Hydraulics & Pneumatics - Hydraulics & Pneumatics is the leading international technical resource for fluid power http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/rss.xml en Who Fixed YOUR Bicycle? http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/who-fixed-your-bicycle <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>One of my <strong><a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/pro.html">Hydraulics Pro Club</a></strong> members from the UK, Albin Draper sent me this little gem:<br /> <br /> <em>&quot;I&#39;ve had an apprentice hydraulics tech for nearly a year now. Unfortunately I had no part in his selection. Should I have been afforded this, my first question would have been: &quot;Who repaired your bicycle?&quot; I did in fact ask him this after having him for two months. His reply: nobody. Parents dumped it and bought a new one! Had I heard this answer at the interview stage, he would have been rejected.&quot;</em><br /> <br /> &#39;Who repaired your bicycle?&#39; is a great qualifying question for this type of position--on a number of levels. It goes to mechanical aptitude for sure. But it also goes deeper. As in this case, the candidate&#39;s answer reveals level of interest, or rather disinterest, in a machine of sorts, and behavioral conditioning to &#39;pluck and chuck&#39; rather than salvage and repair. Two things that may be hard or even impossible to change, depending on the personality. And not a great starting point for any type of mechanical technician.<br /> <br /> But it&#39;s not entirely this young man&#39;s fault. Those of us in the west live in a throw away society these days. Made possible by the rise and rise of cheap manufacturing, mainly out of China. When I was a kid, a kid&#39;s bike was relatively expensive. If it broke you weren&#39;t getting a new one in a hurry. So you either walked or figured out how to fix it. In other words, you had an incentive to become a bike mechanic. Not so these days; kid&#39;s bikes are as cheap as chips. And this of course skews the economics of repair versus replacement.<br /> <br /> With advances in manufacturing technology (not just cheap manufacturing) this has pervaded the hydraulics biz too. Particularly in the smaller, low-tech end of the market. Aluminium gear pumps have been a throw away item for years. Monoblock directional valves, agricultural cylinders, even the gerotor motor are all a &#39;part-changer&#39;s&#39; dream these days. And this is actually a good thing. Because it has expanded the market.<br /> <br /> When I think back to the evolution of the combine harvesters my father owned, in the &#39;70&#39;s the only hydraulics on them was to raise and lower the front. Then in the &#39;80&#39;s hydrostatic transmissions for the ground drive hit the scene in a big way. But all the other rotary drives remained belts and chains. Now, any farmer or contractor who owns a modern, $250,000+ combine harvester should also be invested in <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=isthsp"><strong>Insider Secrets to Hydraulics</strong></a>, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=phfsp"><strong>Preventing Hydraulic Failures</strong></a> and <strong><a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=thth">The Hydraulic Troubleshooting Handbook</a></strong>!<br /> <br /> Cheap bikes and relatively cheap hydraulics are both good for the skilled hydraulics pro. Cheap hydraulics means the pie gets bigger. And for reasons explained above, cheap bikes means the supply of us is somewhat handicapped. Frustrating if you&#39;re trying to find a good young lad to employ though!<br /> <br /> <strong>Recommended reading</strong>: To discover six costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/who-fixed-your-bicycle#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 24 Feb 2015 00:45:00 +0000 31141 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Find a Job in Fluid Power http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/find-job-fluid-power <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Seems like at least nine out of ten people I meet in the fluid power industry stay in the fluid power industry. Time and again, I hear someone has moved on, then I run into him or her again at a trade show, conference, or other fluid power event.</p> <p>So if you&#39;re looking for a new job, chances are, you&#39;ll remain in the fluid power industry. But finding good leads in such a specialized field can be frustrating.</p> <p>Fortunately, I&#39;ve found several recruiting firms and individuals who&nbsp; deal specifically with the fluid power job market. Following is a list I&#39;ve compiled that includes contact information. So check it out, and good luck in your search.</p> <p><strong>Fluid Power Connections</strong>, Millstone, N.J.<br /> Call Craig Novins at (732) 792-0411,<br /> email <a href="mailto:craig@usa-4u.com?subject=Inquiry%20from%20H%26P%20website">craig@usa-4u.com</a>, or visit<a href="http://www.fluidpowerconnections.com" target="_blank"> www.fluidpowerconnections.com</a></p> <p><strong>Bosco-Hubert Associates</strong>, St. Mary&#39;s, Kansas<br /> Call Dan Hohman at (785) 437-3737,<br /> email<a href="mailto:dhohman@bosco-hubert.com?subject=Inquiry%20from%20H%26P%20website"> dhohman@bosco-hubert.com</a>, or visit <a href="http://www.fluidpowerjobs.com" target="_blank">www.fluidpowerjobs.com</a></p> <p><strong>Direct Recruiters Inc.</strong>, Solon, Ohio<br /> Call Kelly McCort at (440) 996-0879.<br /> email <a href="mailto:KMcCort@directrecruiters.com?subject=Inquiry%20from%20H%26P%20website">KMcCort@directrecruiters.com</a>, or visit <a href="http://www.directrecruiters.com/" target="_blank">www.directrecruiters.com</a></p> <p><strong>Professional Staffing Consultants</strong>, Mukwonago, Wis.<br /> Call Dan Schauer at (262) 363-4985,<br /> email <a href="mailto:info@hydraulicrecruiter.com?subject=Inquiry%20from%20H%26P%20website">info@hydraulicrecruiter.com</a>, or visit <a href="http://www.hydraulicrecruiter.com" target="_blank">www.hydraulicrecruiter.com</a></p> <p><strong>Global Recruiting Source</strong>, Solon, Ohio<br /> Call Heather Goldberg at (440) 684-6150,<br /> email <a href="mailto:hgoldberg@grsrecruiting.com?subject=Inquiry%20from%20H%26P%20website">hgoldberg@grsrecruiting.com</a>, or visit<a href="http://www.grsrecruiting.com" target="_blank"> www.grsrecruiting.com</a></p> <p><strong>Marvel Consultants</strong>, Cleveland<br /> Call Dave Sevel at (216) 292-2855,<br /> email <a href="mailto:dsevel@marvelconsultants.com?subject=Inquiry%20form%20H%26P%20website">dsevel@marvelconsultants.com</a>, or visit<a href="http://www.marvelconsultants.com" target="_blank"> www.marvelconsultants.com</a></p> <p><strong>Quality Search</strong>, Chicago<br /> Call Bob Johnson at (630) 247-5884,<br /> email <a href="mailto:bjohnson@qualitysearch.com?subject=Inquiry%20from%20H%26P%20website">bjohnson@qualitysearch.com</a>, or visit <a href="http://www.qualitysearch.com" target="_blank">www.qualitysearch.com</a></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hitch-post">The Hitch Post</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/find-job-fluid-power#comments Community The Hitch Post Mon, 23 Feb 2015 20:25:00 +0000 31131 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Learn by Playing with Fischertechnik Pneumatic Kits http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/learn-playing-fischertechnik-pneumatic-kits <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Fischertechnik pneumatic kits give students the opportunity to produce functioning end products with real-life purposes. The kits, developed by Fischertechnik, not only build interest in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics), but include instructional teaching guides and worksheets to help kids understand basic concepts and the interworking of components in pneumatic systems. Though the sets are geared toward students ages eight and up, other kits are available for higher-level education and industry trainees who need to learn about industrial pneumatic equipment.</p> <p>Pneumatic 3, a kit in the company&rsquo;s Science and Technology Profi set, is recommended for those aged nine, but can work for older students as well. The Pneumatic 3 set allows students to build automated vehicles that use pneumatics to power model front loaders, tree-trunk grippers, and hay-bale pickers. Replete with a reliable air compressor, students can learn how pneumatics, cylinders, and manual valves operate in a system. <a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Fischer Pneu 3.jpg"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Fischer%20Pneu%203.jpg" style="width: 333px; height: 274px; margin: 0px 5px; float: left;" title="The Fischertechnik Pneumatic 3 Kit has 400 components to build miniature service vehicles. " /></a></p> <p>Another pneumatics-driven kit, the ROBO TX Electro-Pneumatic Kit, is included in the Robotics and Programming Set of Fischertechnik kits. This differs from the Profi line because it shows how electronics can control the functions of pneumatics and a pneumatic motor. It may also require some knowledge of computers and robotics, which is explained in the instructional material.