forces&mdash;to provide the precise calculation of the geometry. Typically, the task of a pneumatic drive is to move a stated mass for a particular distance within a specific time period. Dynamic parameters, such as velocity and force, can be described as <em>task energy</em>, <em>E<sub>task</sub></em>. Task energy consists of potential and kinetic energy of the moving mass.</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Eq. 1" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Equation-1.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 50px;" /></p> <p align="left">Using <em>Fig. 2</em>, we&rsquo;ll analyze the maximum available energy provided by the cylinder drive. Incoming pneumatic energy is transformed into energy of motion mass. The work done by the drive within the motion time is represented by the pneumatic energy of the compressed air <em>E<sub>pn</sub></em>. The cylinder moves from the meter-in pressure, and the compressibility of the air causes pressure changes in the meter-out chamber. Therefore, the available pneumatic energy is derived by the <em>difference</em> between energies at the meter-in and meter-out chambers.</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Fig. 2" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Automate-Fig-2.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 486px;" title="2. Energy flows within a pneumatic system." /></p> <p align="left">This maximum available energy is described by thermodynamic value exergy E<sub>ex</sub>. However, not all pneumatic energy can be transformed into mechanical energy. The two factors that prevent this transformation are friction, <em>E<sub>f</sub></em>, and damping energy, <em>E<sub>d</sub></em>. Both act in the opposite direction of the piston motion, so energy balance can be described as:</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Eq. 2" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Equation-2.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 45px;" /></p> <p align="left">Energy balance, then, shows that the well-dimensioned actuator must account for the losses when calculating the exact amount of energy to fulfill the motion task. The degree of over- or undersizing of the actuator is distinguished as a relation between right and left parts of Equation 3 and represented by the sizing factor. Therefore, the sizing factor of the well-dimensioned actuator is calculated as a relation between loss and exergy:</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Eq. 3" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Equation-3-.gif" style="width: 300px; height: 72px;" /></p> <p align="left">Analyze the chamber volume and use the first and second laws of thermodynamics to calculate the exergy provided by the cylinder. During machine concept, choose the geometric parameters of the system to determine the working pressure needed. Once this has been done, calculate the cylinder bore for horizontal and vertical motion using energy-exergy balancing and equations 4 and 5.</p> <p align="left">Calculating cylinder bore for horizontal and vertical motions differs due to the potential energy present in the system. The formulas take into account all forms of energy, so they apply to various motion types. The formula for vertical motion is based on the relationship between piston and rod diameters with the coefficient, <em>n</em> (usually assumed as 1/3).</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Eq. 4" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Equation-4-.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 104px;" /></p> <p align="left"><img alt="Eq. 5" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Equation-5.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 46px;" /></p> <p align="left">Dynamic parameters, such as pressure, stroke, and motion. must be assumed as static at the end of the motion. Based on Equation 3, bore calculations also include sizing factor assumptions on losses due to mechanical friction and pneumatic damping. The sizing factor is determined for the horizontal and vertical drives for typical parameter ranges.</p> <h3 align="left">Sizing Factor Calculations</h3> <p align="left">The sizing factor takes into account exergy losses that occur during motion, such as mechanical friction and end-of-stroke damping energy. Damping energy consists of kinetic impact &nbsp;and compaction .</p> <p align="left">Impact energy depends on impact velocity and can be considered negligible in relation to compaction energy. Compaction energy is the combination of the kinetic energy of the load as it is applied to the compression energy in the cushioning chamber. The purpose is to bring the piston and load to a smooth and gentle stop against the endcap. Compaction energy is calculated as an exergy produced in the cushioning chamber under the isothermal system behavior:</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Eq. 6" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Equation-6.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 80px;" /></p> <p align="left">Friction losses also have to be considered in the overall energy balance. Friction losses can be calculated using the friction force, velocity, and motion time as follows:</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Eq. 7" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Equation-7.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 44px;" /></p> <p align="left">Although friction losses occur at the sealing end of the drive&rsquo;s components and depend on such factors as Coulomb friction, velocity dependent friction, and Stribeck&rsquo;s effect, they can be calculated by force balancing:</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Eq. 8" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Equation-8.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 41px;" /></p> <p align="left">Friction and damping losses depend on the geometric parameters of the cylinder and pressure levels. To reach that goal, the sizing factor has been predicted using the first and second laws of thermodynamics and Equations 11 and and 13, with prescribed cylinder geometries for different dynamic parameters.</p> <p align="left">The next step calculates the sizing factor for damping and friction for both motion types. The cylinder parameters for different loads and velocities are presented in the previous study. The limit of the sizing factor was distinguished using the strategy of pressure lowering. The studied task parameters varied from 0.2 kg to 40 kg and 0.05 m/sec to 1.5 m/sec presenting the most typical applications for handling tasks.</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Fig. 3" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Automate-Fig-3.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 660px;" title="3. Results of damping sizing factor." /></p> <p align="left"><em>Damping sizing factor</em> for horizontal motion is represented by values from 1 to 1.15 for the mass value under 10 kg and velocity up to 1.6 m/sec and rising with an increase of mass and decrease of velocity. It mostly depends on motion mass and, therefore, on the cylinder geometry. The damping sizing factor of vertical drives shows the same tendency as the horizontally mounted cylinder. In this case, the maximum sizing factor is required for the lower mass and lower velocity. The slower compression of air in the damping chamber requires more compaction energy.</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Fig. 4" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Automate-Fig-4.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 706px;" title="4. Results of friction sizing factor." /></p> <p align="left">Next is <em>friction sizing factor</em>. Friction energy can easily be several times larger than the task energy sizing factor for horizontal motion. <em>Figure 4</em> shows the growth of sizing factor within particular velocities. It can be explained by how the friction force affects the velocity of the stroke. The same tendency shows the friction sizing factor of the vertical drive, but with lower values. The task energy, in this case, is higher than the friction due to the action of the potential energy. All this leads to the importance of the damping and friction losses. Moreover, it outlines the difference between vertical and horizontal motion, which has to be considered to arrive at the proper sizing.</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Fig. 5" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Automate-Fig-5.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 451px;" title="5. Choice of the design parameters using different approaches." /></p> <p align="left">Using the presented sizing factor, the cylinder diameters have been calculated using Equations 9 and 10 (option C) and compared with other approaches for the current cases for the specific task (<em>Fig. 5</em>).</p> <p align="left">Note that option A presents the most common choice of design parameters based on the load sizing approach under the working pressure level of 7 bar. Option B offers the reduced pressure based on exergy balancing with the same cylinder diameter as in the first case. Finally, option C provides information for the optimum cylinder sizing under the standard working pressure using exergy balancing in analog to option B. The measurement and simulation results for the horizontal and vertical drives for the options A, B, and C are presented in <em>Fig. 6</em>.</p> <p align="left"><strong><img alt="Fig. 6" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Automate-Fig-6.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 500px;" title="6. Simulation (solid line) and measurement (dash line) results of energy consumption of horizontal and vertical pneumatic drives." /></strong></p> <p>Economic Analysis of Studied Drives</p> <p align="left">The calculation of LCC for each drive was done under the following working conditions: 3.2 million cycles per year and 5,000 km lifetime of the actuator. Lifetime for other components is neglected.</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Fig. 7" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Automate-Fig-7.gif" style="width: 400px; height: 551px;" title="7. Comparison of LCC of pneumatic drives with exergy-based and load-based sizing and electromechanical drives according to Exonomy analysis and payback period." /></p> <p align="left">The results on the left side of <em>Fig. 7</em> show the LCC for the drive used in our example. In this case, the LCC of standard pneumatic drives and EM drives are the same, whereas the improved system shows a significant cost reduction. However, the acquisition costs of the improved system are higher due to the use of a pressure regulator. The graph on the right shows the amortization time for the systems due to their lifetimes. These results show a payback period of 3.8&nbsp;years for the improved system and 6.5&nbsp;years for the electromechanical drive.</p> <p align="left">Finally, on the basis of the calculations presented here, all costs and time parameters are observed and guidelines for selecting pneumatic or EM drives can be formulated.</p> <p align="left"><img alt="Fig. 8" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Automate-Fig-8.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 419px;" title="8. Preferred application fields of the studied drives according to the results of Exonomy analysis." /></p> <p align="left"><em>Figure 8</em> shows the most cost-effective drive solution. All in all, the preferred application fields of both technologies are characterized by the actual mean velocity of the motion task and additionally by stroke and load masses. This proves the importance of considering the motion time for drive system selection.</p> <p align="left"><em><a href="mailto:rakova@ifd.mw.tu-dresden.de">Elvira Rakova, M.Sc.,</a> is a research assistant with the Institute of Fluid Power at the Technical University of Dresden, Germany. Contact her </em><em>for an unedited version of this paper or to answer questions.</em></p> <p><a href="http://sourceesb.com" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/globalpurchasing.com/files/uploads/2016/07/15/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 46px;" /></a></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/use-exonomy-analysis-your-next-drive-solution-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/use-exonomy-analysis-your-next-drive-solution#comments Controls & Instrumentation Thu, 16 Feb 2017 20:35:00 +0000 41921 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Use Exonomy Analysis for Your Next Drive Solution (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/use-exonomy-analysis-your-next-drive-solution-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>Electric and pneumatic drives are widely used to perform a variety of handling tasks. While electric drives are highly dynamic, very precise, and demonstrate tailored control concepts for position, velocity, and force...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/10/SALARY_SURVEY_HPcover.jpg" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics 2016 Salary &amp; Career Report</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=41931&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Gold Thu, 16 Feb 2017 20:30:00 +0000 41931 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Positive Pump Protection http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/positive-pump-protection <div class="field-byline"> Donald C. Krause, Flow-Ezy Filters Inc. </div> <div class="field-deck"> Keeping fluid clean by controlling contamination is essential for ensuring long life of all components in any hydraulic system. And because the pump is the most critical component in a hydraulic system, you should start by keeping contaminants out of the pump’s suction line. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/positive-pump-protection-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><img alt="Fig. 1" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Strainer.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 335px;" title="Sump strainers are placed in the hydraulic tank below the minimum fluid level to keep large contaminants from being ingested by the pump. This strainer is available with a built-in bypass relief valve to prevent staving the pump during startup if the strainer becomes clogged. " /></p> <p>Keeping fluid clean by controlling contamination is essential for ensuring long life of all components in any hydraulic system. And because the pump is the most critical component in a hydraulic system, you should start by keeping contaminants out of the pump&rsquo;s suction line.</p> <p>Questions sometimes arise as to whether or not you should provide a suction strainer (screen) for a system&rsquo;s main hydraulic pump. In my view, the answer is yes, absolutely. End of story. But if you still need some convincing, read on.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/contamination-control-are-you-victim-or-volunteer">Contamination Control: Are You A Victim Or A Volunteer?</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/hydraulic-oil-cleanliness-and-contamination-control-not-all-machines-are-equal">Hydraulic Oil Cleanliness And Contamination Control: Not All Machines Are Equal</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/hydraulic-cylinders-keep-their-cool">Hydraulic Cylinders Keep Their Cool</a></p> </div> <p>However, before proceeding, let&rsquo;s define a key term: strainer. At <a href="http://www.flowezyfilters.com" target="_blank">Flow-Ezy</a>, we define straining as using a 200-mesh (74 &micro;m) or courser screen to keep solid contaminants out of the pump. Anything finer than that&mdash;especially when the element is something other than a screen&mdash;we consider filtering. So this discussion refers to pump suction strainers.</p> <h3>The Role of Strainers</h3> <p>Suction strainers serve one purpose and one purpose only: to protect the pump from ingesting large (about 75 &micro;m or larger) particles. When a pump fails for any reason, the hydraulic system becomes useless. Pumps are rugged and can tolerate some pretty hostile conditions&mdash;up to a point.&nbsp; Suction strainers are designed to keep large contaminants out of the pump while creating little or no restriction to flow. An excessive restriction causes the pump to cavitate, which can quickly lead to premature pump failure.&nbsp;</p> <p>Cavitation begins with the formation of vapor cavities (bubbles) when hydraulic fluid is at low pressure. Cavitation occurs when the fluid pressure increases rapidly, as when fluid is pressurized within the hydraulic pump. When subjected to the sudden increase in pressure inside the pump, the voids collapse (implode), generating an intense shock wave that can erode away internal surfaces of the pump. Because these implosions occur repeatedly at high frequency, pumps can be rendered unserviceable within hours of operation.</p> <p>The first component hydraulic fluid passes through is the pump.&nbsp; Knowing that contamination, by far, is the No. 1 cause of hydraulic system failure, your No. 1 priority should be to protect the pump from particles large enough to damage a pump.&nbsp; Some pump manufacturers say that no filtration should be in the suction line, whereas others say there should. Regardless, all pump manufacturers agree that placing too tight of a filtration device in the suction line could wreak havoc on the pump.&nbsp; The bottom line is that placing a suction strainer in the suction line&mdash;and keeping the level of filtration open enough so as not to cause cavitation&mdash; becomes a win-win situation.