</p> <p>The kit includes a reliable compressor, a miniature motor, and solenoid valves that can be controlled with a PC. Parts and instructions are available to build a pneumatic pinball machine, a color-sorting robot, and a ball obstacle course. Students can build their own variations with the range of available components. The kit requires a ROBO TX controller, ROBO Pro Software, and an Accu Set or Energy Set, sold separately.</p> <p>Finally, Fischertechnik provides two kits for higher-level education and industrial training: the Pneumatic Processing Center TX, which includes a ROBO TX controller, and the Pneumatic Processing Center kit that requires a separate PLC. The kits include one double-acting pneumatic cylinder and two single-acting cylinders, four 3/2-way magnetic valves, a dc motor, and four switches. The model can be mounted on a wooden board. There are six digital inputs and six outputs. With the set, the trainee can create a model machining center with a work piece bin, a turntable, and other features.</p> <p>The pneumatic kits are appropriate for classrooms, for curious adults, and for industrial training.&nbsp; They&rsquo;re also good for technical writers who love that sort of thing, so excuse me&mdash;I&rsquo;m off to get mine!</p> <p>To purchase an electropneumatic ROBO TX kit, go to <a href="http://www.studica.com/Fischertechnik" target="_blank">www.studica.com/Fischertechnik</a> or <a href="http://www.fischertechnik.biz/" target="_blank">www.fischertechnik.biz</a>. Refer to the <a href="http://www.studica.com/resources/ft_Catalog_2014_web_87.pdf" target="_blank">catalog</a> for extra information about other kits, ideas for the classroom, and STEM curriculum created for the set projects! The kits are also available on Amazon.com by<a href="http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps&amp;field-keywords=fischertechnik&amp;rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Afischertechnik" target="_blank"><strong> </strong>clicking here</a>.</p> <p><a href="http://www.fischertechnik.de/en/Home.aspx" target="_blank">Fischertechnik</a></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/fluid-power-talk">Fluid Power Talk</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/learn-playing-fischertechnik-pneumatic-kits#comments Air Compressors Fluid Power Talk Thu, 19 Feb 2015 16:01:00 +0000 31111 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Eliminate Those Hydraulic Oil Leaks http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/eliminate-those-hydraulic-oil-leaks <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Hydraulic systems are often considered major perennial consumers of oil and, in turn, replacement fluid becomes an inherent cost of operating hydraulic equipment. But if you&rsquo;re serious about getting your hydraulic equipment running reliably and lean, you ought to make sure it doesn&rsquo;t &ldquo;leak&rdquo; money.</p> <p>According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), more than 700 million gallons (2.65 billion liters!) of petroleum products enter the environment each year. Around half of this volume comes from irresponsible and illegal disposal. Hydraulics&rsquo; contribution, according to hose manufacturer Gates, is 98 million gallons (370 million liters). That represents how much oil&nbsp;<em>leaks</em>&nbsp;from hydraulic equipment each year. These are staggering statistics, especially when the NOAA states that as little as one liter of oil can pollute up to one million liters of water.</p> <p>With the above in mind, a question quickly pops up: How much hydraulic oil does each of your machines consume in a year? The only way you can know for sure, particularly if more than one machine is under your watch, is if you measure and record all top-offs. It&rsquo;s near impossible to control or manage anything, though, so those measurements likely don&rsquo;t happen.</p> <p>In my experience, such is the case with most hydraulic-equipment users. However, when clients have done so at my urging, they&rsquo;re often unpleasantly surprised at how much oil a particular machine actually loses over a year.</p> <p><strong>Addressing the Elephant</strong></p> <p>The downtime required to fix leaks is almost always &ldquo;the elephant in the room.&rdquo; That typically means the leakage rate is allowed to increase to the point where the cost of the required volume of replacement oil justifies the necessary downtime and repair costs.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fittings-couplings/stop-high-pressure-leaks-flange-fittings">Stop High-Pressure Leaks with Flange Fittings</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-little-leaks-keep-hydraulic-equipment-users-poor">How Little Leaks Keep Hydraulic Equipment Users Poor</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/your-hydraulic-machine-leaker">Is YOUR Hydraulic Machine A &#39;Leaker&#39;?</a></p> </div> <p>For example, a past client carried out a survey to determine the source of a large number of hydraulic leaks at its plant, and calculated repair cost to be $28,000. Management was horrified when confronted with this figure&mdash;until it was revealed that the plant&rsquo;s hydraulic oil consumption amounted to three drums per week, at a cost of about $450 per drum ($1,350 per week). This meant the payback period on the cost to fix the leaks was less than five months.</p> <p>This is an oversimplification of the real cost, though. In addition to the oil, there are the costs associated with clean-up, proper disposal, and the potential safety risks posed by a leaky machine. Plus, in places where oil can get out, contamination can make its way in. On top of that, you&rsquo;re reminded each time you buy a filter element that it costs money to remove contaminants&mdash;and much more if you don&rsquo;t.</p> <p><strong>How To Eliminate Leaks</strong></p> <p>As already acknowledged, the downtime required to fix leaks can be an issue. But this is often just used as an excuse for laziness. And these days, there are a number of ways to eliminate leaks.</p> <p><em>Engineer Them Out</em></p> <p>If a hydraulic system doesn&rsquo;t have connectors, they can&rsquo;t leak. Sure, a system must have <em>some</em> connectors, but the number can be significantly reduced through intelligent use of manifolds, cartridge valves, and stack valves, known collectively as integrated hydraulic circuits (IHCs) <em>(Figs. 1 and 2)</em>.&nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/1a-manifold1.jpg" style="width: 280px; height: 280px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="1. A manifold like the assembly shown here helps reduce leaks from connectors." /></p> <p>The application of this technology normally falls within the realm of the machine designer. However, if your machines feature line-mounted valves with many connections, then replacing these line-mounted valves with one or more IHCs will simplify the plumbing and greatly reduce the number of potential leakage points.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/2b-StackValve.jpg" style="margin: 3px; font-size: 12.8000001907349px; line-height: 20px; width: 280px; height: 280px; float: left;" title="2. Implementing a vertical valve stack is another leak-prevention measure used in hydraulic systems." /></p> <p><em>Use Reliable Connectors </em></p> <p>Tapered-thread connectors like NPT and BSPT are the least-reliable type of connector for high-pressure hydraulic systems because the thread itself provides a leak path. The threads are deformed when tightened and, as a result, any subsequent loosening or tightening of the connection increases the potential for leaks.</p> <p>Connectors that incorporate an elastomeric seal, such as a UN-O-ring, BSPP, ORFS, and SAE 4-bolt flange, offer far superior seal reliability. Thus, for leak-free reliability, it&rsquo;s best to replace pipe-thread connectors with a type that incorporates an elastomeric seal, where possible.</p> <p>That said, the world&rsquo;s most commonly used hydraulic connection, the JIC 37-degree flare, relies on a metal-to-metal seal. What that means is it doesn&rsquo;t always achieve a permanent, leak-free joint, particularly in the case of tube-end connections. However, installing a conical washer between the joint&rsquo;s nose and flare can eliminate leaking flare joints.</p> <p>One type of flare seal, manufactured by Flaretite, comprises a stainless-steel stamping with concentric ribs that contain pre-applied Loctite sealant <em>(Fig. 3)</em>. When tightened, the ribs crush between the two faces of the joint, eliminating any misalignment and surface imperfections. The combination of the crush on the ribs and the sealant ensure that a leak-free joint is achieved.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/3b-Flaretite.jpg" style="width: 335px; height: 235px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="3. A Flaretite seal washer was installed into this 37-degree flare joint." /></p> <p><em>Torque Them Correctly</em></p> <p>A common cause of leaks from 37-degree flare joints and compression-type tube fittings is incorrect torque. In the case of flare joints, insufficient torque results in inadequate seat contact, while excessive torque can result in damage to the tube and connector through cold working. In the case of compression joints, incorrect torque can result in too much or too little &ldquo;crush&rdquo; on the ferrule. For optimum sealing reliability, consult the connector manufacturer&rsquo;s torque recommendations and apply them as directed.</p> <p><em>Eliminate Vibration</em></p> <p>Vibration can stress hydraulic conductors, cause fatigue, and affect connector torque. If vibration is apparent, the root cause must be addressed. This may involve the installation of hoses and/or rubber mounting blocks to eliminate vibration &ldquo;bridges&rdquo; between the hydraulic power unit, reservoir, and valves. Also, always ensure all conductors, especially pipes and tubes, are adequately supported with sufficient clamps. This issue is important enough to warrant mention in the relevant standards: ISO 4413, ANSI-NFPA-JIC T2.24, AS 2671, etc. The table lists the recommended <em>maximum</em> distance between conductor supports based on tube/pipe diameter.</p> <p><em>Keep The Machine Cool </em></p> <p>Having outlined the benefits of hydraulic connectors that incorporate an elastomeric seal, it&rsquo;s important to note that their reliability is contingent on hydraulic-fluid temperature being maintained within acceptable limits. When operating oil temperatures above 85&deg;C (185&deg;F), service life of most seal compounds reduces exponentially. Moreover, a single over-temperature event of sufficient magnitude can damage all of the seals in a hydraulic system, resulting in numerous leaks. This is a further reminder that a hot-running hydraulic machine is an unreliable hydraulic machine.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Author:</p> <p>Brendan Casey is the founder of HydraulicSupermarket.com and author of <em>Insider Secrets to Hydraulics</em>, <em>Preventing Hydraulic Failures</em>, <em>The Hydraulic Troubleshooting Handbook</em>, <em>Hydraulics Made Easy,</em> <em>Advanced Hydraulic Control </em>and<em> The Definitive Guide to Hydraulic Troubleshooting</em>. A hydraulics specialist with an MBA, he has more than 25 years of experience in the design, maintenance. and repair of mobile and industrial hydraulic equipment. Visit his website at <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/" target="_blank">www.HydraulicSupermarket.com</a></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/eliminate-those-hydraulic-oil-leaks#comments Hydraulics Hydraulics At Work Wed, 18 Feb 2015 20:59:00 +0000 31101 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hyde Group Gets New President http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/hyde-group-gets-new-president <div class="field-byline"> Staff </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Hyde-ScobleWEB.jpg" style="width: 130px; height: 176px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="Robert Scoble is the President of Hyde Group." />The Hyde Group, Southridge, Mass., announced the promotion of Robert Scoble to president of Hyde Group Inc. Scoble, who reports to Richard M. Clemence, CEO of Hyde Group Inc.,is now responsible for Hyde Tools and Industrial Blade Solutions and A. Richard Tools of Canada, all of which are owned by Hyde Group Inc. Clemence noted Scoble&rsquo;s strong experience, insight, and extensive knowledge of their markets as instrumental to the company&rsquo;s continued expansion and growth of its industrial blade and construction tool businesses.</p> <p>After more than 20 years of leadership in other privately held companies, Scoble joined the Hyde Group in 2005 as vice president of sales and marketing for Hyde Tools. In 2009 he was named executive vice president, and was tapped as president of Hyde Tools in 2010.</p> <p>Hyde Group has been a source of tools since its founding in Southbridge as the Hyde Mfg. Co.in 1875. Hyde Group grew from its early start as a shoe knife manufacturer into a provider of surface preparation hand tools, paint applicators, and industrial knives.&nbsp;Hyde is best known in the fluid power industry for its hose-cutting blades. Visit <a href="http://www.industrialbladesandknives.com/markets/hose/" target="_blank">http://www.industrialbladesandknives.com/markets/hose/</a>&nbsp;for details.&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/hyde-group-gets-new-president#comments News Events Wed, 18 Feb 2015 20:19:00 +0000 31091 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Troubleshooting Challenge: Pump-housing Cracking http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-pump-housing-cracking <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/FebTroubleChallenge_fig.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 421px;" title="A paper mill’s pump showed extensive piston barrel and shoes damage. But what caused it?" /></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/201501-Troubleshooting.gif" style="width: 300px; height: 350px; float: left;" />A hydraulic power unit (HPU) in the basement of a paper mill supplied all the flow and pressure needed to run the <em>calender</em> section of the mill. The calender section squeezes the paper to a required thickness and smoothness by applying pressure to one movable roll that presses against a spinning, fixed roll.</p> <p>The mill had a problem with the HPU&rsquo;s main pump breaking into multiple small parts. Personnel determined the problem was caused by the replacement of an inlet hose that had a defective inner liner. As a result, the liner tore loose and tangled into a knot that restricted flow and starved the pump of fluid.&nbsp;</p> <p>Mechanics replaced the pump and changed the pressure-line filter elements. They also drained the oil, cleaned the tank, and installed new, filtered oil. The HPU was designed so the pump had a flooded intake line. They filled the pump case with new oil and started the system.</p> <p>After initial pump noise settled down, and the pump compensated at 2,800 psi, they opened the ball valve to a 10-gal accumulator. When the pump compensated after filling the accumulator to 2,800 psi, the pump&rsquo;s shaft seal failed, and the pump housing cracked&mdash;both at the same moment.</p> <p>Any idea what caused the problem?</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-speed-control-causing-unwanted-jolt-and-pressure-spike">Troubleshooting Challenge: Speed Control Causing Unwanted Jolt and Pressure Spike</a></p> <p><a href="/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-unexpected-pressure-loss-while-testing-new-hydrauli">Troubleshooting Challenge: Unexpected Pressure Loss While Testing a New Hydraulic Power Unit</a></p> <p><a href="/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-hydraulic-system-causes-structural-failure">Troubleshooting Challenge: Hydraulic System Causes Structural Failure</a></p> </div> <p><strong>Find the solution</strong></p> <p>Think you know the answer to this month&rsquo;s problem?</p> <p>Submit your solution by emailing Mindy Timmer at <a href="mailto:timmer@cfc-solar.com">timmer@cfc-solar.com</a>. All correct solutions submitted by March 3, 2015, will be entered into a random drawing for a $50 gift card. The winner will be notified, and his or her name will be printed in a future issue. Only one gift card will be awarded to any participant within a calendar year.</p> <p>Congratulations to Ken Westin, of Hahn Machinery, Two Harbors, Minn., who won December&rsquo;s Troubleshooting Challenge by having his answer drawn at random from those who correctly solved that month&rsquo;s problem. A $50 gift card was sent to him.</p> <p><strong>Solution to December&rsquo;s problem: <a href="/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-speed-control-causing-unwanted-jolt-and-pressure-spike">Speed control causing unwanted jolt and pressure spike</a></strong></p> <p>The item that caused additional concern was the 4,000-psi rod pressure. A 5-in. bore cylinder with a 3&frac12;-in. rod has an area ratio of approximately 2:1. All meter-out flow controls located on the rod side will cause intensification directly related to the area ratios and the force the load exerts on the rod. Remember the old quote, &ldquo;When in doubt, meter out.&rdquo; But I always add, &ldquo;But watch out,&rdquo; to remind us of this potential problem.</p> <p>As far as the actual cause of the bump that occurred when shifting speeds: when a two-position directional valve shifts, it moves through a transitional position before reaching its final position. Most two-position directional valves have a blocked center during transition, which was the cause of this problem. The shifting valve momentarily blocked flow, then opened to the flow control. This caused the bumping problem.</p> <p>This problem has a couple of good solutions. One is to use a directional valve with a transitional center open to both ports. Another would require re-plumbing to parallel the flow control around the two-position directional valve, as shown in the revised circuit. This is what we recommended, and it solved the bump problem. Flow would pass through both valves for high speed and drop to the slower speed when the directional valve was shifted.</p> <p>Pressure intensification is inherent in meter-out circuits. The cylinder, flow-control circuit, and piping must all be rated for the 4,000-psi pressure. However, using a meter-in circuit and adding a counterbalance valve to the rod side would also eliminate the intensification problem.