&nbsp;</p> <p>Knowing the importance of protecting pumps from large contaminants, how fine a screen should be used for straining fluid drawn into the pump? It depends on the type of pump and its operating pressure. Listed below are some good general rules to follow in determining how fine a suction screen should be specified. But no matter what pump design is used and its operating pressure, assuming hydraulic fluid with a viscosity of 150 SUS at 100&deg;F, the suction line flow rate should never exceed 4 ft/sec, and 2 ft/sec is even better.</p> <p><strong>Piston pumps</strong> operating at low pressure (500 psi or less) should use a 100-mesh (149 &micro;m) screen. For operating pressure from 1,000 to 2,000 psi, use a 200-mesh (74 &micro;m) screen.</p> <p><strong>Vane pumps</strong> can tolerate larger contamination particles than piston pumps can, so for vane pumps operating at low pressure (500 psi or less), use 60-mesh (238 &micro;m) screen. For operating pressure from 1,000 to 5,000 psi, use a 100-mesh (149 &micro;m) screen.</p> <p><strong>Gear pumps</strong> are even more tolerant of larger particles when operating at low pressure. For gear pumps operating at pressure of 500 psi or less, use a 30-mesh screen. For pressures of 1,000 to 3,000 psi, use a 100-mesh (149 &micro;) screen.</p> <p>Keep in mind, these are general rules for unspecified applications.&nbsp; One thing that&rsquo;s certain is that many different systems operate in many different applications performing many different functions. Consult a certified filtration specialist if you have any questions or concerns regarding your specific application and equipment.</p> <h3>Should Strainers Have a Bypass?</h3> <p>Let&rsquo;s answer this question with a question. Are there ever times that unfiltered fluid should be allowed to pass through the pump? The answer is yes, especially if a system requires cold-weather startup.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 2" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/Y-strainer.jpg" style="margin: 5px; font-size: 12.8px; width: 220px; height: 306px; float: left;" title="Y configurations make convenient strainers because it’s easy to remove the element for cleaning or replacement, and without having to drain the reservoir. " />Before starting your system up in the cold, ensure that you have a bypass in place to allow unfiltered fluid to pass through the pump.&nbsp; Startup is a temporary event, and as long as you set the bypass in cold weather, there should be no harm to the pump. Trying to start it in the cold weather without a bypass may cause the pump to cavitate, creating problems.&nbsp; Another option for cold weather startup is to oversize the strainer, which offers more surface area for filtration. This will reduce the pressure drop caused by restricted flow. You may even consider using a coarser filter (larger openings) than what is generally used.&nbsp; Consider each application&rsquo;s total operation. Most suction strainers are available either with or without a bypass option. Some modifications may also be made when using more viscous fluids.</p> <p>Remember to always consider collectively what type of pump is being used, the viscosity of the fluid, the flow rate, the system pressure, and the line size in your selection.&nbsp; The suction line is never a place for filtering&mdash;a term generally used for anything finer than 74 &micro;m; it is normally a place for &ldquo;straining&rdquo; (coarser than 74 micron).&nbsp; Make sure your strainer is sized properly for the application.</p> <p>Suction strainers are not meant to be a system&rsquo;s only defense against contamination.&nbsp; I have yet to hear a valid reason for not using suction strainers, providing they are installed properly.&nbsp; Filters should to be installed in the pressure line, the return line, and the filler-breather port or tank breather, because airborne particles carry destructive contaminants, too.&nbsp; It is also a wise decision to use a portable filtration device&mdash;a filter cart, for example&mdash;to clean and polish the fluid in the system at scheduled intervals.&nbsp;</p> <p>A familiar term known to many is &ldquo;reactive&rdquo; maintenance.&nbsp; This is when you fix a problem only after noticing that something has gone terribly wrong.&nbsp; My advice is to remain one step ahead in servicing and maintaining your system at all times.&nbsp; My philosophy has always been, if you don&rsquo;t have time to do it right the first time, how are you ever going to find the time to fix it when it breaks?</p> <p>Take a proactive approach to ensure your hydraulic system&rsquo;s proper operation and longevity.&nbsp; This includes careful system design, regular monitoring, fluid analysis, and preventive maintenance. A suction strainer is an inexpensive and effective investment intended to prolong the life of a hydraulic system&rsquo;s pump.</p> <p><em><a href="mailto:donkrause@flowezyfilters.com">Don Krause</a> is general manager, <a href="http://www.flowezyfilters.com" target="_blank">Flow Ezy Filters Inc.</a>, Ann Arbor, Mich.</em></p> <p><a href="http://sourceesb.com" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/globalpurchasing.com/files/uploads/2016/07/15/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 46px;" /></a></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/positive-pump-protection-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/positive-pump-protection#comments Hydraulic Filters Thu, 16 Feb 2017 19:36:00 +0000 41901 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Positive Pump Protection (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/positive-pump-protection-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>Keeping fluid clean by controlling contamination is essential for ensuring long life of all components in any hydraulic system. And because the pump is the most critical component in a hydraulic system, you should start...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/10/SALARY_SURVEY_HPcover.jpg" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics 2016 Salary &amp; Career Report</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=41911&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Gold Thu, 16 Feb 2017 19:29:00 +0000 41911 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Image Gallery: The Las Vegas High Roller - World’s Largest Observation Wheel http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/construction/image-gallery-las-vegas-high-roller-world-s-largest-observation-wheel <div class="node-body gallery-body"><p>Attendees of ConExpo and IFPE2017 will have another attraction awaiting them in Las Vegas. At <a href="http://www.caesars.com/thelinq/" target="_blank">The Linq</a>, Caesars Entertainment&rsquo;s 550-million outdoor retail, dining, and entertainment district, the Las Vegas High Roller&mdash;the world&rsquo;s largest observation wheel&mdash;has become a must-see destination on the las Vegas strip.<br /> Use box at above right to scroll through pictures.<br /> <strong><a href="/news/world-s-largest-observation-wheel-awaits-vegas-visitors#node-24501" target="_blank">Click here</a></strong> to read our news story about the High Roller.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/construction/image-gallery-las-vegas-high-roller-world-s-largest-observation-wheel#comments Construction Entertainment News Thu, 16 Feb 2017 16:28:00 +0000 24481 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Essentra Caps & Plugs Application Guide http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fittings-couplings/essentra-caps-plugs-application-guide <div class="field-deck"> Sponsored by Essentra </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/ESSENTRA_Corporate-Logo-135x85.jpg" style="width: 135px; height: 85px; float: right;" />Choosing the right cap or plug to protect your application can be challenging. Our guide provides an easy way to choose the perfect solution to protect fittings and vital components against damage, moisture and corrosion with durable, easy to install Caps &amp; Plugs from Essentra. Our range includes imperial and metric sizes, push fit and threaded styles, and industry-specific products such as flange covers, hydraulic caps and plugs, bolt and screw caps, and masking items.&nbsp;</p> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write('\ <iframe style="height: 1250px; width: 100%; border:0;” frameBorder="0" scrolling="no"\ src="http://pages.hydraulicspneumatics.com/HP_Digital_Essentra_CapsPlugsGuide_WP_JR_120116?partnerref=' + getParameterByName("partnerref") + "&elq=" + getParameterByName("elq2") + "&code=" + getParameterByName("code") + "&PK=" + getParameterByName("PK") + "&PR=" + getParameterByName("PR") + '"></iframe>'); function getParameterByName(name) { var match = RegExp('[?&]' + name + '=([^&]*)').exec(window.location.search); if (match == null) return ""; return match && decodeURIComponent(match[1].replace(/\+/g, ' ')); } </script></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fittings-couplings/essentra-caps-plugs-application-guide#comments White Papers Fittings & Couplings Wed, 15 Feb 2017 21:45:00 +0000 40951 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com A Complete Line of Hydraulic Hose Protection and Fittings http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hose-tubing/complete-line-hydraulic-hose-protection-and-fittings <div class="field-deck"> Sponsored by Essentra </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/02/ESSENTRA_Corporate-Logo-135x85.jpg" style="width: 135px; height: 85px; float: right;" />The Hydraulic Hose Protection range includes: hose protection sleeves, hose wear protectors, Spiralguard&reg;, and fire protection sleeves. Essentra also offers a full line of Pipe Clamps, Hose Straps, Cable Ties, Caps &amp; Plugs, Netting, and more. 100,000 standard catalog parts are available for immediate delivery with free CAD drawings and sampling on most standard products. Download the Essentra Solutions for Hydraulic Hose &amp; Fittings catalog to learn more!</p> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write('\ <iframe style="height: 1300px; width: 100%; border:0;” frameBorder="0" scrolling="no"\ src="http://pages.hydraulicspneumatics.com/HP_Digital_Essentra_SolutionsHydraulicHose_WP_JoR_020117?partnerref=' + getParameterByName("partnerref") + "&elq=" + getParameterByName("elq2") + "&code=" + getParameterByName("code") + "&PK=" + getParameterByName("PK") + "&PR=" + getParameterByName("PR") + '"></iframe>'); function getParameterByName(name) { var match = RegExp('[?&]' + name + '=([^&]*)').exec(window.location.search); if (match == null) return ""; return match && decodeURIComponent(match[1].replace(/\+/g, ' ')); } </script></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hose-tubing/complete-line-hydraulic-hose-protection-and-fittings#comments Fittings & Couplings Hose & Tubing Wed, 15 Feb 2017 19:19:00 +0000 41681 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Big Turnout Expected for 2017 IFPE-ConExpo Show http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/big-turnout-expected-2017-ifpe-conexpo-show <div class="field-byline"> Ronald T. Klimko </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/RKlimko2.jpg"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/RKlimko2.jpg" style="width: 222px; height: 350px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" /></a>The <a href="http://www.nam.org" target="_blank">National Association of Manufacturers</a> has reported that the international economy has made tremendous strides over the past few months, and although January suffered a few pullbacks in growth, that progress was mostly sustained as we began 2017. After frustrating stagnation in 2016, the global economy has stabilized and seems to be moving in the right direction. In January, the rate of expansion quickened for new orders and exports, and both are at their highest levels since mid-2014.</p> <p>At the same time, the employment index has expanded for&nbsp; six months in a row, with the current expansion continuing to be at its swiftest rate since March 2014.</p> <p>Eleven of the top 15 markets for exporting of U.S -manufactured goods underwent growth in their manufacturing sectors in January.</p> <p>This good news includes our fluid power industry, which shows strength at least through 2018. This recovery for our industry is most gratifying after a challenging 2016. I&#39;m sure we all hope this period of growth for fluid power will be sustained for a long time.</p> <p><a href="http://www.conexpoconagg.com" target="_blank">ConExpo/ConAgg</a>, which also contains <a href="http://www.ifpe.com/" target="_blank">IFPE 2017</a>, is the largest and most comprehensive trade fair in North America. IFPE 2017 is dedicated to the integration of fluid power with other technologies for power transmission and motion control.</p> <p>With a sold-out show&nbsp; that will house hundreds of fluid power component and system exhibits and a comprehensive <a href="http://www.ifpe.com/visit/education/" target="_blank">educational program</a> &mdash; including the <a href="http://ceca17.mapyourshow.com/7_0/sessions/index.cfm?srch-type=sessiontrack&amp;srch-query=17&amp;srch-showresults=true" target="_blank">Energy Efficient Hydraulics and Pneumatics Conference</a> and <a href="http://ceca17.mapyourshow.com/7_0/sessions/index.cfm?srch-type=sessiontrack&amp;srch-query=16&amp;srch-showresults=true" target="_blank">college-level courses</a> &mdash; IFPE promises to be of great benefit to all who attend. There is no better time for IFPE to happen than now because of<br /> <strong>&bull;</strong> the improving health of the industry across all end user markets,<br /> <strong>&bull;</strong> the level of innovation taking place by manufacturers and at the <a href="http://www.ccefp.org" target="_blank">Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power</a>, and<br /> <strong>&bull;</strong> the overall level of excitement by fluid power providers and users alike.</p> <p>IFPE 2017 uses the slogan &quot;<strong>The Power of New Solutions</strong>,&rdquo; and the innovative spirit captured in these words reflects the optimism for the near- and long-term future of the fluid power industry. This is an encouraging time for all companies and individuals working in the industry, including manufacturers, distributors, integrators, users, maintenance and repair professionals and even those of us who report on the industry.</p> <p>We hope to see you at IFPE 2017, where <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics</em> will officially introduce our next generation of&nbsp;content tools for expanding your customers&#39; knowledge of fluid power system design.</p> </div> Other Technologies Tue, 14 Feb 2017 20:00:00 +0000 41881 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Work Truck Show: Building Bridges Between Suppliers and Industry http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/work-truck-show-building-bridges-between-suppliers-and-industry <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The <a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/work-truck-show-2017" target="_blank">Work Truck Show</a>, which will take place from March 15-17 at the Indiana Convention Center in Indianapolis, is expected to draw over 500 exhibitors from across the country. Sponsored by the NTEA&mdash;the National Truck Equipment Association&mdash;the show gives fluid power professionals the opportunity to make connections with workers throughout the truck industry&rsquo;s supply chain.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/heat-exchangers/first-look-3d-printed-excavator-headline-ifpe-2017">First Look: 3D-Printed Excavator to Headline IFPE 2017</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/driver-s-seat">In the Driver&rsquo;s Seat</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/ifpe-2017-conexpoconagg">Events: IFPE 2017 &amp; ConExpo/ConAgg</a></p> </div> <p>For those interested in expanding their knowledge base, educational sessions, along with the Green Truck Summit, actually begin March 14. Both the Green Truck Summit and the Work Truck Show will hold sessions; one key theme at the Green Truck Summit involves alternative fuels and systems for cleaner transmissions.</p> <p>Other educational categories include Workforce development, risk mitigations, truck specifications and design, and OEM chassis updates, among others. Sessions can count toward educational criteria required by the NTEA&rsquo;s Member Verification Program (MVP) for qualified companies.</p> <p>Registration commences at noon on March 13, and the exhibit hall opens on March 15 at 10:00 a.m. Over the following two days, attendees can interact with thousands of industry professionals, set up meetings with current suppliers or customers, find solutions to resolve technical issues, and talk with industry peers at special events and receptions.</p> <p>Special events will include a Ride-and-Drive, which occurs on Wednesday and Thursday from noon until 4:30, where one can test-drive or ride in some of latest trucks to hit the market. Also on Thursday will be a special session taught by young people in the industry, aimed at discussing methods to recruit and keep millennials in the work truck industry.</p> <table align="left" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" style="width: 600px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <h3><strong>Get a free copy of the NTEA Truck Equipment Handbook</strong></h3> <p><em><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/NTEA%20TE%20Handbook%20-%20cover%20art.jpg" style="width: 200px; height: 342px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" />NTEA Truck Equipment</em> <em>Handbook</em>&nbsp;is an indispensable guide for truck equipment distributors, manufacturers, truck dealers and salespeople, and truck buyers. Technical information is presented in a clear, concise way, addressing component descriptions; application and installation considerations and requirements; graphs, charts and diagrams illustrating basic engineering calculations (i.e., payload analysis, weight distribution and center of gravity); reference sections on vehicle certification, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and lighting requirements; weights and measures charts; and a glossary of truck equipment industry terms.