&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-pump-housing-cracking#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Wed, 18 Feb 2015 15:19:00 +0000 31071 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Pumps Power Railcar Mover http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/pumps-power-railcar-mover <div class="field-deck"> When an OEM in the rail industry needed a new pump to replace a discontinued design, they were right on track in finding a simpler and more-compact solution. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Shuttlewagon Inc., Grandview, Kansas, designs and manufactures mobile railcar movers for industries including aggregate, mining, and refining. The company makes safe, reliable, and efficient operation top priorities for the nine models of railcar movers they offer, each with engine configurations suited for specific application needs.</p> <p>Shuttlewagon&rsquo;s new Navigator Series includes the NVX8040, which has the highest capacity of any mobile railcar mover in the world. Regardless of the model, they are all designed for maximum power, controllability, and ease of operation.</p> <p>Typical operating conditions for this equipment are harsh&nbsp; &mdash; marked by temperature extremes, dirty environments, and periodic shock loading &mdash; so mobile railcar movers need pumps that withstand temperature extremes, as well as corrosive and dirty environments, without losing power or efficiency.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-drives-move">Hydraulic Drives on the Move</a></p> <p><a href="/waste-management/ohio-town-welcomes-first-hydraulic-hybrid-garbage-trucks">Ohio Town Welcomes First Hydraulic Hybrid Garbage Trucks</a></p> <p><a href="/hydraulic-pumps-motors/system-simplifies-hydraulic-tank-cleaning">System Simplifies Hydraulic Tank Cleaning</a></p> </div> <h3> Pumps provide power</h3> <p>The pumps on the mobile railcar are driven by a power takeoff from the vehicle&rsquo;s transmission. The hydraulic system runs several functions, and depending on the application, two or three pumps operate in tandem in the same drive. Functions typically powered by the tandem pumps include steering, moving the rail gears and couplers, powering the hydraulic cooling fan, and powering the intake charge air and transmission cooler. The pumps may also power a rotary broom or other optional equipment on the railcar mover.</p> <p>Pressurized fluid from the pumps flows to custom manifold cartridges, which provide proportional control to maximize economy and fuel savings while providing precise control of the available power for each pump circuit. Each system is controlled differently:</p> <p>ŸSteering cylinders and two broom motors use load sensing to conserve energy while delivering maximum power required by the load.</p> <p>ŸRail gear pressure is proportionally controlled to adjust to adjust speed in response to changing track conditions.</p> <p>ŸSpeed of a hydraulic cooling fan motor is proportionally controlled for varying heat loads and ambient conditions using load sensing. The fan motor also provides a reversed-flow feature to blow out any debris that might get accumulate in the heat exchangers.</p> <p>This combination of load sense and proportional control provides the best-in-class performance to meet the different pressure and flow requirements of each circuit &mdash; overall, improving fuel savings, reducing costs, and improving the longevity of the hydraulic components</p> <table bgcolor="#CCFFFF" border="1" cellpadding="10" cellspacing="3" style="width: 595px;" table=""> <tbody> <tr> <td> <h3> X20 pumps now feature enhanced pressure controls</h3> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <p>The open-circuit piston pumps in Eaton&rsquo;s X20 portfolio now have inverse proportional pressure control and remote pressure control options for improved system efficiency in all types of on- and off-highway equipment. The inverse proportional pressure control (IPPC) allows the speed of a hydraulic cooling fan motor to be controlled independent of engine speed and load. When coupled with an X20 pump, the IPPC provides accurate and efficient control of fan power. Inputs from individual temperature sensors or the vehicle&rsquo;s CAN bus are used to manage total vehicle cooling and enable engine after-treatment requirements to be well-matched.</p> <p>The remote pressure control is important for applications where frequent pressure adjustment is required due to varying loads. This control works in conjunction with a remote relief valve placed outside the system that can be manually or electronically adjusted when the system needs a change in working pressure. If dual-pressure settings are required for two different work circuits, two parallel relief valves can be used in combination with a two-way valve. Common applications requiring this functionality include mobile crushers and screens, and forestry recycling chippers.</p> <p>&ldquo;With these new control options, equipment manufacturers can now rely on X20 piston pumps to improve efficiency within fan drive systems and applications needing frequent pressure adjustments,&rdquo; said Sonya Anderson, Eaton&rsquo;s mobile open circuit piston pump product manager. X20 piston pumps come in three frame sizes (220, 420, and 620) encompassing seven displacements from 28 to 98 cc/rev. A rear-port option for all displacements makes the pump compatible with a wider range of configurations.</p> <p>For more information on Eaton&rsquo;s X20 series pumps, including descriptive videos, click <a href=" http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/ProductsServices/Hydraulics/TheX20Experience/ExperienceX20/index.htm" target="_blank">here</a>.</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3> Hydraulics Behind Improvements</h3> <p>Shuttlewagon had been using a load-sense piston pump in the NVX8040, but the pump&rsquo;s manufacturer phased it out of production. So hydraulic system designers at Shuttlewagon had to find a powerful, reliable, load-sense pump to replace the one no longer available. Engineered Sales, Inc., North Kansas City, Mo. &mdash; an Eaton Hydraulics distributor, and part of the Applied Fluid Power Network &mdash; recommended Eaton&rsquo;s X20, 420 Series pump. The displacement and power output of the 420 Series are equivalent to those of the original pump, but in a more compact size and at no additional cost.</p> <p>From its X20 open-circuit piston pump portfolio, Eaton delivered the 420 series pumps to maximize power density and work within the tough environment. The pumps deliver 10 to 30 gpm and pressure to 3000 psi, depending on the load.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"> <img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"> <a href="/datasheet/pumps-power-railcar-mover-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h3> Success from simplicity</h3> <p>The 420 series pumps were installed and are operational on all the main hydraulic systems in Shuttlewagon&rsquo;s mobile railcar movers. In addition to the performance of the pumps, the compact size creates valued space in the system. David Strohsack, Eaton&rsquo;s global mobile portfolio marketing director, hydraulics business, said the Eaton pumps also have 20% fewer parts than the original pumps, making the new design easier to install and maintain. Because of the success of the 420 series pumps, the units have also been implemented in a triple-pump configuration, with a dedicated pump for each load sense-controlled circuit.</p> <p>&ldquo;We chose Eaton&rsquo;s 420 series pumps to replace phased-out products without losing performance or raising costs, and they have met and exceeded expectations,&rdquo; said Don Crist, an engineer at Shuttlewagon. &ldquo;In addition to the units already installed and powering the railcar movers, additional pumps are being tested for powering a hydraulically driven air compressor.&rdquo;</p> <p><em>For more information from Engineered Sales, call the home office, in Maryland Heights, Mo., at (314) 878-4500, or visit <a href="http://www.engineeredsales.com/" target="_blank">www.engineeredsales.com</a>.</em></p> <p><em>Shuttlewagon is a member of the Nordco group companies. For more information on Shuttlewagon and Nordco&rsquo;s other products and services, visit <a href="http://www.nordco.com/" target="_blank">www.nordco.com</a>.</em></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/pumps-power-railcar-mover#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Tue, 17 Feb 2015 17:28:00 +0000 31031 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>Nordco&rsquo;s Shuttlewagon rail car movers rely on hydraulics for most non-propulsion functions. Designers specified a new open-circuit piston pump that is more compact and simpler than the one it replaced.&nbsp;</p> Radial-Piston Pumps Handle High Pressure http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/radial-piston-pumps-handle-high-pressure <div class="node-body article-body"><p>BRK 11/12 radial piston pumps feature long economic lifetimes and unique characteristics for loading, lifting, and advancing. Pumps in the family can withstand continuous operating pressures between 500 and 1000 bar and may displace up to 8.14 cm<sup>3</sup> per revolution. The pumps are self-priming and venting, maintain a low noise level and pulsation, and may combine with a gear pump. The pumps come with 3, 5, 7, and 9 pistons per section, depending on size. Viscosity ranges from 5 to 22 mm<sup>2</sup>/s, and the hydraulic fluid is mineral oil (other fluids available by request). The operation pressure at the suction port ranges from 0.2 to 5 bar, and maximum suction height is 500 mm.</p> <p><a href="http://www.hydacusa.com" target="_blank">BIERI HYDAC INTERNATIONAL</a>, (877) 464-9322</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/radial-piston-pumps-handle-high-pressure#comments Products Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Tue, 17 Feb 2015 17:19:00 +0000 31041 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Cast-Iron Dump Pump/Valve Combo http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/cast-iron-dump-pumpvalve-combo <div class="node-body article-body"><p>A complete line of WF manufactured C101 and C102 cast-iron pump/valve combinations are available with interchangeable parts and optional mountings and actuators, targeted at dump trucks and trailers. A three-position valve controls the raising, holding, and lowering of a cylinder, with a maximum pressure of 2500 psi. The units have full-flow and adjustable main relief valves to protect pumps and cylinders from overload and shock. Capacity ranges from 39 to 48 gpm at 1800 rpm. Two-line installation (one line to cylinder, one line to reservoir) is available solely for intermittent operations, while three-line installation (one line to cylinder, two lines to reservoir) can be used for continuous or intermittent operations. Sleeves come with both installations. The cylinders can be cab-controlled with a mechanical cable or air-shift-controlled.</p> <p><a href="http://www.fluidynefp.com" target="_blank">FLUIDYNE FLUID POWER</a>, (800) 842-5377</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/cast-iron-dump-pumpvalve-combo#comments Products Hydraulic Valves Tue, 17 Feb 2015 17:11:00 +0000 31021 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Air Dryers Incorporate Filtration http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/air-filters-and-frls/air-dryers-incorporate-filtration <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The Hydra-D series of dryers effectively removes dirt, micro-organisms, and water vapor from compressed air, eliminating condensation and contamination in pneumatic applications. The series uses pressure swing adsorption technology and a 3-in-1 piece cartridge that completes water separation and air filtration with the inlet and outlet filters and desiccant bed. A compact programmable logic controller (PLC) is used to control all functions. Hydra-D delivers air that contains less than 1 &micro;m of dirt and reduces air to &ndash;40&deg;C pressure dew point, compliant with class 2 ISO 8573:1-2010 dirt and water standards.The Hydra-D1 model uses ball valves and two piloted solenoid valves to control inlet and outlet air. The Hydra-D2 and D3 models integrate four piloted solenoid valves to control inlet and outlet air, maintaining air pressure within the dryer to prevent moisture in the desiccant beds when the dryer is not in use. The PLC periodically switches the solenoid valves to push dry air instead of wet air through the dryer. The Hydra-D does not require noise control or any external filters.</p> <p><a href="http://www.imi-precision.com/imi-norgren" target="_blank">IMI NORGREN.</a>, (800) 710-7823</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/air-filters-and-frls/air-dryers-incorporate-filtration#comments Products Air Filters and FRLs Tue, 17 Feb 2015 16:56:00 +0000 31001 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Pressure Sensor Offers Unit Conversion http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/pressure-sensor-offers-unit-conversion <div class="node-body article-body"><p>A new Large Digital Pressure Switch/Sensor 31 Series can be altered to display several units of pressure, including psi, in.-Hg, kPa, MPa, kgf/cm<sup>2</sup>, bar, and mmHg. The series contains the models VUS-31R-N for compound pressure, the VUS-31-N for negative pressure, and the SEU-31-N for positive pressure. The sensors come fitted with either a two-meter cable or a four-pin M8 male connector and offers two-NPN or two-PNP output, as well as analog voltage or current output. Sleep mode is activated after 30 sec of inactivity to reduce power consumption by 30%. A locking function prevents accidental output if a key is pushed in error.</p> <p><a href="http://www.pisco.com" target="_blank">PISCO</a>, (630) 993-3501</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/pressure-sensor-offers-unit-conversion#comments Products Tue, 17 Feb 2015 16:51:00 +0000 30991 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Oil Conditioner and Stop Leak http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/oil-conditioner-and-stop-leak <div class="field-byline"> Staff </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Oil Booster &amp; Stop Leak is an additive for hydraulic systems that is said to reduce seal leaks and can be used in new equipment to stop initial wear and increase fluid life. The additive is formulated to reduce operating temperature and increase the life of hoses, rams, and cylinders and serve as an inexpensive preventive maintenance product. It comes in 12-qt or 4-gal cartons, 5-pail, 16-gal keg, or 55 &ndash;gal drum.</p> <p><a href="http://www.lucasoil.com" target="_blank">LUCAS OIL CO.</a>, (800) 342-2512<br /> &nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/oil-conditioner-and-stop-leak#comments Products Maintenance Tue, 17 Feb 2015 16:43:00 +0000 30971 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Leak-Detection Dye http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/leak-detection-dye <div class="field-byline"> Staff </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Fluorescent Yellow 131SC is a highly concentrated liquid dye designed to reveal leaks in hydraulic systems, engine blocks, oil filled heat exchangers, improperly seated gaskets, and any other equipment that uses of petroleum-based fluids. &nbsp;Fluorescent Yellow 131SC can also be used for fuel pipeline applications to clearly identify a changeover from one fuel type to another. The comes in 40-lb pails or 380-lb drums.</p> <p><a href="http://www.dyes.com" target="_blank">Keystone Aniline Corp.</a>, (800) 522-4393</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/leak-detection-dye#comments Products Maintenance Tue, 17 Feb 2015 16:36:00 +0000 30961 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Servovalves Serve Both Hydraulics, Pneumatics http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/servovalves-serve-both-hydraulics-pneumatics <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Rotary-direct drive valve (RDDV) servovalves use a limited angle, rotary torque motor to produce linear spool motion and modulate fluid flow through the valve&rsquo;s control ports. The servovalves can be applied to hydraulic or pneumatic operations, providing flows of 0.18 to 60 gpm for hydraulics and 0.45 to 136 scfm for pneumatics. The stainless-steel devices are rated at vibrations of 40 g and shock at 60 G. Internal leakage is low for the R-DDV servovalves, which deliver maximum pressures of 5000 psi in steady-state operation. An integrated electronic controller maintains a user-specified spool position by comparing the command signal to the actual position and adjusting the spool position by the measured error. A general- purpose PID control card, model EC250GP, offers adjustability and options for position control- loop functions for servovalves with the electronic feedback controller. It also provides a second feedback loop for acceleration, force, velocity, and pressure. Integrated pneumatic servoactuators are available for applications requiring superior analog performance.</p> <p><a href="http://www.woodward.com" target="_blank">WOODWARD</a>, (800) 659-4229</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/servovalves-serve-both-hydraulics-pneumatics#comments Products Hydraulic Valves Pneumatic Valves Tue, 17 Feb 2015 16:26:00 +0000 30951 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Directional Control Valve Rated to 4,000 psi http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/directional-control-valve-rated-4000-psi <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Targeting for applications with system pressure to 4,000 psi and backpressure to 290 psi, the V250 directional control valve has an iron housing and hard chrome and nickel-plated spools to resist wear. Thanks to its internal core design, flow rates can range from 65 to 75 gpm and pressure drops are reduced to a minimum. Customization is possible with different spool, control, and positioner options. The V250 is manufactured with precision machining to maintain low internal spool leakages and allow oil viscosity between 60 to 1360 SUS. Work sections are pre-assembled and tested before shipping.