</p> <p>The <em>Handbook</em> normally sells for $15 to NTEA member companies and $29 to the general public. However, you can pick up a copy for free, while supplies last, at NTEA booth #3401 during The Work Truck Show 2017, hosted at the Indianapolis Convention Center, from March 15-17<sup>th</sup>.</p> </td> <td>&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <div class="captioned-image caption-none" style="overflow: hidden; width: 600px;"><a href="http://sourceesb.com/" style="color: rgb(14, 95, 139); font-family: Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; font-size: 15px;" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/globalpurchasing.com/files/uploads/2016/07/15/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="display: block; width: 600px; height: 46px;" /></a></div> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/work-truck-show-building-bridges-between-suppliers-and-industry#comments News Tue, 14 Feb 2017 15:13:00 +0000 41871 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>The&nbsp;<span data-scayt-lang="en_US" data-scayt-word="NTEA">NTEA</span>&nbsp;consists of nearly 1,800 companies that manufacture, distribute, install, sell, and repair commercial trucks, truck bodies, truck equipment, trailers, and accessories. Fluid power professionals can take advantage of the show to make connections with peers in the work truck industry.&nbsp;(Courtesy&nbsp;of The&nbsp;Municipal)</p> How To Buy Hydraulic Filter Elements - The Right Way http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-buy-hydraulic-filter-elements-right-way <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>One of our readers wrote me this question:<br /> <br /> <em>&quot;We are evaluating filters for a contract and I had the suppliers give me the Beta ratios for the elements they propose to supply. The problem is one company has given me Beta ratios for 2 and 11 microns, and the other company, 6 and 20 microns, i.e.:<br /> <br /> Company A&#39;s filter is Beta2 = 2 and Beta11 = 20<br /> Company B&#39;s filter is Beta6 = 2 and Beta20 = 75<br /> <br /> So the way I read it:<br /> Company A&#39;s filter is 50% efficient at 2 micron and up and 95% efficient at 11 micron and up. Company B&#39;s is 50% efficient at 6 micron and up and 98.7% efficient at 20 micron and up.<br /> <br /> My question is which filter is better?&quot;</em><br /> <br /> Certainly, the different blocking sizes on which the Beta ratios are stated above, makes an &#39;apples to apples&#39; comparison extremely difficult (for detailed explanation of filter Beta ratios and efficiency, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=thmh">read chapters 8 and 9 of The Hydraulic Maintenance Handbook</a>).<br /> <br /> But the short answer to this question is: the better filter is the one that will achieve and maintain the required or targeted fluid cleanliness level (at the lowest cost). Which by extension means, it&#39;s possible that neither of the above filters are suitable for the application.<br /> <br /> The reason I say this is because both the above filters have relatively poor Beta ratios by today&#39;s hydraulic filtration standards. For comparison, a Hydac (the first catalogue I pulled off my shelf) BN3HC 10-micron element is rated: Beta10 = 500 and Beta5 = 100!<br /> <br /> And unless you have a very old, non-critical, low-pressure hydraulic machine, in this day and age, you should have a filter rated Beta10 =/&gt;100 installed at least somewhere in the system. This level of filtration can be expected to achieve a fluid cleanliness level (ISO 4406:1999) of around 19/17/14, which is pretty decent but not super clean.<br /> <br /> Keep in mind though, it is unwise to upgrade existing filter housings with finer, more efficient elements, without first checking that the increase in pressure drop created by the new filter-element is not going to cause problems. Like putting the filter on bypass, for example.<br /> <br /> As with most maintenance issues, the best approach is to start with the end in mind. In this case it means:<br /> 1. Establishing the required or targeted fluid cleanliness level for the machine or system;<br /> 2. Specifying a minimum, filter-element blocking size and Beta ratio that can be realistically expected to achieve the desired cleanliness level;<br /> 3. If this involves an upgrade of the elements in existing filters housings, flow rates and pressure drops must be checked to confirm the higher filter specification won&#39;t cause any problems.<br /> 4. And <strong>then</strong> the filter supply contract can be released for commercial tender.<br /> <br /> In other words, sourcing filters or any other hydraulic consumable without doing your homework first can be a costly mistake. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-buy-hydraulic-filter-elements-right-way#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:39:00 +0000 41861 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Double-Indemnity Insurance for Your Pump http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/double-indemnity-insurance-your-pump <div class="node-body blog-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/double-indemnity-insurance-your-pump-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high-resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>With apologies to Shakespeare, &ldquo;To use a suction screen, or not to use a suction screen, that is the question.&rdquo;</p> <p>We don&rsquo;t come across many controversies in fluid power, and this is the biggest controversy I&rsquo;ve seen in my 30 years (as of this month) at <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics</em>. (It&rsquo;s also the first time I&rsquo;ve used that bad of a clich&eacute; in anything I&rsquo;ve written.)</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/suction-strainers-hungry-donkey-and-paradox-choice">Suction Strainers, a Hungry Donkey, and the Paradox Of Choice</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/truth-about-hydraulic-suction-strainers">The Truth About Hydraulic Suction Strainers</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/pop-cavitation-bubble-hydraulic-systems">Pop the Cavitation Bubble in Hydraulic Systems</a></p> </div> <p>This is one of those arguments that may never reach a consensus. One side of the argument holds that you should <em>always</em> use a suction strainer to keep the pump from sucking in large objects like screws, washers, nuts, and any other foreign object that finds its way into a hydraulic reservoir. Suction strainers are inexpensive, so you&rsquo;d be foolish not to make this small investment to protect the hydraulic system&rsquo;s most vital&mdash;and expensive&mdash;component.</p> <p>That&rsquo;s a strong argument. But the opposing view says that anyone who doesn&rsquo;t take the little effort to keep stuff like screws and other foreign objects out of the reservoir is the same type of person who never goes through the trouble of removing, cleaning, and replacing the strainer. A clogged strainer will restrict inlet flow to the pump, eventually causing cavitation and premature failure. Worse yet, if a technician replaces a failed pump and doesn&rsquo;t clean the strainer before starting up the new pump, it will also fail prematurely from cavitation.</p> <p>I&rsquo;d like to propose a compromise. The argument against using a suction strainer is that it can become clogged over time, eventually causing premature pump failure if no action is taken. However, many strainers have a bypass option that redirects hydraulic fluid right into the pump if a negative pressure (partial vacuum) exists in the suction line. The bypass often is used if the pump will be started when the hydraulic fluid is cold. Cold fluid can be too viscous to freely flow into the pump; the bypass allows fluid to pass directly into the pump until the fluid warms up.</p> <p>The same thing happens when a clogged strainer prevents fluid from flowing freely into the pump. The restriction to flow caused by the clogged screen creates a partial vacuum in the pump suction line. The differential pressure between the suction line and the static fluid pressure in the tank causes the bypass valve to open, thus avoiding cavitation.</p> <p>This being the case, the suction strainer becomes a life insurance policy for the hydraulic pump. No one says you must have life insurance, but you probably do. And most states require all drivers to carry car insurance. That&rsquo;s because tremendous amounts of money can be involved when the unexpected happens. Hmmm, sounds similar to what transpires when a hydraulic pump suddenly breaks down.</p> <p><a href="http://sourceesb.com" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/globalpurchasing.com/files/uploads/2016/07/15/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 46px;" /></a></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/double-indemnity-insurance-your-pump#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors The Hitch Post Mon, 13 Feb 2017 15:11:00 +0000 41831 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Product Preview Part 1: IFPE 2017 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/product-preview-part-1-ifpe-2017 <div class="node-body gallery-body"><p>Here&#39;s a sneak-peek at the products to appear at the International Fluid Power Expo March 7-11. Be sure to visit&nbsp;the&nbsp;respective booths listed!</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/product-preview-part-1-ifpe-2017#comments Products Events Mon, 13 Feb 2017 14:58:00 +0000 41851 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com La Hidráulica Repotencia Sopladora de Plástico http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/la-hidr-ulica-repotencia-sopladora-de-pl-stico <div class="node-body blog-body"><p class="rtejustify"><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/09/09/The%20blow%20clamp%20manifold%20was%20outfitted%20with%204WRLE%20proportional%20valves%20and%20Bosch%20Rexroth%20pressure%20filters.PNG" target="_self"><img alt="" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/09/09/The%20blow%20clamp%20manifold%20was%20outfitted%20with%204WRLE%20proportional%20valves%20and%20Bosch%20Rexroth%20pressure%20filters.PNG" style="width: 300px; height: 197px; margin: 10px; float: left;" title="Figura 1: El bloque de mando de la mordaza de soplado fue diseñado con válvulas proporcionales tipo 4WRLE y filtros de presión Bosch Rexroth." /></a>Las sopladoras de pl&aacute;stico de Jomar Corp. son utilizadas por fabricantes para la producci&oacute;n de art&iacute;culos con un espesor fino de pared como lo son botellas y contenedores utilizados en la industria farmac&eacute;utica, de salud, higiene personal, belleza, comida, bebidas y art&iacute;culos del hogar. Su nuevo modelo 85S Intellidrive (IBM por sus siglas en ingl&eacute;s), est&aacute; equipado con un sistema hidr&aacute;ulico accionado por servo tipo Sytronix de Bosch Rexroth, lo que aumenta la eficiencia en aproximadamente un 40-50% en comparaci&oacute;n con accionamientos convencionales. El nuevo sistema es el primero en incorporar varios componentes nuevos en el mercado en un concepto &uacute;nico y compacto.</p> <p class="rtejustify">El dise&ntilde;o toma en consideraci&oacute;n las altas presiones generadas a medida que los tornillos sin fin del plastificador inyectan pl&aacute;stico a los moldes, as&iacute; como tambi&eacute;n el ingreso de aire comprimido en el mismo para crear un espacio. Los moldes se mantienen unidos por una mordaza, la cual se abre y cierra a trav&eacute;s de millones de ciclos para formar y liberar los productos. Para suministrar estas presiones con una mayor eficiencia, Jomar y Bosch Rexroth investigaron la aplicaci&oacute;n de un servo sistema cerrado que reemplazara la plataforma el&eacute;ctrica utilizada en modelos anteriores. El nuevo sistema combina controles digitales inteligentes con un sistema bomba motor que opera en 4 cuadrantes, regulando la velocidad y con ello el flujo de aceite hidr&aacute;ulico.</p> <p class="rtejustify">Debido a que el plastificador es el mayor consumidor de energ&iacute;a en la m&aacute;quina, el equipo busc&oacute; equiparlo con el accionamiento Sytronix de Bosch Rexroth como prioridad. El sistema consiste en una bomba de pistones axiales A10 de Bosch Rexroth y un servo motor MSK con un Indradrive C, dimensionados de manera de proveer el torque, velocidad y potencia ideales para el plastificador. El accionamiento de velocidad variable opera en cuatro cuadrantes; tiene la posibilidad de operar en ambas direcciones y cuenta con dos lados de presi&oacute;n que responden a cambios operacionales en el motor, lo que elimina la necesidad de utilizar v&aacute;lvulas direccionales proporcionales. Esto resulta en ahorro en costos y energ&iacute;a.</p> <p class="rtejustify">La bomba de pistones axiales A10 es un dise&ntilde;o modificado relativamente reciente que le permite operar a velocidades m&aacute;s altas que las convencionales, efectuar operaciones proporcionales y que opera en los 4 cuadrantes del sistema Sytronix. Suple aceite hidr&aacute;ulico para accionar un motor H&auml;gglunds tipo CAB de pistones radiales, acoplado directamente al tornillo de potencia. El resultado es el de un sistema a circuito cerrado accionando un motor hidr&aacute;ulico al extrusor con posibilidad de operaci&oacute;n bidireccional. Dise&ntilde;ado espec&iacute;ficamente para este tipo de sistemas, el CAB se est&aacute; dando a conocer como el arma secreta, ya que encierra una gran potencia en un dise&ntilde;o compacto y de niveles bajos de ruido. Para reducir el tama&ntilde;o, el motor se mont&oacute; verticalmente. Este tipo de motores es el primero que se introduce en el mercado americano.</p> <p class="rtejustify"><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/12/26/The%20BR%20servo%20motor%20with%20an%20A10FZH%20hydraulic%20pump%20connect%20to%20the%20new%20Hagglunds%20Beast%20motor%20which%20is%20installed%20on%20a%20vertical%20plastifier.PNG"><img alt="" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/12/26/The%20BR%20servo%20motor%20with%20an%20A10FZH%20hydraulic%20pump%20connect%20to%20the%20new%20Hagglunds%20Beast%20motor%20which%20is%20installed%20on%20a%20vertical%20plastifier.PNG" style="width: 300px; height: 199px; margin: 10px; float: left;" title="Figura 2: El motor servo de Bosch Rexroth acoplado a una bomba A10FZH se conecta al nuevo motor Hägglunds. El motor es instalado verticalmente al plastificador para reducir el tamaño de la máquina." /></a>La m&aacute;quina tambi&eacute;n combina el variador de frecuencia DRn de Bosch con el sistema Sytronix para maximizar el ahorro de energ&iacute;a. El mismo calcula la velocidad &oacute;ptima del motor en base a las condiciones de operaci&oacute;n de la bomba. Esto le permite el sistema operar a velocidades &oacute;ptimas sin necesidad de ser programado por el usuario final. El equipo Jomar &ndash; Bosch Rexroth tambi&eacute;n consider&oacute; el controlador VT-HACD de Bosch Rexroth que les permitiera operaci&oacute;n en circuito cerrado en su totalidad que permitiera el control de la velocidad y posici&oacute;n de las mordazas de inyecci&oacute;n y soplado. Esto permite obtener ciclos m&aacute;s r&aacute;pidos, mejor control de amortiguaci&oacute;n de los moldes en el cierre, y menor desgaste en los cilindros.</p> <p class="rtejustify">&nbsp;</p> <p class="rtejustify"><em>Para mayor informaci&oacute;n sobre la l&iacute;nea de productos de Bosch Rexroth, visite nuestra p&aacute;gina web en <a href="http://www.eemtechnologies.com" title="www.eemtechnologies.com">www.eemtechnologies.com</a>, o cont&aacute;ctenos a <a href="mailto:info@eemtechnologies.com">info@eemtechnologies.com</a>, +1(855)462-7633.</em></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/la-hidr-ulica-repotencia-sopladora-de-pl-stico#comments Plastics & Injection Molding H&amp;P en tu idioma! Mon, 13 Feb 2017 01:16:00 +0000 41821 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Troubleshooting Challenge: 800-Ton Press Suffers from Severe Stuttering http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/troubleshooting-challenge-800-ton-press-suffers-severe-stuttering <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/troubleshooting-challenge-800-ton-press-suffers-severe-stuttering-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high-resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>I was called out to troubleshoot an 800-ton press that molded large aerospace seals. The press would close at normal speed for approximately 2 ft., then slow to a creep speed for another 6 to 8 in. to close the two-part mold. Subsequently, pressure built until it reached the required tonnage.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-drill-rig-s-top-drive-drops-uncontrollably">Troubleshooting Challenge: Drill Rig&rsquo;s Top Drive Drops Uncontrollably</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/community/troubleshooting-challenge-drilling-barge-steering-instability-problem">Troubleshooting Challenge: Drilling Barge with Steering Instability Problem</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-cylinder-chatter-evades-solution">Troubleshooting Challenge: Cylinder Chatter Evades Solution</a></p> </div> <p>It held the tonnage for about five minutes, allowing the molded piece to cure. Afterward, the press retracted at a super-slow speed so that the piece could separate from the steel die. Then, after retracting 10 to 15 in., a valve shifted it into normal upward speed until fully open.</p> <p>The press started stuttering on the normal downward stroke. It would start and almost stop several times. We determined it must be the main proportional flow control. The <em>super-slow speed</em>, as they called it, worked fine. The diagram shows a simplified version of the hydraulic system mounted on top of the press, which is difficult to access. The super-slow valve is an <a href="http://sourceesb.com/eatonhydraulicsgroup/distributors-and-vendors" target="_blank">Eaton</a> ISO-3 mounted in the open, and valve no. 3 is a screw-in cartridge with a slip-on DIN coil mounted behind the pump assembly.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/01/13/Article-2-1-2017.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 741px;" /></p> <p>The voltage and current to proportional valve no. 3 were measured at 12 V dc and 4.6 A from the control panel at floor level. Disconnecting the signal to the valve allowed the valve to fully close. The typical command range of proportional valve no. 3 was normally 0 to 8 V dc at about 1.3 A. At 0 V, the valve was able to fully close, and 8 V dc shifted it to fully open.</p> <p>A PLC program measured the speed of the ram and adjusted the proportional signal to maintain the programmed speed. A brand-new cartridge valve had been installed one week earlier, and a fluid sample indicated an ISO cleanliness code better than recommended.</p> <p>The press worked fine for a week. So, you would think if it was contamination, it would neither stutter nor fully close when the signal was lost. What do you think caused the severe stuttering?</p> <p><strong>Find the Solution</strong></p> <p>Think you know the answer to this month&rsquo;s problem? Submit your solution by emailing <a href="mailto:rjsheaf@cfc-solar.com">rjsheaf@cfc-solar.com</a>. All correct solutions submitted by March 1, 2017, will be entered into a random drawing for a $50 gift card. The winner will be notified, and his or her name will be printed in a future issue. Only one gift card will be awarded to any participant within a calendar year.</p> <p><strong>Solution to Last Month&rsquo;s Challenge: <a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-drill-rig-s-top-drive-drops-uncontrollably" target="_blank">Drill Rig&rsquo;s Top Drive Drops Uncontrollably</a> </strong></p> <p>The drill-rig top-drive dropping problem was caused by air entering the A and B lines. Even though oil was not seen leaking out during operating and idle phases, air can leak in. Oil weighs about 0<strong>.</strong>4 psi per foot. Multiplying that by approximately 60 feet would result in about &ndash;24 psi. This oil weight would cause a vacuum close to a maximum of 30 in. of Hg, since it is trying to return to the tank due to gravity.</p> <p><a href="http://sourceesb.com" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/globalpurchasing.com/files/uploads/2016/07/15/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 46px;" /></a></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/troubleshooting-challenge-800-ton-press-suffers-severe-stuttering#comments Aerospace Hydraulic Valves Seals Fri, 10 Feb 2017 15:18:00 +0000 41791 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Take an IIoT Approach to Your Inventory of Things http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/take-iiot-approach-your-inventory-things <div class="field-byline"> Andrew Johnson, O-ring Sales &amp; Service Inc. </div> <div class="field-deck"> Whether you’re specifying parts, managing components at a distributorship, or buying parts for equipment maintenance, finding an easier way to control and keep track of inventory would likely simplify your job—and save your company money. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/take-iiot-approach-your-inventory-things-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high-resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>No matter where you fit into the fluid power supply chain, keeping close tabs on inventory is essential for efficient operations. Many original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) struggle to effectively manage their purchased inventory.&nbsp; The challenges are numerous: tracking physical on-hand values, maintaining an organized and space-efficient stock, keeping inventory fresh and lean, all while not running out of parts. Running out of stock of any part can hold up a multimillion-dollar project, but it seems even more painful when the missing part costs only a few cents.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-consolidate-your-hydraulic-oil-inventory">How To Consolidate Your Hydraulic Oil Inventory</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/putting-inventory-sharper-focus">Putting Inventory into Sharper Focus</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/iot-intends-revolutionize-hydraulics-and-pneumatics">The IoT Intends to Revolutionize Hydraulics and Pneumatics</a></p> </div> <p>Historically, these challenges have been outsourced to place the burden on the vendors by using a vendor-managed inventory (VMI) system. Two predominant methods of VMI are used in industrial distribution today. One has not changed in decades and involves vendors periodically sending employees on-site to monitor bins and record replenishment needs. The expense to vendors for this type of system is considerable, leaving them in a difficult position to be price-competitive. Vendors typically build the increased labor, travel, and other overhead costs into the price of the items being sold.</p> <p>The other common method is a slight upgrade over traditional systems. By using technology options&mdash;such as barcode scanners, weigh nodes, and additional processes&mdash;vendors attempt to push the daily inventory tracking back to the OEM. This greatly reduces the costs to the vendor, but requires a big commitment from the OEM&rsquo;s staff. The benefits of the tech add-ons&mdash;primarily efficiency&mdash;are quickly outweighed by the many shortcomings of the now-complicated system. Therefore, OEMs struggle to get factory line workers on board with these complex rules, dooming the system from day one.</p> <p><strong>A Search for Something Better</strong></p> <p>We faced these same issues at <a href="http://oringsales.com/" target="_blank">O-ring Sales &amp; Service</a>, a 35-year-old distributor of seals and gaskets. It became our mission to create an inventory tracking system that could be run remotely without complicated processes or rules. We started by looking to a growing technology trend, the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). The IIoT is a development of the internet that gives network connectivity to manufacturing equipment and processes.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/01/13/Before%26After.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 288px;" title="Before and after: A traditional bin system, left, is converted to organized covered bins containing bagged ShelfAware inventory, right." /></p> <p>The concept was already familiar. We had already embraced the IIoT for our own operation, developing a smart counting scale and mobile app to further automate our shipping process. The IIoT presented new opportunities in inventory management using the latest technology to make our inventory intelligent.</p> <p>In our case, the intelligent inventory is consumables: O-rings and a wide range of other sealing products, such as engineered plastics and custom-molded rubber. The key concept was how to make the consumable inventory smart, thereby allowing us to remotely collect endless data points that drive automated analytics for each inventory item.</p> <p>This led to another key concept that builds the foundation for intelligent inventory management&mdash;Big Data. Big Data is the collection of extremely large data sets that can be analyzed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations. As we collect Big Data on each inventory item, we apply a host of inventory analytics that were developed in-house over the last several years to automate the replenishment of our own supply chain.</p> <p><strong>How It&rsquo;s Going</strong></p> <p>We launched our patent-pending ShelfAware inventory management system after more than two years of development. ShelfAware is built on a solid foundation of the IIoT, Big Data, and automated analytics to make inventory intelligent. OEMs of any size, from any industry, located anywhere in the world, can now leverage their purchased inventory. Because of the IIoT, geography and physical locations no longer need to be considered when selecting a vendor to run a managed inventory system. All ShelfAware requires is a single power outlet and access to the internet.</p> <p>ShelfAware easily installs in just one day and requires little integration into the OEM&rsquo;s IT systems. The daily processes required by the OEM to run ShelfAware are minimal by design. Production workers simply walk in, pick what they need, swipe it over the checkout station, and go back to work.</p> <p>We compare the process to Amazon&rsquo;s GO retail platform. With a pilot store recently launched in Seattle, Amazon caused a stir with its autonomous grocery-store concept for the retail marketplace. ShelfAware uses similar technology to deploy an industrial convenience store on the factory floor.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/01/13/CheckoutTable.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 669px;" title="ShelfAware checkout stations work much like those at retail stores. Workers remove items from inventory as packaged quantities with custom labeling tailored to meet the needs of production." /></p> <p>The fundamental function of ShelfAware captures Big Data points for all purchased inventory and adds them to the ShelfAware App, which is installed on the OEM&rsquo;s factory work terminals and PCs. With this app, the OEM gains full supply-chain visibility to any ShelfAware inventory item. The app allows users to see what components are on their storeroom shelves, as well as the quantities on the distributor&rsquo;s shelves and quantities in the factory pipeline.</p> <p>This high visibility of supply-chain availability takes the guesswork out of OEM&rsquo;s Sales and Operations Planning (SOP). The data collected at the item level by ShelfAware is a key metric for every aspect of an OEM&rsquo;s SOP activities, including sales, marketing, production planning, operations, purchasing, and finance.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/01/13/ScreenCapture.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 448px;" title="This screen capture of ShelfAware’s app shows a portion of the information that can be accessed at any time. " /></p> <p>ShelfAware, a concept that started as a challenge in a sales meeting, is now the beginning of our company&rsquo;s never-ending quest for a perfect inventory system. It is also a fundamental element of the coming revolution toward smart factories&mdash;a movement toward automation and data exchange in manufacturing environments.</p> <p><strong>Impact on the Future</strong></p> <p>The last several years of stagnation in U.S. manufacturing have made it painfully clear that we must adapt to this new global marketplace. The advantage we have in the U.S. is technology. We have concentrated on the performance of our products for the past few decades. Now, with the IIoT, we need to concentrate on the performance of our factories.</p> <p>Often overlooked business-practice advances&mdash;like a paperless office, cloud computing, and decision-level analytics&mdash;can save companies huge amounts of overhead expense, resulting in big improvements to the bottom line. For us, a smart factory starts with intelligent inventory, allowing us to leverage data to automate all aspects of every OEM&rsquo;s SOP process. This creates broad efficiencies that are felt from the front office to the dock door.</p> <p><em>Andrew Johnson is with <a href="http://oringsales.com/" target="_blank">O-ring Sales &amp; Service Inc.</a>, Lenexa, Kansas. For more information about ShelfAware, email him at <a href="mailto:andrew@oringsales.com">andrew@oringsales.com</a>, call (913) 310-0001, or visit www.ShelfAwareVMI.com.</em></p> <p><em><a href="http://sourceesb.com" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/globalpurchasing.com/files/uploads/2016/07/15/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 46px;" /></a></em></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/take-iiot-approach-your-inventory-things#comments Maintenance Wed, 08 Feb 2017 19:59:00 +0000 41771 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Suction Strainers, a Hungry Donkey, and the Paradox Of Choice http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/suction-strainers-hungry-donkey-and-paradox-choice <div class="field-deck"> We’re faced with decisions every day. Decisions on minor issues are fairly easy because wrong choices carry little or no consequences. But what about technical issues, such as whether you should use a strainer on a hydraulic pump’s suction line? Opinions differ, so the choice is yours. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/suction-strainers-hungry-donkey-and-paradox-choice-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><img alt="Donkey" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/donkey.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 381px;" /></p> <p>A hungry donkey enters a barn in search of hay. Much to his delight he discovers two identical haystacks, each on the opposite side of the barn. The donkey stands in the middle of the barn between the two piles of hay, not knowing which one to choose. Hours go by, and then days, but he still can&rsquo;t make up his mind. Unable to decide, the donkey starves to death.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/smart-new-tool-predictive-maintenance">A Smart New Tool for Predictive Maintenance</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/anatomy-hydraulic-maintenance-failure">The Anatomy Of A Hydraulic Maintenance Failure</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/hydraulic-maintenance-imperative">The Hydraulic MAINTENANCE Imperative</a></p> </div> <p>This short parable comes from the French logician and philosopher Jean Buridan&rsquo;s commentaries on Aristotle&rsquo;s <em>Theory of Action</em>, and so the story is known as &ldquo;Buridan&rsquo;s Ass.&rdquo; The moral of the story is: <em>Not deciding has consequences.</em> Having options can be a blessing as well a curse. Had the donkey found only one haystack inside the barn, there would have been <strong>no</strong> decision to make, and he wouldn&rsquo;t have starved to death.</p> <p>But life isn&rsquo;t that simple. Back in 1941, the philosopher Eric Fromm wrote a book called <em>Escape from Freedom</em>. In it, he said that people in a modern democracy are beset not by a lack of options, but by a dizzying abundance of them. This holds even more true today. Figuratively speaking, we&rsquo;re all Buridan&rsquo;s ass, completely surrounded by haystacks. The options may be nice to have, but <em>not</em> deciding has consequences.</p> <h3>Decisions for Hydraulics</h3> <p>This concept, of course, applies to all levels of life, both personal and professional. In the hydraulics maintenance game (our main focus here), there are always decisions waiting to be made: what type of oil to use (lots of haystacks to choose from there); a planned change-out to call; which proactive maintenance tasks to do on what machines and when; a component to be declared faulty; and so on.</p> <p>Often, such decisions must be made in the absence of perfect information, or worse, in the presence of conflicting information. An example that comes to mind is the installation of suction strainers on hydraulic-pump inlet lines.</p> <p>As you may already be aware, I&rsquo;m a loud and enthusiastic advocate of <strong>not</strong> installing suction strainers. For most applications, they should be removed and discarded when they have been installed. As a result, I&rsquo;m always interested in any new information on this issue, especially if it&rsquo;s anything &ldquo;official&rdquo; from a pump manufacturer.</p> <p>On this note, the data sheet for Nachi PVS series variable volume piston pumps recently was brought to my attention. Under the heading, <em>Management of Hydraulic Operating Fluid,</em> on page P-2, Nachi recommends the installation of a suction strainer: &ldquo;Provide a suction strainer with a filtering grade of about 100&micro;m (150 mesh).&rdquo;</p> <p>Obviously, the people at Nachi haven&rsquo;t read my books,<em> Preventing Hydraulic Failures</em> and <em>The</em> <em>Hydraulic Maintenance Handbook</em> &nbsp;(although to be fair, neither has been translated into Japanese at this point in time). Seriously though, to the best of my knowledge, Nachi is in a very small minority of pump manufacturers that actually <em>recommends</em> the use of a suction strainer.</p> <p>Contrast Nachi&rsquo;s recommendation with Bosch Rexroth&rsquo;s. Page 2 of its data sheet for SV-20 and SV-25 series variable vane pumps states: &ldquo;Bosch Rexroth does not recommend the use of inlet suction strainers.&rdquo;</p> <p>That&rsquo;s one pump manufacturer for and one against. Here&rsquo;s another, Eaton-Vickers, sitting on the fence (bolding mine):</p> <p>&ldquo;[Reservoir] outlet line strainers, also called [pump] inlet filters or inlet screens are very common. <strong>This may be more traditional than functional</strong>&hellip;They are intended to keep larger solid contaminants from entering the hydraulic system. A drawback is that they are quite inaccessible for service and cleaning. If they become restricted due to excess contamination, they can cause cavitation and damage to system pumps. <strong>A more current approach is to ensure clean fluid is maintained in the reservoir, precluding the need for an outlet line </strong>[suction]<strong> strainer.</strong>&rdquo;</p> <p>This piece of prose may well have been written by one of their in-house attorneys. It seems this pump manufacturer wants you to make up your own mind. But at least it implies that the <em>tradition</em> of <em>always</em> installing a suction strainer is outdated.