</p> <p><a href="http://www.munciepower.com/v250" target="_blank">MUNCIE POWER PRODUCTS</a>,&nbsp;(800) 367-7867</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/directional-control-valve-rated-4000-psi#comments Products Hydraulic Valves Tue, 17 Feb 2015 16:10:00 +0000 30931 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com The IoT Intends to Revolutionize Hydraulics and Pneumatics http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/iot-intends-revolutionize-hydraulics-and-pneumatics <div class="field-byline"> Cabe Atwell, Contributing Editor </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>In those dark factories in the late 1800s, the sweat of our great grandparents mixed with the steam of early manufacturing. The steam engine worked alongside the man in mechanically aided production. That was Industry 1.0.</p> <p>Our grandparents lay mortar on the stone of their parents, with electricity and the assembly line. Their burden was not as heavy with division of labor, but it was specific and skilled. Course machinery whirred tirelessly, absorbing amperage, while pouring out heat and product. That was the early 1900s.</p> <p>In the 1970s, our mothers and fathers, as well as we, sat in a brightly lit computer-controlled wonder. Computer Numeric Control (CNC) changed how everything was made overnight. Almost all machine operations are automatic. Repetition is high, skilled machinists rare, but it&rsquo;s the evolution of how we build things. Dubbed Industry 3.0, it was the introduction of computing in the factory, and has been that way up to today, 2015.</p> <p>What&rsquo;s next might remove people from the factory altogether, though.</p> <p>General Electric calls it &ldquo;The Industrial Internet.&rdquo; The Smart Manufacturing Leadership Coalition (SMLC) has another name: &ldquo;Smart Manufacturing.&rdquo;&nbsp; SMLC, prominent in the U.S., hopes to promote the adaption of &ldquo;Manufacturing Intelligence.&rdquo;</p> <p>&ldquo;Industry 4.0&rdquo; is already here, a term coined by the German Government in 2011-12 (called &ldquo;Industrie 4.0&rdquo;). Although this term was the product of a contracted &ldquo;think tank,&rdquo; it&rsquo;s a good phrase to describe the manufacturing world of the next generation. What else could it mean, but the incorporation of the Internet and all of its fruit?</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="/controls-instrumentation/bimbas-new-intellisense-technology-provides-predictive-intelligence-pneumat">Bimba&#39;s New IntelliSense Technology Provides Predictive Intelligence for Pneumatics</a></p> <p><a href="/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-drives-move">Hydraulic Drives on the Move</a></p> <p><a href="/hydraulic-pumps-motors/system-simplifies-hydraulic-tank-cleaning">System Simplifies Hydraulic Tank Cleaning</a></p> </div> <p>Within Industry 4.0, smart factories consist of three branches:</p> <p>&bull; <em>The Internet of Services, aka the cloud:</em> It is a deliverer of services. It shares resources such as applications, content, databases, records, storage, computing power, and networks among all those who are connected.</p> <p>&bull; <em>Cyber-physical systems:</em> These represent the connectivity between digital and physical. Embedded systems, e.g. smartphones with all of their sensors and connectivity, fall under this category.</p> <p>&bull; <em>The Internet of Things (IoT):</em> Here, connected devices use the Internet without human influence. This is potentially the most important and active component of the branches. Imagine a CNC machining center, when predicting a possible failure, autonomously corrects itself and then sends alerts to those who need to know.</p> <h3> Hydraulics and Pneumatics in Industry 4.0</h3> <p>Like all aspects of manufacturing, the ubiquitous, often invisible, hydraulics and pneumatics technologies benefit from Industry 4.0 standards. The step to integrate those standards and move beyond 3.0 has already been underway with European and U.S. manufacturers. For instance, Illinois-based tech company Bimba adopted the Intellisense platform to drive its pneumatic components <em>(Fig. 1)</em>.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Bimba2.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 499px;" title="1. Three actuators are monitored remotely in Bimba’s Intellisense platform. (Courtesy of Bimba.com)" /></p> <p>Intellisense incorporates sensors, cylinders, and software that enhance productivity through the use of real-time data, providing feedback on pneumatic wear and tear that can be utilized to maximize efficiency. It&rsquo;s a prime example of how IoT is driving Industry 4.0 &ldquo;intelligent&rdquo; production systems that can communicate in real-time with detailed and &ldquo;predictive&rdquo; information on any particular part. As a result, users from any industry can shift their focus from emergency repair to preventative maintenance, reducing production downtime.</p> <p>By sparking the fourth industrial revolution, the IoT must be adopted by virtually all industries in order for them to stay competitive in a fast-paced world. This is certainly true for hydraulic and pneumatic systems in manufacturing plants that rely on critical information to keep production at peak performance.</p> <p>Connection to the IoT can relay a host of information, including operational data like energy consumption and function status, which can be accessed from anywhere. Not only would maintenance personnel receive that information, but others in the production chain (e.g. part manufacturers) could use the information to bolster their products for increased efficiency and lifespan.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"> <img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"> <a href="/datasheet/iot-intends-revolutionize-hydraulics-and-pneumatics-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>In a case study presented by the Rexroth Bosch Group (engineering firm in Germany), merging the physical world with the virtual highlights the importance of Industry 4.0 adoption in the hydraulics arena. The study cites that typical controllers for hydraulics come pre-programmed with software for transitioning from &ldquo;path control&rdquo; to &ldquo;force control&rdquo; in order to stay synchronous with one another in the production chain <em>(Fig. 2)</em>. Industry 4.0 gives hydraulics a decentralized intelligence of sorts, allowing them to function autonomously and adapt to changing process parameters.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Bosch-mac8_.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 289px;" title="2. Shown is a functional diagram of Rexroth Bosch Group’s VT-MAC8 hydraulic motion controller. (Courtesy of Bosch)" /></p> <p>Bosch actually introduced intelligent hydraulics back in the 1990s with its electro-hydraulic linear axes, which featured decentralized intelligence. Now with upgrades to IoT-connected &ldquo;smart&rdquo; components occurring at such a rapid rate, industry leaders are calling for an Industry 4.0 standard in regards to communication protocols and languages. Machine manufacturers are already integrating Ethernet protocols (Ethernet-IP, PROFINET, etc.) into various products for easy integration into IoT networks, but so far, no set standard serves as a universal platform.</p> <h3> Where is Industry 4.0 headed?</h3> <p>Industry 4.0 is a great endeavor that manufacturers look to adopt even on the heels of those still clinging to the widely successful third Industrial Revolution. The typical train of thought is that the newest structural change will be the last, even though innovative and better systems have taken shape but never reached fruition. Instead, most tend to hold onto what&rsquo;s tried and true.</p> <p>So, where is Industry 4.0 heading, and will Industry 5.0 follow it in the near future in concert with evolving technology? Those questions are worth exploring if only to gain insight into what the future holds.</p> <p>When steam power heralded in the first Industrial Revolution, manufacturers found a level of efficiency in production that had never witnessed before. The prevailing thought at the time was nothing could top the pinnacle of industry manufacturing&mdash;until the second revolution streamlined industry through the use of electrical energy and mass production. Certainly nothing could top that; then, along comes revolution number three and the computer age. Soon to arrive, of course, was the Internet, unleashing the fourth Industrial Revolution. It&rsquo;s been adapted for use with robotic and automated supply chains, giving manufacturers an even greater level of efficiency with increased data collection.&nbsp;</p> <p>Industry 4.0 has taken data acquisition and communication to heights that previously were thought to be impossible. Everyone from plant managers to maintenance workers have direct access to real-time data that only serves to change and enhance industry methodologies.</p> <p>For example, Rockwell Automation, an intelligent industrial automation company, was tasked with installing 11 IoT connected machines into a new factory for King&rsquo;s Hawaiian in Oakwood, Georgia. Upon completion, the popular bread company was able pump out an additional 180,000 pounds of bread than what was being produced in a similar but unconnected plant in Hawaii. The machines were connected to a software platform called FactoryTalk, which allows managers to view historical data alongside real-time information, providing a production-wide overview of plant operations. The result was faster time to market, workforce efficiency, and smarter cost expenditures.