</p> <p>Then there&rsquo;s this, from page 31 of the <em>Contamination Control Program</em> manual by Stauff&mdash;a company that does not manufacture pumps, but does make suction strainers (bolding theirs):</p> <p>&ldquo;<strong>WARNING: It is advisable to check with the pump manufacturer before any type of filter is fitted to the pump inlet line</strong>&hellip;In general, suction strainers do not contribute to system cleanliness. The difficulty associated with changing strainers, and knowing if and when they are clogged [may result in pump damage].&rdquo;</p> <p>So if you take Stauff&rsquo;s advice and check with the pump manufacturer, one says &ldquo;yes,&rdquo; another says &ldquo;no,&rdquo; and a third says &ldquo;you decide&rdquo; As is the case with myriad other hydraulic equipment maintenance decisions, this one&rsquo;s your call. And it&rsquo;s a call you have to make&mdash;one way or the other. Because as <em>Buridan&rsquo;s ass</em> discovered, <strong>not </strong>deciding can result in the very same consequences you wished to avoid.</p> <p><em>Brendan Casey is the founder of <a href="http://www.HydraulicSupermarket.com" target="_blank">HydraulicSupermarket.com</a> and the author of The Definitive Guide to Mobile Hydraulics, The Hydraulic Maintenance Handbook, Insider Secrets to Hydraulics, Preventing Hydraulic Failures, The Hydraulic Troubleshooting Handbook, Hydraulics Made Easy, Advanced Hydraulic Control and The Definitive Guide to Hydraulic Troubleshooting. A hydraulics specialist with an MBA, he has more than 25 years experience in the design, maintenance, and repair of mobile and industrial hydraulic equipment.</em></p> <p><a href="http://sourceesb.com" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/globalpurchasing.com/files/uploads/2016/07/15/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 46px;" /></a></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/suction-strainers-hungry-donkey-and-paradox-choice-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/suction-strainers-hungry-donkey-and-paradox-choice#comments Maintenance Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Wed, 08 Feb 2017 15:58:00 +0000 41741 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Suction Strainers, a Hungry Donkey, and the Paradox Of Choice (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/suction-strainers-hungry-donkey-and-paradox-choice-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>A hungry donkey enters a barn in search of hay. Much to his delight he discovers two identical haystacks, each on the opposite side of the barn. The donkey stands in the middle of the barn between the two piles of hay...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/10/SALARY_SURVEY_HPcover.jpg" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics 2016 Salary &amp; Career Report</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=41761&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Gold Wed, 08 Feb 2017 15:55:00 +0000 41761 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulic Motor Face-Off: Bent Axis vs Axial Piston http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/hydraulic-motor-face-bent-axis-vs-axial-piston <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Bent axis and in-line axial piston motors are both high performance designs featuring high efficiency at high operating pressures. But which is best? To answer this question, a comparison of relative performance advantages is required.<br /> <br /> Bent axis designs can be &#39;bent&#39; to angle of up to about 40&deg;. Whereas the swash plate angle on an in-line design is typically limited to less than 20&deg;. This means the maximum to minimum displacement range or stroke ratio of a variable-displacement bent axis motor is around twice that of an in-line design. This gives a variable bent axis motor a wider operating torque/speed range than an in-line motor of the same displacement (remember, increasing motor displacement increases output torque and reduces output speed; and vice versa).<br /> <br /> On the other hand, not all variable-displacement bent axis motors have the capability to go to zero displacement. And this can be an issue if, say for example on the ground drive of a mobile machine, the motor must be shifted to &#39;neutral&#39;, in order to switch from 4 wheel drive to 2 wheel drive. In-line motor designs have no such limitation.<br /> <br /> Bent axis motors-especially those with light-weight pistons, also have the wood over in-line designs when it comes to maximum operating (shaft) speed; a bent axis motor can be spun significantly faster than an in-line design of the same displacement. And there&#39;s more. The stall or breakout torque of a bent axis motor is around 5% higher than an in-line motor of the same displacement.<br /> <br /> With all the apparent performance advantages a bent axis motor has, why would anyone use an in-line motor at all? In a word, cost. Bent axis motors are more expensive, and in most cases, significantly so. Plus, if you&#39;ve studied <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=phfsp"><strong>Preventing Hydraulic Failures</strong></a>, you&#39;ll be aware that the shaft bearings on bent axis designs are heavily loaded and therefore more prone to premature failure than the shaft-bearings on an in-line design. So not only is the initial cost of a bent axis motor higher; its lifetime maintenance cost is likely to be higher as well.<br /> <br /> As with every other component in a hydraulic system, selecting the wrong type of motor can be costly mistake. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/hydraulic-motor-face-bent-axis-vs-axial-piston#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 07 Feb 2017 00:10:00 +0000 41731 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Ins and Outs of I/P Transducers http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/ins-and-outs-ip-transducers <div class="field-deck"> Sponsored by Control Air </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/12/CA_Symbol-Type_126x100.gif" style="width: 126px; height: 100px; float: right;" />I/P and E/P transducers are used to regulate air pressure in many different types of processes and equipment. The very basic use for an electro-pneumatic transducer is to convert an electronic signal into a correlating output pressure (I/P-Current to Pressure or E/P-Voltage to Pressure). Some of the topics covered are how performance and output are affected by media, actuator type, supply pressure, and transducer orientation. Other topics such as how to calibrate and trouble shoot these are units are covered as well. The following white paper can be used as a reference for basic I/P pressure transducer operation, build and terminology.&nbsp;</p> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write('\ <iframe style="height: 1300px; width: 100%; border:0;” frameBorder="0" scrolling="no"\ src="http://pages.hydraulicspneumatics.com/HP_Digital_ControlAir_InsOutsTransducers_FAQ_JoR_020217?partnerref=' + getParameterByName("partnerref") + "&elq=" + getParameterByName("elq2") + "&code=" + getParameterByName("code") + "&PK=" + getParameterByName("PK") + "&PR=" + getParameterByName("PR") + '"></iframe>'); function getParameterByName(name) { var match = RegExp('[?&]' + name + '=([^&]*)').exec(window.location.search); if (match == null) return ""; return match && decodeURIComponent(match[1].replace(/\+/g, ' ')); } </script></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/ins-and-outs-ip-transducers#comments White Papers Controls & Instrumentation Cylinders & Actuators Other Components Mon, 06 Feb 2017 15:54:00 +0000 41671 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Different Driver, Different Torque http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/different-driver-different-torque <div class="field-byline"> A Staff Report </div> <div class="field-deck"> Electric motors can produce starting torque several times that of their operating torque. This gives them an advantage over gasoline and diesel engines for driving a pump in a hydraulic power unit. Understanding power and torque of different prime movers will help you design powerful and efficient HPUs. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/different-driver-different-torque-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><img alt="Fig. 1" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/HPU-Fig-1.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 525px;" title="1. When a gasoline (shown here) or diesel engine will be the prime mover in driving a hydraulic power unit, sizing calculations will differ from those when using an electric motor. That’s because electric motors develop very high starting torque, whereas gas and diesel engines develop roughly the same torque throughout their speed range. (Image courtesy of York Portable Machine)" /></p> <p>When specifying components for a hydraulic power unit, the prime mover is sized based on torque, speed, and power requirements of the hydraulic pump. This is fairly straightforward for electric motors, because they generally have a starting torque that far exceeds running torque. Often, though, designers specify motors sized larger than necessary. This results in wasted energy because the motor operates at less than maximum efficiency.</p> <p>Diesel and gasoline engines are another matter. They have a much flatter torque-speed curve, so they deliver roughly the same torque at high speed as they do at low speed. This means an internal combustion engine <em>(Fig. 1)</em>, may develop high-enough torque to drive a loaded pump, but not enough to accelerate it to operating speed. Consequently, with all other factors being equal, a power unit requiring an electric motor of a given power rating usually requires a gasoline or diesel engine with a power rating more than double that of the electric motor.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-stepper-motors">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Stepper Motors</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electrical-analogies-transmission-comparisons-part-1">Hydraulic-Electrical Analogies: Transmission Comparisons, Part 1</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/low-speed-high-torque-motor-has-wealth-features">Low-Speed, High-Torque Motor has Wealth of Features</a></p> </div> <h3>Sizing the Electric Motor</h3> <p>The cost of electricity to operate an electric motor over its entire lifespan is many times that of the cost of the motor itself. Therefore, sizing the motor correctly for a hydraulic power unit can save a significant amount of money over the life of the machine. If system pressure and flow are constant, motor sizing simply involves the standard equation:</p> <p><em>hp</em> = (<em>Q </em>&times;&nbsp;<em>P</em>) / (1714 &times;&nbsp;<em>E<sub>M</sub></em> )</p> <p>where <em>hp</em> is horsepower,<br /> <em>Q</em> is flow in gpm,<br /> <em>P</em> is pressure in psi, and<br /> <em>E<sub>M</sub></em> is the pump&rsquo;s mechanical efficiency.</p> <p>However, if the application requires different pressures during different parts of the operating cycle, you often can calculate root-mean-square (RMS) horsepower and select a smaller, less-expensive motor. Along with the calculation of rms horsepower, the maximum torque required at the highest operating pressure of the pump also must be found. Actually, the two calculations are quite simple.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 2" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/HPUs-Fig-2_0.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 272px;" title="2. Shown is the multiple-pressure duty cycle for a 6-gpm gear pump with calculated horsepower values. " /></p> <p>For example, <em>Fig. 2</em> represents an application using a 6-gpm, 3,450-rpm gear pump to power a cylinder linkage that operates for an 85 sec. The system requires 3,000 psi for the first 10 sec., 2,200 psi for the next 30 sec., 1,500 psi for the next 10 sec., and 2,400 psi for the next 10 sec. The pump then coasts at 500 psi for 20 sec., followed by 15 sec. with the motor off.</p> <p>It&rsquo;s tempting to use the standard formula, plug in the highest-pressure segment of the cycle, and then calculate:</p> <p><em>hp</em> = (6 &times; 3,000)/(1,714 &times; 0.9)<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; = 11.7 hp for 10 sec.</p> <p>To provide this power, some designers would choose a 10-hp motor; others would be ultra-conservative and use a 15-hp motor; and a few might take a chance with 7&frac12; hp. These motors in open drip-proof C-face models with feet would carry a relative price of about $570, $800, and $400, respectively, so there could be savings of $170 to $400 per power unit by choosing the 7&frac12;-hp motor&mdash;if it will do the job.</p> <p>To determine this, first calculate the horsepower for each pressure segment of the cycle:</p> <p><em>hp<sub>1</sub></em> = (6 &times; 2,200)/(1,714 &times; 0.9)<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; = 8.5 hp for 30 sec.<br /> <em>hp<sub>2</sub></em> = (6 &times; 1,500)/(1,714 &times; 0.9)<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; = 5.8 hp for 10 sec.<br /> <em>hp<sub>3</sub></em> = (6 &times; 500)/(1,714 &times; 0.9)<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; = 1.9 hp for 30 sec.</p> <p>The RMS horsepower is calculated by taking the square root of the sum of these horsepower values squared, multiplied by the time interval at that horsepower, and divided by the sum of the times plus the term (<em>t<sub>off</sub></em> &divide; <em>F</em>):</p> <p><img alt="Equation" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/equation.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 60px;" /></p> <p>where <em>hp<sub>rms</sub></em> is root-mean-square horsepower,</p> <p><em>t</em> is the time interval in seconds, and</p> <p><em>F</em> is a constant: 3 for open, drip-proof motors; 2 for totally enclosed, fan-cooled motors.</p> <p>Substituting the example values into the boxed equation and solving reveals that <em>hp<sub>rms</sub></em> = 7.2. Thus, a 7&frac12;-hp motor can be used from the standpoint of horsepower alone. However, the second item, maximum torque, still must be checked before reaching a final decision. The maximum torque required to drive this particular pump will be found at the highest pressure, because the gear pump&rsquo;s output flow is constant. Use this equation:</p> <p><em>T</em> = <em>D</em> &times; <em>P</em>/(12 &times; 6.28 &times; <em>E<sub>M</sub></em>)</p> <p>where <em>T</em> is torque in ft-lb, and<br /> <em>D</em> is displacement in in.<sup>3</sup><br /> <br /> For this example,</p> <p><em>D</em> = (6 &times; 231)/(3,450)<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp; = 0.402 in. <sup>3</sup><br /> <br /> Then,</p> <p><em>T</em> = (0.402 &times; 3,000)/(12 &times; 6.28 &times; 0.9)<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp; = 17.8 ft-lb.<br /> <br /> Because electric motors running at 3,450 rpm generate 1.5 ft-lb/hp, the 17.8 ft-lb of torque requires 11.9 hp (17.8 &divide; 1.5) at 3,000 psi. This matches closely enough for the example application. (At other standard motor speeds, 1,725 rpm generates 3 ft-lb per hp; 1,150 rpm, 4.5 ft-lb per hp; and 850 rpm, 6 ft-lb per hp.)</p> <p>Now the second criteria can be checked against what the suggested motor is able to deliver in torque. What is the pull-up torque of the 7&frac12;-hp motor selected? Because the torque is least as the motor accelerates from 0 to 3,450 rpm, it must be above 11.9 ft-lb with an acceptable safety margin. Note that a motor running 10% low on voltage will produce only 81% of rated pull-up torque; in other words, (208 &divide; 230)<sup>2</sup> = 0.81. Reviewing motor manufacturers&rsquo; performance curves will show several available 7&frac12;-hp models with higher pull-up torque. Any of these motors could be a good choice for this application.</p> <p>Both motor criteria now have been verified. The RMS horsepower is equal to or less than the rated motor&rsquo;s horsepower. The motor&#39;s pull-up torque is greater than the maximum required.</p> <h3>Gas and Diesel Engine Power</h3> <p>Correctly sizing an electric motor for a hydraulic power unit is a straightforward procedure. And if load pressure and flow remain fairly constant, determining the power requirement is relatively simple by using the familiar equation:</p> <p><em>hp</em> = (<em>q</em> &times; <em>p</em>) / (1,714 &times; <em>E<sub>M</sub></em>)</p> <p>where <em>q</em> is flow, gpm (and accounts for the pump&rsquo;s volumetric efficiency),<br /> <em>p</em> is system pressure at full load, psi, and<br /> <em>E<sub>M</sub></em> is the pump&rsquo;s mechanical efficiency.</p> <p>For example, assume an application requires a flow of 13.7 gpm at a maximum pressure of 2,000 psi, and with a pump efficiency of 0.80. From the equation above:</p> <p><em>hp</em> = (13.7 &times; 2,000) / (1,714 &times; 0.80)<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; = 20 hp.</p> <p>It may seem that a gas or diesel engine as the prime mover would have the same power rating as an electric motor. However, the general rule of thumb is to specify an internal-combustion engine with a power rating 2&frac12; times that of an equivalent electric motor <em>(Fig. 2)</em>. This is due primarily to the fact that internal combustion engines have different torque-speed relationships than do electric motors. Examining the different torque characteristics will provide the understanding to make a choice based on solid reasoning, rather than putting faith in a rule of thumb.</p> <h3>Pump Torque Requirements</h3> <p>Power, of course, is the combination of torque and rotational speed. A pump&rsquo;s torque requirement is the main factor that determines whether a motor or engine is suitable for an application. Speed is less critical, because if a pump runs slowly, it will still pump fluid. However, if the prime mover does not develop enough torque to drive the pump, the pump will not produce any output flow.</p> <p>To determine the torque required by a hydraulic pump, use the following equation:</p> <p><em>T</em> = (<em>p</em> &times; <em>D</em> )/(6.28 &times; 12 &times; <em>E<sub>M</sub></em>)</p> <p>where <em>T</em> is torque, lb-ft, and<br /> <em>D</em> is displacement, in.<sup>3</sup>/revolution.<br /> <br /> Pump displacement is provided in manufacturer&rsquo;s literature.Using the same equations introduced above, if the pump has a displacement of 1.75 in.<sup>3</sup>/rev., required torque is calculated as follows:</p> <p><em>T</em> = (2,000 &times; 1.75)/(75.36 &times; 0.80)<br /> <em>T</em> = 58 lb-ft</p> <p>Torque can also be calculated using the familiar horsepower equation:</p> <p><em>hp</em> = (<em>T</em> &times; <em>n</em>)/5,250</p> <p>where <em>n</em> is shaft speed, rpm.<br /> <br /> Substituting values from the example:</p> <p>20 = (<em>T</em> &times; 1,800)/5250<br /> <em>T</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;= 58 lb-ft.</p> <h3>Electric-Motor Torque Signature</h3> <p>To understand the differences in power characteristics between an electric motor and internal-combustion engine, we&rsquo;ll first examine characteristics of a standard 3-phase electric motor. <em>Figure 3</em> shows the torque-speed relationship of a 20-hp, 1,800-rpm, NEMA Design B motor. Upon receiving power, the motor develops an initial, <em>locked-rotor</em> <em>torque</em>, and the rotor turns. As the rotor accelerates, torque decreases slightly, then begins to increase as the rotor accelerates beyond about 400 rpm. This dip in the torque curve generally is referred to as the <em>pull-up torque</em>. Torque eventually reaches a maximum value at around 1,500 rpm, which is the motor&rsquo;s <em>breakdown torque</em>. As rotor speed increases beyond this point, torque applied to the rotor decreases sharply. This is known as the <em>running torque</em>, which becomes the <em>full-load torque</em> when the motor is running at its rated full-load speed&mdash;usually 1,725 or 1,750 rpm.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 3" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/HPUs-Fig-3.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 341px;" title="3. The torque-speed curve of an ac electric motor reveals that much higher torque can be generated at low speed than is needed to drive a hydraulic pump at full-load speed. " /></p> <p>The torque-speed curve for a 3,600-rpm motor would look almost identical to that of the 1,800-rpm motor. The difference is that speed values would be doubled and torque values would be halved.</p> <p>Common practice is to ensure that torque required from the motor will always be less than breakdown torque. Applying torque equal to or greater than breakdown torque will cause the motor&rsquo;s speed to drop suddenly and severely, which will tend to stall the motor and most likely burn it out. If the motor is already running, it is possible to <em>momentarily</em> load a motor to near its breakdown torque. But for simplicity of discussion, assume the electric motor is selected based on full-load torque.</p> <p>Note that Fig. 3 shows a temporary large torque excess that can provide additional power to drive the hydraulic pump through momentary load increases. These types of electric motors also can be run indefinitely at their rated hp plus an additional percentage based on their service factor&mdash;generally 1.15 to 1.25 (at altitudes to 3,300 ft.).</p> <p>Catalog ratings for electric motors list their usable power at a rated speed. If the load increases, motor speed will decrease and torque will increase to a value higher than full-load torque (but less than breakdown torque). So when operating the pump at 1,800 rpm, the electric motor has more than enough torque in reserve to drive the pump.</p> <h3>Torque Behavior of Engines</h3> <p>A gasoline engine has a dramatically different torque-speed curve <em>(Fig. 4)</em> from an electric motor. This means a gasoline engine exhibits a much less variable torque output throughout its speed range. Depending on their design, diesel engines with the same power ratings may generate slightly higher or lower torque at lower speeds than gasoline engines do, but diesels exhibit a similar torque curve throughout their operating speed range.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 4" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/HPUs-Fig-4.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 437px;" title="4. The torque-speed curve for an internal combustion engine is much more linear than that for an electric motor. This illustrates that to provide the torque to drive a hydraulic pump at low speeds, gas and diesel engines must have a higher power capacity than an electric motor for driving the same pump. " /></p> <p>Calculations above determined that 58 lb-ft of torque is required to drive the pump at any speed. Referring to Fig. 4, the 20-hp gasoline engine develops a maximum torque of only 31 lb-ft&mdash;clearly not enough to drive the pump. This is because its 20-hp rating is based on performance at 3,600 rpm. Maximum torque occurs at speeds near 3,000 rpm, but is still well below the 58 lb-ft required by the pump. Even if the engine produced enough torque at this speed, power would still be inadequate due to the lower speed.</p> <p>This is where the 2&frac12; sizing rule comes from. An HPU requiring a 20-hp electric motor to drive the pump at 1,800 rpm would require a gas or diesel engine rated at about 50 hp. Moreover, these values are based on an engine operating at its maximum torque and power ratings. However, manufacturers recommend that gasoline and diesel engines only operate continuously at about 85% of their maximum rated values to prevent a serious shortening of their service lives. So, referring again to Fig. 4, a 20-hp gasoline engine would develop just over 26 lb-ft of maximum torque, and only 24 lb-ft at 3,600 rpm.</p> <p>It is also interesting to compare this performance with fuel consumption. The fuel consumption chart <em>(Fig. 5)</em> shows that a 20-hp gasoline engine achieves greatest fuel efficiency at about 2,400 rpm, where it consumes just over 8.2 lb/hr (0.41 lb/hp &times; 20 hp). At 3,600 rpm, the engine would be considerably less fuel-efficient.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 5" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/11/HPUs-Fig-5.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 237px;" title="5. Depending on its design, an internal-combustion engine’s optimum fuel efficiency often occurs at a speed other than where it produces maximum torque. " /></p> <h3>Actions to Take</h3> <p>By now it should be clear that specifying a gasoline or diesel engine to drive a hydraulic power unit follows a different procedure than that for specifying an electric motor. If you are accustomed to specifying electric motors for hydraulic power units, you may be tempted to size a pump to be driven at 1,800 rpm, then specify an oversized motor that can develop enough torque to drive the pump at this speed. This technique will produce a reliable power unit, but one that is relatively heavy, bulky, inefficient, and noisy.</p> <p>Instead of following this procedure, any of several options should be considered. One would be to drive the pump at a speed higher than 1,800 rpm. Pump literature for mobile equipment should list ratings at a variety of speeds. If it doesn&rsquo;t, consult the pump manufacturer. Driving the pump at a higher speed decreases its required displacement, thereby reducing its size, weight, and torque requirement. So operating the power unit at higher speed more closely matches engine performance to the application by increasing torque produced by the engine and reducing the torque required by the pump.</p> <p>More specifically, operating the pump in our example at 2,800 rpm would increase engine torque to more than 30 ft-lb and reduce torque required by the pump to perhaps 38 ft-lb. Although the engine torque still would fall short of what is required, it obviously comes much closer to matching pump torque than when operating at 1,800 rpm.</p> <p>Designers may be tempted to run a gas or diesel engine at or near the speed at which it exhibits optimum fuel efficiency. However, an operating speed where the engine produces maximum torque generally takes priority. This is because if the engine doesn&rsquo;t generate enough torque at its optimum fuel efficiency speed, a larger engine would be required. But a larger engine consumes more fuel, which would defeat the purpose of trying to conserve fuel by operating at a specific speed.</p> <p>In addition, pumps generally have a speed range at which they are most efficient. Therefore, even if an engine operates a few hundred rpm above or below its optimum fuel-efficiency speed, torque produced and pump dynamics generally have a more pronounced effect on overall efficiency of the power unit. Therefore, the speed at which the gas or diesel engine operates should take all of these considerations into account.</p> <p>As far as pump performance, many designs exhibit higher mechanical and volumetric efficiencies when operated at speeds greater than 1,800 rpm. On the other hand, operating a pump at a speed higher than what it was designed for would reduce its service life. Therefore, it is important to choose a pump speed that offers the best combination of pump and engine performance.</p> <p>Perhaps an even better alternative would be to provide a gearbox or other type of speed reducer between the engine and pump. Although this would add components to the power unit, it would increase torque and reduce speed while allowing both the engine and the pump to operate at their optimum speeds. The additional cost of the speed reducer may be offset by the lower cost of a smaller, lighter, and less-expensive engine.</p> <h3>Other Considerations</h3> <p>Because gas and diesel engines do not exhibit the torque reserve of electric motors&mdash;especially when accelerating from rest&mdash;it is especially important that the pump be unloaded whenever the HPU is started. This can be done hydraulically, or mechanically through a centrifugal clutch or other type of drive element.</p> <p>Finally, as with HPUs driven by electric motors, pump size&mdash;and, therefore, size of the prime mover&mdash;often can be reduced by incorporating accumulators into the hydraulic system. If the hydraulic system operates in cycles where full flow is needed only for brief periods, an accumulator can store hydraulic power during periods of low flow demand and release this energy when full flow is needed.</p> <p>This information is excerpted from the <em>Fluid Power Handbook &amp; Directory</em>.</p> <p><a href="http://sourceesb.com" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/globalpurchasing.com/files/uploads/2016/07/15/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 46px;" /></a></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/different-driver-different-torque-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/different-driver-different-torque#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Fri, 03 Feb 2017 20:49:00 +0000 41711 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Courtesy Bailey Intl. LLC; www.baileyhydraulics.com Different Driver, Different Torque (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/different-driver-different-torque-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>When specifying components for a hydraulic power unit, the prime mover is sized based on torque, speed, and power requirements of the hydraulic pump. This is fairly straightforward for electric motors...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/10/SALARY_SURVEY_HPcover.jpg" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics 2016 Salary &amp; Career Report</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=41721&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Gold Fri, 03 Feb 2017 20:46:00 +0000 41721 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Transmission Comparisons, Part 3 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-transmission-comparisons-part-3 <div class="field-deck"> Analytical schematics reveal the analogous nature of pumps and generators—both suffer resistance losses that lead to inefficiencies. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/hydraulic-electric-analogies-transmission-comparisons-part-3-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high-resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Continuing with the analogy that a pump is to the hydraulic circuit what a generator is to an electric circuit, the ideal generator is likewise 100% efficient. A real generator has two sources of internal losses. First, some amount of resistance always exists in the windings that make up the armature and field because they consist of wire, which has resistance. Second, inevitable friction and windage losses occur that accompany any part in motion.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-transmission-comparisons-part-2">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Transmission Comparisons, Part 2</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electrical-analogies-transmission-comparisons-part-1">Hydraulic-Electrical Analogies: Transmission Comparisons, Part 1</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/hydraulic-electric-analogies-conditioners">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Conditioners</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/hydraulic-electric-analogies-fluid-and-electronic-filters">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Fluid and Electronic Filters</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-power-conditioning">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Power Conditioning</a></p> </div> <p>The analytical schematic of the ideal, loss-free, shunt-connected dc generator is depicted in <em>Fig. 7</em>. The term <em>shunt</em> means there is a bypassing of current. More specifically, though, the armature current and the field current in the shunt-connected machine are independently affected and controlled.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/01/13/fig7.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 509px;" title="7. The analytical schematic of an ideal generator has a torque generator, a voltage generator, and a field winding to provide a magnetic flux field, but no loss elements." /></p> <p>As a matter of review, the generator uses a coil that spins in a magnetic field to generate a voltage. That field is created by the field winding, which is stationary. The rotor, normally called the armature in a generator, is the spinning part. It, too, incorporates a multi-turn, multi-segmented winding, and its spinning motion in the magnetic field results in an induced voltage per Faraday&rsquo;s law.</p> <p>The rotor-mounted commutator carries the internally generated voltage to the outside world. The commutator is in physical, sliding contact with the stationary brushes. The brushes, shown as small black rectangles on the electrical side of the schematic, are usually made of graphite, which provides conductivity. Graphite also has natural dry lubricity to minimize the wear rate due to the necessary relative motion between the commutator and the brushes.</p> <p>While an alternating current circulates inside the armature coil, the commutator and its contacting brushes are positioned so that the resulting current in the outside world is unidirectional. In other words, it is direct current. This makes the brushes and commutator perfectly analogous to the port plate and its kidney ports in the hydraulic pump. The brush-commutator effect and the port plate-kidney port effect both provide the necessary conversion from internal ac to external dc in their respective machines.</p> <p>For purposes of comparison, the analytical schematic for a shunt-connected dc motor is shown in <em>Fig. 8</em>. The diagram is useful for reviewing the operation of the mechanical and electrical sides of the machine.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/01/13/fig8.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 534px;" title="8. The analytical schematic for the shunt-connected electric motor is the mirror image of the generator." /></p> <p>It works as follows: A motor generates torque because of the forces that act on the current-carrying armature conductors mounted on the rotating body. However, because those conductors spin in the stationary magnetic field, there has to be an induced voltage. So, two things are going on at the same time. The same parts that create the torque also create the voltage.</p> <p><strong>Electromotive Force</strong></p> <p>The induced voltage always acts in a direction against the applied external voltage (not shown in the accompanying figures), but connects to the <em>A </em>and <em>B</em> ports in Fig. 8. The applied voltage, be it a battery or dc power supply, will create a current in the direction shown as <em>I<sub>AM</sub></em> &nbsp;in Fig. 8. That current will result in a torque, causing the armature to accelerate.</p> <p>At the same time, the moving coil on the armature has a voltage induced that fights, or opposes, the applied external voltage. As the shaft speed increases, the counter voltage, often referred to as <em>counter electromotive force</em> (counter emf), reduces the motivating current, <em>I<sub>AM</sub></em>. Eventually, the counter emf rises to equal the applied external voltage, causing the current to drop to zero. There is no more torque, so the motor stops accelerating.</p> <p>At this condition, it will have reached its steady-state speed. That is, the motor accelerates until the counter emf equals the applied voltage. Thus, the applied voltage controls the ultimate speed. In an ideal machine, this explanation is 100% true. However, in a real machine with its all-but-assured inefficiencies, it is only approximately true.