</p> <p>There&rsquo;s no doubt that Industry 4.0 has significant advantages over 3.0, but what does the future hold in terms of the next revolution? With the onset of new &ldquo;smart materials&rdquo; being developed by institutions such as MIT, materials that can change their properties and even self-repair, could conceivably change industry into a form we have yet to comprehend <em>(Fig. 3)</em>. &nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/WoodElephant.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 200px;" title="3. Examples of “smart materials” include these programmable wood fibers. (Courtesy of MIT)" /></p> <p>Imagine hydraulics and pneumatics that could change their physical characteristics on demand, negating the need to upgrade to superior technology or reconfigure themselves for modified tasks. Consider that for a moment&mdash;would &nbsp;we recognize what industry manufacturing is in 50 years in terms of technology compared to what Industry 4.0 and the IoT offers today? Surely the &ldquo;father of hydraulics,&rdquo; Joseph Bramah (inventor of the power press), would consider the new Industrial Revolution as science fiction compared to his in the 18th century. We will likely feel the same&hellip;but when?</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>&quot;<a href="http://www.rockwellautomation.com/rockwellautomation/innovation/kings-hawaiian.page" target="_blank">Appetite for Improvement</a>.&quot; Innovation Success Stories. Rockwell Automation.</p> <p>&quot;<a href="http://www.bimba.com/News-Events/News-Container/Press-Releases/2014/Bimba-Unveils-Smart-Technology-Platform-that-Provides-Predictive-Intelligence-for-Pneumatics/" target="_blank">Bimba Unveils &quot;Smart&quot; Technology Platform That Provides Predictive Intelligence for Pneumatics.</a>&quot; Bimba. 30 Sept. 2014.</p> <p>Guberan, Christophe, and Erik Demaine. &quot;<a href="http://www.selfassemblylab.net/ProgrammableMaterials.php" target="_blank">Programmable Materials</a>.&quot; Self-Assembly Lab.</p> <p>&quot;<a href="http://www.intellisense.com/product.aspx" target="_top">IntelliSuite Product Overview</a>.&quot; Intellisense.</p> <p>&quot;<a href="https://www.boschrexroth.com/en/xc/trends-and-topics/connected-industry/news/news-13" target="_blank">News.</a>&quot; Bosch Rexroth News. Bosch Rexroth.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/iot-intends-revolutionize-hydraulics-and-pneumatics#comments Other Technologies Tue, 17 Feb 2015 16:06:00 +0000 30921 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Stop High-Pressure Leaks with Flange Fittings http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fittings-couplings/stop-high-pressure-leaks-flange-fittings <div class="field-deck"> When larger diameter tubing is needed, or space constraints don’t allow swing room for hex wrenches or ratchets, use these reliable end fittings to connect tubing to ports. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Most manufacturers of fittings for high-pressure hydraulic applications agree that O-ring-sealed, straight thread fittings made according to SAE Standard J 514 are the most practical for tubing sizes to &frac34;-in. OD. Some experts may argue that these fittings are suitable for tubing up to l-in. OD. However, the consensus among manufacturers is that use of hydraulic flange fittings leads to more effective and efficient assembly of larger-diameter tubing.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="/material-handling/hydraulics-essential-mobile-forklift">Hydraulics Essential to Mobile Forklift</a></p> <p><a href="/controls-instrumentation/sensing-decisions-under-pressure">Sensing Decisions Under Pressure</a></p> <p><a href="/seals/sealed-shut">Sealed Shut</a></p> </div> <p>Two compelling reasons build a strong case for switching to flanges when using larger-diameter tubing. First, tubing larger than l-in. OD would have to be made with very large hex heads, which, in turn, requires very large wrenches so that workers can apply the torque needed to tighten the fittings to specs. Second, designers would have to provide the necessary space to give workers enough room to swing these large wrenches when installing such large fittings. Also, wrench extensions (cheater bars) are often needed for workers to exert enough torque to tighten the hex nut. On top of that, worker fatigue may come into play.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/1-hose-flange.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 401px;" title="This hydraulic hose assembly terminates with a four-bolt flange fitting. Flanges hold several advantages over threaded hex fittings and reduce the likelihood of damaging hose through twisting during installation ." /></p> <p><strong>Working with flanges</strong></p> <p>The basic hydraulic flange fitting consists of:</p> <ul> <li> ŸA flanged member connected permanently to a tube, tubing assembly, or tubing portion of a hose assembly by means of brazing, welding, or mechanical deformation.</li> <li> ŸAn O-ring that fits into a groove machined in the end face of the flange.</li> <li> ŸA clamp with appropriate bolts that secure the flange assembly to a mating surface. Split flanges, which have a two-piece clamp, are often used because they can be installed or removed without having to slide them on or off from the opposite end of the hose or tube section.</li> </ul> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/2-Cutaway-ART.png" style="width: 595px; height: 404px;" title="This cutaway illustration shows elements of a hydraulic flange connection." /></p> <p><strong>Installation</strong></p> <p>When installing flanges, all surfaces must be clean and smooth. In terms of critical perpendicular relationships, all parts must meet appropriate tolerances. Although 64-&micro;m surface finishes are acceptable, most manufacturers prefer and recommend 32-&micro;m finishes on mating surfaces to ensure leak-free connections. Joints will likely leak if either of the mating surfaces is scratched, scored, or gouged. Also, O-rings tend to wear faster if assembled against rough surfaces.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"> <img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"> <a href="/datasheet/stop-high-pressure-leaks-split-flange-fittings-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>In a properly designed split-flange assembly, the flange shoulder protrudes about 0.010 in. to 0.030 in. beyond the clamp face to ensure adequate contact and seal squeeze with the mating face. The clamp does not actually come in contact with the mating surface.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/3-Correct.png" style="width: 595px; height: 445px;" title="A properly designed and installed flange assembly will have a uniform clearance of about 0.010 in. to 0.030 in. between the port and clamp surfaces." /></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/4-Incorrect.png" style="width: 158px; height: 300px; float: left;" title="Unevenly tightened bolts may distort the clamp or skew the flange, causing the O-ring to leak. Likewise, over-tightening the bolts may induce bowing of the clamp, again compromising the integrity of the O-ring seal." />After a worker establishes that all of the mating parts are clean and suitable for installation, the O-ring must be lubricated, usually with system fluid or a light grease. This step helps keep the O-ring in place and prevents it from falling out during assembly.</p> <p>The most critical phase in assembling a flange assembly is to tighten the four bolts gradually and evenly to ensure uniform tension among the bolts holding the joint together. The first step is to finger-tighten all bolts. Should one of the bolts be tightened fully while others are still loose, the mating surfaces will not be parallel. This will likely pinch the O-ring, compromising the integrity of the seal. Likewise, over-tightening the bolts can cause them to deflect downward until they bottom on the port face. This lifts the flange off the mating shoulder, raising the potential for leakage.</p> <p>To overcome these potential problems, it&rsquo;s best to gradually and evenly torque the bolts in a &quot;cross&quot; pattern. Air wrenches should not be used, because they are difficult to control and can easily over-tighten a bolt inadvertently.</p> <p>If an O-ring becomes damaged, it must be replaced. The replacement O-ring must be the correct size and made of material compatible with system fluid. If there&rsquo;s a delay in making the connection, the finished surfaces should be protected while the pieces are being stored with a closure plug.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/5-flanges.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 446px;" title="If ports and mating connectors will not be assemble immediately, plastic plugs and plugs should be installed to prevent the ingression of dirt, water, and other contaminants. " /></p> <p><em>Information for this article was provided by <a href="http://www.anchorfluidpower.com/flanges_carbon_steel.php" target="_blank">Anchor Fluid Power Inc.