</p> <p>The described dc machine&mdash;whether motor or generator&mdash;will have an analytical schematic with a mechanical part (torque and speed) and an electrical part (voltage and current). A constant energy exchange takes place in the two analytical generators (the circles in Figs. 7 and 8).</p> <p>To understand this fundamental principle, consider that the motor is operating at its no-load speed and the input current, <em>I<sub>AM</sub></em>, is at or near zero. Some external load is then applied (an external mechanical load is applied that needs torque to turn it), requiring output power from the motor. The shaft slows down, reducing the counter emf, and results in a rise in input current. The motor then comes to a slower steady-state speed.</p> <p>The input power increases to meet the needs of the load. With this energy exchange, the electrical input circuit &ldquo;knows&rdquo; what is going on in the output circuit. Likewise, if the input electrical quantities are changed, we may conclude that the output circuit &ldquo;knows&rdquo; what is happening at the input. It is simply a case of classical energy conversion from electrical to mechanical. Power out equals power in&mdash;at least that&rsquo;s the case if we could actually build ideal machines.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/01/13/fig9.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 542px;" title="9. The analytical schematic for a generator shows a frictional resistance loss element, the ever-present armature resistance, and field winding resistance, all of which are heat creators." /></p> <p>The input rises and falls as the output demands rise and fall. The same interchanges take place in the generator. A perfectly analogous process occurs in the hydraulic pump and motor: When a pump is operating at some steady-state input speed and torque, and then the outlet pressure is bumped up, it increases the pump input torque, and possibly decreases the speed of the prime mover. In addition, the input mechanical power rises to meet the hydraulic power needs at the output.</p> <p>Again, the input &ldquo;knows&rdquo; what is happening at the output and vice versa, providing classical energy conversion and conservation. Two simple equations characterize the ideal generator and motor, which could be seen as perfectly analogous to those of the ideal pump and motor.</p> <p>The counter emf is:</p> <p><em>E</em> = (2 &pi; /60) <em>k<sub>mg</sub> </em>&times;<em> I<sub>F</sub> </em>&times;<em> N</em></p> <p>where <em>E</em> is the generated counter electromotive force, V;<em> k</em><em>mg</em> is a constant to convert the product of field current and speed to voltage;<em> I</em><em>F</em> is the field current, a; and<em> N</em> is the shaft speed, rpm.</p> <p>The torque expressed as:</p> <p><em>T</em> = <em>k<sub>mg</sub> </em>&times;<em> I<sub>F</sub> </em>&times;<em>I<sub>A</sub></em></p> <p>where<em> T</em> is the shaft torque, N-m;<em> k</em><em>mg</em> is a constant to convert the field and armatures current to torque; and<em> I</em><sub><em>A</em></sub> is the armature current, a.</p> <p><strong>Analytical Schematics of Practical Generators and Motors</strong></p> <p>As with hydraulics, ideal electrical machines exist only as models. Electric motors and generators have internal losses analogous to those of hydraulic pumps and motors.</p> <p>Because hydraulic pumps are positive-displacement machines (flow sources, not pressure sources), hydraulic losses consist of parallel internal leakage paths that divert some of the displaced fluid that would otherwise reach the output work port. In contrast, the electrical losses are in series and serve to resist (impede) the current that enters and leaves the motor or generator. The result is a <em>voltage</em> drop, whereas hydraulic pumps and motors experience <em>flow</em> losses. Of course, both suffer from frictional losses. All losses contribute to the machines&rsquo; inefficiencies.</p> <p>This leads to analytical schematics that include the frictional and electrical resistance loss elements as depicted in <em>Fig. 9</em>. The mechanical friction is represented by the same symbol shape as that used in the pump and motor, <em>R<sub>Gfw</sub></em>. The armature resistance, <em>R<sub>AG</sub></em>, occurs in series with the armature, and field resistance is represented by <em>R<sub>FG</sub></em>. The <em>G</em> in the subscripts indicates that it applies to the generators. The three resistances are called <em>parasitic effects</em> because, like parasites, they come with the wire that is used to make the coil&rsquo;s windings.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/01/13/fig10.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 632px;" title="10. Not surprisingly, the analytical schematic for the electric motor is the mirror image of the generator." /></p> <p>The value of the armature resistance is a bit complicated because it includes the effects of the inevitable eddy currents that circulate in the iron laminations of the armature and stator. To complete the schematic picture for practical electrical machines, the analytical schematic for the electric motor is added <em>(Fig. 10)</em>. It is the mirror image of the generator with its three loss elements: mechanical friction, armature resistance, and field resistance. In this case, the subscripts contain <em>M</em> to indicate its application to a motor.</p> <p><a href="http://sourceesb.com" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/globalpurchasing.com/files/uploads/2016/07/15/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="width: 600px; height: 46px;" /></a></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-transmission-comparisons-part-3#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Fri, 03 Feb 2017 15:34:00 +0000 41691 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Fewer Hydraulic Connections Means Fewer Problems http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/fewer-hydraulic-connections-means-fewer-problems <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>We&#39;re in our 70th year of publishing <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics</em>, and February 2018 will be our official 70th anniversary.</p> <p>I have every issue of H&amp;P right in my office, from the first issue, February 1948, to the most recent. We already have many of these old articles posted &mdash; some are purely for interest, but many still have relevance today. Leakage prevention certainly fits the bill, here. It describes how officials at an OEM in Detroit set out expose the detriments of leakage and reduce leakage in some of its hydraulic machine tools.&nbsp;</p> <p>The author refers to &quot;the war,&quot; which, of course, was World War 2, and was still fresh in the minds of most Americans at the time. It was also a time when hydraulic controls dominated machine tools. Probably no one heard of computer numerical control (CNC), and if you mentioned a progammable logic controller, people would&#39;ve assumed it used fluid logic, not electronics.</p> <p>Enough rambling. Here&#39;s the article, taken from pages 16 to 18 of the April 1948 issue of Applied Hydraulics (the original name of <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics</em>):</p> <h3><strong>Outlaw Oil. . .&nbsp; What a Plant did About it</strong></h3> <p>By JOHN W. FAUVER, Application Engineer</p> <p>J. N. Fauver Co., Inc., Detroit</p> <p><em>Starting with a problem of excessive oil leakage, a large automotive engine plant is systematically &quot;revitalizing&quot; its hydraulically actuated production machine circuits to &quot;outlaw&quot; oil waste, maintain designed system pressures and machine efficiencies, and to simplify systematic maintenance.</em></p> <p>THE MOST EXPENSIVE hydraulic fluid is that on the shop floor. You don&#39;t have to argue with production men in Chrysler Corporation&#39;s Jefferson Avenue plant in Detroit to get a full endorsement of that statement.</p> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/1948.04-Outlaw%20Leaks-F1.jpg" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/1948.04-Outlaw%20Leaks-F1.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 299px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" title="Fig. l. The piping arrangement on a crankshaft machine before the changeover. A total of 120 pipe joints were in the system." /></a>Hydraulic fluid on the floor constitutes expensive evidence of a faulty hydraulic system. A leaky system means loss of power; loss of power, in turn, means a production drop. It is a danger signal of loss in system efficiency and represents a threat of complete failure, leading to costly machine downtime.</p> <p>Hydraulic oil on the floor involves more than the cost of the fluid wasted. From a safety point of view, it is a definite hazard to plant personnel. In addition, to maintain the good housekeeping standard of this company, the floor either had to be steamed or be subjected to other costly cleaning processes&mdash;with accompanying inconvenience and likely interruption of production.</p> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/1948.04-Outlaw%20Leaks-F2.jpg" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/1948.04-Outlaw%20Leaks-F2.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 300px; float: right; margin: 0px 4px;" title="Fig. 2. A machine identical to that shown in Fig. 1 after the changeover. A total of only 20 tubing connections were necessary." /></a>During the war, under the tremendous demands for military production, keeping machines running proved to be a strenuous and sometimes desperate undertaking in face of the loss of skilled manpower and the difficulties of obtaining essential replacement parts. In many plants, existing circumstances made it practically impossible to provide the proper kind of maintenance.</p> <p>Certainly, machine tool hydraulic systems suffered. Maintenance crews rushed from one emergency leak to another. In many cases, stocks of maintenance parts were woefully short and once used up, were irreplaceable. The repairman had to get his job done as best he could with whatever happened to be available. Some curious &quot;patchwork&quot; resulted. As a &quot;hangover&quot; of those frenzied war production days, many of these patchwork circuits&mdash;all kinds of pipe and tubing joined by all kinds of fittings&mdash;are still leaking away today to plague the disposition of production men and swell the costs of operating production machinery.&nbsp;</p> <p>The implications of such conditions, multiplied in plant after plant, have been particularly serious because they have given hydraulics a &quot;black eye,&quot; which it by no means deserves.</p> <p>A hydraulic system is no better than the physical circuit, which connects the various elements. From the point of view of management, leaky systems and hydraulic failures may cause production losses, which more than offset the inherent advantages hydraulics has to offer. For this reason, many production manufacturers have been definitely cool to hydraulically operated equipment because of the compounded difficulties resulting from wartime patchworking.</p> <p>The remedy for this situation is obvious; bastard lines should be eliminated completely and replaced with uniform elements specifically designed for long life hydraulic service. Such renovation, followed up with systematic maintenance, is imperative if hydraulics is to deliver the service of which it is capable.</p> <p>An excellent example of how such a program can be accomplished is found in the Chrysler Jefferson plant. Production of Chrysler and DeSoto engines and marine engines in this plant utilizes a large number of hydraulically operated machine tools.</p> <p>Back in the summer of 1946, following the aftermath of the war&mdash;when production officials in this plant had an opportunity to review their hydraulic experience and crystallize their thinking&mdash;they determined to &quot;revitalize&quot; their hydraulic equipment. This called for unit or complete system replacements, if necessary, and a properly organized maintenance program.</p> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/1948.04-Outlaw%20Leaks-F3.jpg" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/1948.04-Outlaw%20Leaks-F3.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 304px; float: left; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" title="Fig. 3. Service on the supply lines of this machine had been a difficult job prior to the &quot;revitalization&quot; changeover." /></a>A start was made on thirteen machines&mdash;which, because they were the worst leakers, represented the most expensive hydraulic operations in the plant. After our recommendations had been accepted, we removed the heavy, patchwork piping and conglomeration of miscellaneous types of fittings in these circuits and installed completely new lines.</p> <p>In addition to attaining the primary goal of leak-proof circuits, other noteworthy advantages were gained. By using tubing, more logical layouts of lines for improved accessibility of both the hydraulic system and the machine proper were possible. Tubing bends substituted for elbows, greatly reducing the number of joints. Standardizing on one type of fitting (a flared tube type of fitting was used for its leak-proof performance) simplified fabrication of the lines and made the installation uniform. Replacement of the old, bulky piping with the new &quot;streamlined&quot; free-flow circuits conserved space in many instances. All thirteen machines certainly presented a much neater appearance.</p> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/1948.04-Outlaw%20Leaks-F4.jpg" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/10/1948.04-Outlaw%20Leaks-F4.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 297px; float: left; margin-left: 3px; margin-right: 3px;" title="Fig. 4. The same machine shown in Fig. 3 after the streamline tubing installation. Maintenance has been greatly simplified." /></a>This re-tubing work had to be done over weekends so that production was not held up. In rebuilding a machine&#39;s hydraulic system, only as much old piping was removed as could be replaced during the weekend working hours. Some of the more complicated jobs required three week-end work periods. One of our representatives was on hand each Monday morning to make sure that the remodeled circuits operated to satisfaction under continuous production conditions.</p> <p>The improvement in the operation of this original group of machines convinced the plant production officials of the wisdom of their revitalization program. Plans were approved to systematically rework all their hydraulic equipment. To date, approximately 125 machines have been so improved. These include various makes of many kinds of machines&mdash;grinders, milling machines, drills, automatics, broaches, honing machines, pad mills, crankshaft machines, drill presses, welding equipment, and others.</p> <p>As a continuing maintenance policy, hydraulic systems are checked regularly. Careful examination is given to all units: pumps, valves, controls and any packings as well as associated linkages. Standardization on tubing and tube fittings has streamlined the entire maintenance operation.</p> <p>Maintenance carts in the Chrysler plant are equipped with a complete set of tube bending and fabricating tools. Similarly, a good range of sizes and shapes of the standardized fittings can be carried in the truck right to the job. This standardization makes it possible to adequately maintain circuits throughout the plant with a relatively small storeroom inventory of tubing and fittings.</p> <p>The Chrysler hydraulic revitalization program has kept the oil at work in the tight streamlined circuits; accessibility and simplified, systematic maintenance have improved the good housekeeping so important for the best personnel and machine efficiency. Starting by outlawing oil on the floor the program has brought hydraulic service to its peak level.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/fewer-hydraulic-connections-means-fewer-problems#comments Maintenance Fittings & Couplings Hose & Tubing The Hitch Post Wed, 01 Feb 2017 14:35:00 +0000 41661 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com IFPE Floor Map 2017 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/ifpe-floor-map-2017 <div class="node-body page-body"><p><a href="http://app.link.pentondes.com/e/er?s=1904481191&amp;lid=46074&amp;elq=&lt;span class=eloquaemail&gt;recipientid&lt;/span&gt;" target="_blank" download><img alt="IFPE Floor Map" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2017/02/01/ifpe-wallchart.jpg" style="width: 100%;" /></a></p> </div> Wed, 01 Feb 2017 13:23:17 +0000 41651 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Komatsu America Offers Career Day for University Students http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/komatsu-america-offers-career-day-university-students <div class="node-body article-body"><p>More than 30 students from three Atlanta-area colleges&nbsp;and technical schools&nbsp;attended an event at&nbsp;Komatsu&nbsp;America&#39;s&nbsp;customer&nbsp;center training site in&nbsp;Cartersville, GA&nbsp;to learn about construction-related jobs.&nbsp;Hosted by&nbsp;Komatsu&nbsp;America and local distributors Tractor &amp; Equipment&nbsp;Co., Linder Industrial Machinery Co., Brandeis Machinery, and Power Equipment Co., the students learned how to&nbsp;operate&nbsp;select&nbsp;Komatsu&nbsp;machines including bulldozers, excavators, wheel loaders, and dump trucks.&nbsp;</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/aem-releases-ag-tractor-and-combine-report">AEM Releases Ag Tractor and Combine Report</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/aem-continues-review-ag-braking-requirements">AEM Continues Review of ag Braking Requirements</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/agricultural/flow-dividers-lend-hand-farm">Flow Dividers Lend a Hand at the Farm </a></p> </div> <p>The purpose of the event was so that students from Chattahoochee Technical College,&nbsp;Reinhardt&nbsp;University, and Kennesaw State University could learn&nbsp;about the work life of construction and mining employees. Strapping&nbsp;on&nbsp;hardhats, the students&nbsp;climbed inside 20-ft., 200,000 lb. machines, and received hands-on training for state-of-the-art construction equipment.&nbsp;They also learned about&nbsp;current and future job opportunities.</p> <p>&ldquo;It&rsquo;s so important to do all we can to attract top talent to the industry,&rdquo; said Tom&nbsp;Suess, director, training and publications for&nbsp;Komatsu&nbsp;America. &ldquo;Komatsu and our local distributors jumped at the chance to host these students and their school administrators. I think we opened the eyes of some students today about how technologically and globally focused the industry is, and how bright a future they can have if they pursue a career in this field.&rdquo;</p> <div class="captioned-image caption-none" style="overflow: hidden; width: 596px;"><em style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; font-size: 15px;"><a href="http://sourceesb.com/" style="color: rgb(14, 95, 139);" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/06/28/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="display: block; width: 595px; height: 46px;" /></a></em></div> <p>&quot;I had never operated equipment before coming out here,&quot; said Chattahoochee Tech student Chandler&nbsp;Firestine. &quot;It&#39;s been an awesome experience being able to really get inside one of the machines and see how they work mechanically&hellip;..especially being a diesel tech. I would love to come out here again and do it if I could,&quot;&nbsp;Firestine&nbsp;said.</p> <p>For more information about&nbsp;Komatsu&nbsp;America Corp.,&nbsp;a U.S. subsidiary of&nbsp;Komatsu&nbsp;Ltd., visit&nbsp;<a href="http://www.komatsuamerica.com/">www.komatsuamerica.com</a>.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/komatsu-america-offers-career-day-university-students#comments News Tue, 31 Jan 2017 22:35:00 +0000 41631 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>Students from three Atlanta universities participated at&nbsp;<span data-scayt-lang="en_US" data-scayt-word="Komatsu">Komatsu</span>&nbsp;America Corp.&#39;s educational session, where they could operate state-of-the-art machinery.&nbsp;</p> How To Make Your Hydraulic Supplier Rich http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-make-your-hydraulic-supplier-rich <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>If you&#39;re a hydraulic machine owner, or responsible for the same, one sure way of transferring a scary amount of dinero from your bank account to your hydraulic supplier&#39;s is to allow your hydraulic machines to run hot, as this exchange I had with one of our members illustrates:<br /> <br /> <strong>Member</strong>: &quot;The hydraulic systems on my customer&#39;s underground machines are running at 148&deg;C. I have replaced the NBR 90-shore o-rings with Viton 75 shore o-rings on the SAE flanges but they are still failing.&quot;<br /> <br /> <strong>BC</strong>: &quot;You need to get that operating temperature down. Without doing so everything else you do will be in vain.&quot;<br /> <br /> <strong>Member</strong>: &quot;Yes, I understand that but I only supply the hydraulic hose, fittings and o-rings.&quot;<br /> <br /> <strong>BC</strong>: &quot;In that case, keep on supplying them. Your customer&#39;s ignorance and/or inaction is going to make you rich. But in terms of your seal options for the SAE flanges, for high pressures, 90-shore o-rings are a better choice than 70/75-shore. And even though Viton has a temperature rating of 200&deg;C, it does NOT mean it&#39;s longevity is unaffected by extreme operating temperatures.<br /> <br /> You should also consider that being underground, the machines will likely be running some type of fire-resistant hydraulic fluid. Viton is compatible with all fire-resistant fluids, except HFC fluids, so you need to confirm what type of fluid is being used so that compatibility is not an issue.<br /> <br /> As already stated, you&#39;re really up against it with the machines&#39; sky-high operating temperature. It means whatever fix you offer to this customer will only be a <em>Band-Aid</em> measure it best. The only lasting solution is to get the machine&#39;s operating temperature down to below 85&deg;C.&quot;<br /> <br /> <strong>The moral of this story is</strong>: allowing a hydraulic machine to run too hot is the most costly mistake a hydraulic equipment owner can make. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-make-your-hydraulic-supplier-rich#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:41:00 +0000 41621 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com New Book Provides Detailed Study of Hydraulics Technology http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/new-book-provides-detailed-study-hydraulics-technology <div class="node-body article-body"><p>A new textbook, <a href="http://www.compudraulic.com" target="_blank"><em>Introduction to Hydraulics for Industry Professionals</em></a>, is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the principles of hydraulic control, and improve practical skills in building hydraulic-driven machines. This book fills the gap between academic style of fluid-power books and the very commercial style of books that are produced by manufacturers.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-components/partnership-delivers-aerospace-standard-cad-model-catalog ">Partnership Delivers Aerospace-Standard CAD-Model Catalog </a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/manual-gives-hard-facts-ideal-cushioning ">Manual Gives the Hard Facts on &ldquo;Ideal Cushioning&rdquo;</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/rail-truck-bus/read-hydraulic-systems-work-trucks">Read Up on Hydraulic Systems for Work Trucks</a></p> </div> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/09/09/HSV2-TB-Cover%20Front_0.png" style="width: 350px; height: 484px; margin: 3px; float: left;" />The book contains two software packages to download: a Hydraulic Components Sizing Calculator and Animated Circuits Files, which is produced by Automation Studio Software. Both packages are helpful in understanding the subject and interactive designing of a hydraulic system.</p> <p>Hydraulic system builders and users should find the book beneficial in understanding the operating principles of the hydraulic components, using the right terminology, determining the proper specifications of a hydraulic component, performing the required calculations to size hydraulic components, reading hydraulic schematics, and more.</p> <p>The author, Dr. Medhat Khalil, has more than 25 years experience in teaching fluid power to industry professionals and has effectively applied his solid understanding to the subject and his post-doctoral level of academic education in the preparation of this book. He adapted the book from training seminars conducted by the Milwaukee School of Engineering.</p> <p><em>Introduction&nbsp;to Hydraulics for Industry Professionals</em> contains nearly 450 pages and can be ordered by visiting <a href="http://www.compudraulic.com/">www.compudraulic.com</a>. It normally sells for $115, but readers of <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics</em> will receive a 10% discount by using the promo code <strong>H&amp;P2016-12</strong> when ordering. The website accepts all major credit cards and PayPal. The book can also be ordered at <a href="http://www.amazon.com/">www.amazon.com</a>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="captioned-image caption-none" style="overflow: hidden; width: 596px;"><em style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; font-size: 15px;"><a href="http://sourceesb.com/" style="color: rgb(14, 95, 139);" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/06/28/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="display: block; width: 595px; height: 46px;" /></a></em></div> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/new-book-provides-detailed-study-hydraulics-technology#comments News Mon, 30 Jan 2017 18:33:00 +0000 41611 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Associate of Equipment Manufactures Offers Its First Trade Mission to Cuba http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/associate-equipment-manufactures-offers-its-first-trade-mission-cuba <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The&nbsp;Association of Equipment Manufacturers is offering its first <a href="https://www.aem.org/news/january-2017/register-now-for-aems-trade-mission-to-cuba/" target="_blank">trade mission to Cuba</a> for AEM member companies and other trip participants.&nbsp;The trade mission will take place April 3-6, 2017, and will provide opportunities to learn how to conduct business&nbsp;with Cuban companies&nbsp;and equipment manufacturers.&nbsp;</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/aem-releases-ag-tractor-and-combine-report">AEM Releases Ag Tractor and Combine Report</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/aem-continues-review-ag-braking-requirements">AEM Continues Review of ag Braking Requirements</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/agricultural/flow-dividers-lend-hand-farm">Flow Dividers Lend a Hand at the Farm </a></p> </div> <p>During the trip, participants will be able to&nbsp;identify market opportunities for products and services in Cuba, while establishing&nbsp;key contacts with Cuban ministries and companies involved in importation, procurement, and distribution. They will learn about commercial and political&nbsp;hurdles for conducting business in Cuba, and gain an understanding of financial transaction and regulations. The tour will include onsite visits and workshops to learn how to craft&nbsp;business proposals unique to the Cuban market.&nbsp;</p> <p>Group size will be limited and registration will be on a first-come, first-served basis. Learn more on the <a href="https://www.aem.org/news/january-2017/register-now-for-aems-trade-mission-to-cuba/" target="_blank">AEM website</a>.&nbsp;To determine if your U.S. product can be exported into Cuba, or to obtain an application for a license to export, contact the U.S. Department of Commerce&rsquo;s Bureau of Industry and Security at (202) 482-4252.</p> <div class="captioned-image caption-none" style="overflow: hidden; width: 596px;"><em style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, &quot;Times New Roman&quot;, serif; font-size: 15px;"><a href="http://sourceesb.com/" style="color: rgb(14, 95, 139);" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/06/28/SourceESB_Lookin_For_Parts_Banner.jpg" style="display: block; width: 595px; height: 46px;" /></a></em></div> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/associate-equipment-manufactures-offers-its-first-trade-mission-cuba#comments News Fri, 27 Jan 2017 15:16:00 +0000 41591 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>Last year, the Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM)&nbsp;joined the&nbsp;<a href="http://bit.ly/1QHfvKk" target="_blank">U.S. Agriculture Coalition for Cuba</a>&nbsp;(<span data-scayt-lang="en_US" data-scayt-word="USACC">USACC</span>), a coalition of U.S. agriculture interests that works to liberalize agricultural trade between the U.S. and Cuba.</p> Hydradyne Acquires Hydraulic House to Serve Southern U.S. http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/hydradyne-acquires-hydraulic-house-serve-southern-us <div class="node-body article-body"><p><a href="https://www.hydradynellc.com/" target="_blank">Hydradyne LLC</a>, one of Parker Hannifin&rsquo;s largest national distributors, announced that it completed an agreement to acquire <a href="http://www.hydraulichouse.com/" target="_blank">Hydraulic House Inc. </a>last fall. Hydraulic Hose is a Parker truck center headquartered in Orlando, Fla., with a branch in Dothan, Ala. In addition to offering Parker hydraulic components and a full line of Parker fluid connector products, Hydraulic House offers in-house service and repairs for various brands of hydraulic equipment.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/manifolds-hics/component-library-hydraulic-schematic-software-offered-free">Component Library for Hydraulic-Schematic Software Offered for Free </a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/hydraulics-give-injection-blow-molder-boost">Hydraulics Give Injection Blow Molder a Boost</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/des-case-acquires-oilmiser-product-line">Des-Case Acquires OilMiser Product Line </a></p> </div> <p>Hydrodyne LLC, headquartered in Fort Worth, Tex., currently operates a network of 35 branches in 11 states. It provides wholesale distribution, retail stores, fabrication, and repair centers across the southern United States. Its fully-stocked local branches allow customers to access a wide range of quality products in a timely fashion.</p> <p>&ldquo;The driving force behind our business vision is to meet the needs of customers in their local marketplace,&rdquo; said Hydradyne President David Parks. &ldquo;Hydraulic House has built a solid and successful operation and provided superior local service for decades. We share that strong customer focus with them.</p> <p>&ldquo;Hydradyne will strengthen Hydraulic House by offering our broad and deep product lines to its local customers,&rdquo; parks added. &ldquo;In turn, Hyradyne will utilize Hydraulic House&rsquo;s expertise and veteran sales team to offer exceptional service and customer support in Central Florida, Southern Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle. Together, we will deliver an exceptional and unmatched customer experience.&rdquo;&nbsp;</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/hydradyne-acquires-hydraulic-house-serve-southern-us#comments Other Technologies News Thu, 26 Jan 2017 17:07:00 +0000 41581 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>Hydradyne LLC, strengthened its presence in the southeast with its acquisition of Hydraulic House Inc., or Orlando, Fla.</p> FPDA Appoints New Executive Director http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/fpda-appoints-new-executive-director <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/09/09/Barbara%20Dunlavey.jpg" style="width: 150px; height: 225px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="Barbara Dunlavey was appointed the Executive Director of the Fluid Power Distributors Association. She has experience serving as executive director of several other engineering organizations as well." />The FPDA Motion &amp; Control Network, a national trade association that serves motion-solution providers from distributors to manufacturers of fluid power, automation, and electro-mechanical technologies, has announced the appointment of <a href="http://www.fpda.org/aws/FPDA/pt/sd/news_article/131848/_PARENT/layout_details/false" target="_blank">Barbara Dunlavey</a>, CMP, CAE as its new executive director. Dunlavey replaces Trish Lilly, who served the association since 2009.&nbsp;</p> <p><span data-scayt-lang="en_US" data-scayt-word="Dunlavey">Dunlavey</span>&nbsp;has more than 20 years of experience managing numerous international and national membership organizations. She has developed social media marketing campaigns and built successful teams to deliver diverse educational programs, conventions, and member services. She has served as a volunteer leader with the American Society of Association Executives (<span data-scayt-lang="en_US" data-scayt-word="ASAE">ASAE</span>), the Professional Convention Management Association (<span data-scayt-lang="en_US" data-scayt-word="PCMA">PCMA</span>), and Board Source. She previously served as executive director of the Society for Maintenance &amp; Reliability Professionals and Foundation (<span data-scayt-lang="en_US" data-scayt-word="SMRP">SMRP</span>), the Biomedical Engineering Society and Foundation (<span data-scayt-lang="en_US" data-scayt-word="BMES">BMES</span>), and Women in Defense, National Security (WID).</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/fpda-elects-new-officers-joint-annual-summit">FPDA Elects New Officers at Joint Annual Summit</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/construction/aem-create-new-international-construction-trade-shows ">AEM to create new international construction trade shows</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/educational-opportunities-abound-ifpe-conference">Educational Opportunities Abound at IFPE Conference</a></p> </div> <p>&ldquo;I am excited to be part of the FPDA team and look forward to working with our talented and professional volunteer leaders and staff to strategically support the association&rsquo;s future growth,&rdquo; noted Dunlavey. &ldquo;I am confident that my professional values of integrity, efficiency, and creativity will benefit FPDA and will be a great fit for their mission and objectives.&rdquo;</p> <p>&ldquo;Barbara is an award-winning and highly-regarded Association Executive who brings a fresh leadership perspective to supporting the strategic growth of her associations,&rdquo; added Joseph Thompson, FPDA general manager. &ldquo;Passionate about serving the membership mission, she is adept at aligning resources with key priorities and anticipating organizational and member needs. I know that she will apply her talents toward ensuring FPDA&rsquo;s future growth and vitality in partnership with the Board and leadership team.&rdquo;</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/fpda-appoints-new-executive-director#comments News Wed, 25 Jan 2017 15:11:00 +0000 41561 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com