</a>, <a href="http://catalog.brennaninc.com/catalog3/d/brennan/?c=fsearch&amp;cid=flange-fittings-accessories" target="_blank">Brennan Industries Inc.</a>, <a href="http://www.mainmanufacturingproducts.com/product.html" target="_blank">Main Mfg. Inc.</a>, and <a href="http://www.tompkinsind.com/category/flanges-flange-adapters-flange-pads" target="_blank">Tompkins Industries</a>.</em></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fittings-couplings/stop-high-pressure-leaks-flange-fittings#comments Fittings & Couplings Hose & Tubing Tue, 17 Feb 2015 15:51:00 +0000 30911 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Capacitors and Accumulators, Part 3 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/accumulators/hydraulic-electric-analogies-capacitors-and-accumulators-part-3 <div class="node-body article-body"><p><em>This article is the latest in Jack Johnson&#39;s series on Hydaulic-Electric Analogies. See the &quot;Related&quot; articles list below for previous articles in the series.</em></p> <p>Capacitors are specified by their capacitance, most often in microfarads or picofarads for smaller sizes. The devices tend to be limited by working voltage&mdash;the maximum voltage that can be safely applied. Higher voltages could damage the separator dielectric. As the capacitance increases, maximum voltage often drops because the increased capacitance can be achieved by reducing the dielectric&rsquo;s thickness.</p> <p>Volume is the most important parameter for the accumulator, followed by maximum operating pressure. Because accumulators are capable of very high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch), they can contain enormous amounts of energy that may release suddenly if not handled properly. There&rsquo;s no standardized capacitance unit or evaluation method; the rule of thumb is that gas pre-charge should be about 200 psi below the nominal working pressure in the hydraulic system.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="/accumulators/hydraulic-electric-analogies-capacitors-and-accumulators-part-2">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Capacitors and Accumulators, Part 2</a></p> <p><a href="/accumulators/hydraulic-electric-analogies-capacitors-and-accumulators-part-1">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Capacitors and Accumulators, Part 1</a></p> <p><a href="/other-technologies/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-7-variable-electrical-transformers">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies, Part 7: Variable Electrical Transformers</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-components/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-6-coils-cores-and-transformers">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies, Part 6: Coils, Cores, and Transformers</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-5-current-and-electrical-fields">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies, Part 5: Current and Electrical Fields</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-4-comparing-power-sources">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies, Part 4: Comparing Power Sources</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-3-open-and-closed-contradiction">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies, Part 3: The Open and Closed Contradiction</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-2-voltage-and-pressure">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies, Part 2: Voltage and Pressure</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-1">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies, Part 1</a></p> </div> <p><strong>Parasitic effects</strong></p> <p>To this point, the discussion has concentrated on the deliberate forms of capacitance for both the electrical and hydraulic media. These are physical devices manufactured for their properties and deliberately plumbed or soldered into a circuit. Typically, they appear as line items in the bill of materials and on schematics.</p> <p>Merely building a circuit, whether hydraulic or electronic, causes parasitic capacitances. These don&rsquo;t appear on the bill of materials, but they exist nonetheless. And they can be difficult to evaluate. Such parasitic capacitances include:</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"> <img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"> <a href="/datasheet/hydraulic-electric-analogies-capacitors-and-accumulators-part-3-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&bull; <em>Parasitic electrical capacitances:</em> A capacitance exists any time two conductors are separated by a dielectric (insulator). For instance, the cord you use to connect your kitchen toaster to the wall outlet has capacitance. In addition, every electrical trace on a printed-circuit board experiences a capacitance with every other trace on that board and every other conductor in the vicinity. This is the downside of those wonderful electrostatic fields. Fortunately, these small capacitance values can usually be ignored.</p> <p>Designers of high-frequency, high-performance audio amplifiers must compensate for their parasitic capacitance, often called stray capacitance. Such compensation methods are best left to electronic-circuit designers. Stray capacitance isn&rsquo;t a problem with most electrohydraulic devices, though. Or, at the least, it&rsquo;s been taken care of within the electronic package. Remember that all capacitors have internal leakage through the dielectric separator. Leakage resistance is another parasitic effect.</p> <p>&bull; <em>Parasitic hydraulic capacitance:</em> Parasitic capacitance is more subtle in hydraulic circuits than in electronic circuits. But it also becomes a parasite when building a hydraulic circuit, and in many systems, is too significant to be ignored. This holds true in the newer, high-performance motion-control systems, especially those implementing closed-loop, feedback control. Parasitic hydraulic capacitances result from any of four conditions: fluid compressibility; plumbing or component expansion under pressure; air entrapped in the hydraulic fluid; and non-rigidity of the machine&rsquo;s structure.</p> <p>&bull; <em>Fluid compressibility:</em> Although hydraulics is referred to as &ldquo;incompressible fluid power,&rdquo; it really is compressible. Compressibility is usually evaluated with the fluid&#39;s bulk modulus. Technically, this is in error, but only because the bulk modulus actually measures the incompressibility of the fluid. Sears and Zemanski discuss the material compressibility with the factor k, which is the reciprocal of bulk modulus.<sup>1</sup> Bulk modulus in the fluid-power industry is the preferred term, which is characterized with the lower-case second letter in the Greek alphabet, &beta;, called &ldquo;beta.&rdquo; In the inch-pound-second (ISO) system of units, bulk modulus is measured in &ldquo;psi&rdquo; and evaluated in &ldquo;bar&rdquo; or &ldquo;megapascal&rdquo; (MPa).</p> <p>Consider conventional mineral oil that&rsquo;s commonly used in hydraulic systems. It&rsquo;s generally accepted as having a bulk modulus of about 200,000 psi. The higher the bulk modulus, the stiffer the material. Water has a bulk modulus of about 300,000 psi and, therefore, is stiffer than mineral oil. A general rule for mineral oil is that the fluid compresses about 0.5% per 1000 psi, which is consistent with a bulk modulus of 200,000 psi.</p> <p>Fluid compressibility cannot be ignored in high-performance hydraulic systems. Unfortunately, that is the case, because the stypical industrial design approach focuses on steady-state performance, not dynamic. Johnson expresses the parasitic hydraulic capacitance as:<sup>2</sup></p> <p align="center"><em>C<sub>H</sub></em> =<em>V</em> / &beta;</p> <p>where:</p> <p><em>C<sub>H</sub></em> = the hydraulic capacitance, in.<sup>5</sup>/lb</p> <p><em>V</em> = the total volume of fluid under compression, in.<sup>3</sup></p> <p>&beta; = the bulk modulus of the fluid, psi.</p> <p><strong>References:</strong></p> <p>1. Sears, F.W., Zemanski, M.W., <strong><em>University Physics, Third Edition, </em></strong>Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, Mass.; 1964.</p> <p>2. Johnson, J.L., <strong><em>Designers&rsquo; Handbook for Electrohydraulic Servo and Proportional Systems, 4th</em></strong> <strong><em>Edition</em></strong>, IDAS Engineering Inc., Brown Deer, WI; 2013</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/accumulators/hydraulic-electric-analogies-capacitors-and-accumulators-part-3#comments Accumulators Tue, 17 Feb 2015 15:30:00 +0000 30891 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com How Efficient Are YOUR Hydraulic Machines? http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-efficient-are-your-hydraulic-machines <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>In the current economic climate, the debate concerning peak oil (the end of cheap mineral oil) and global warming (the end of the planet as we know it) have been sidelined to some extent. But these two major issues have not gone away. And they will almost certainly influence the source and cost of our energy needs in the not-too-distant future.<br /> <br /> And there&#39;s no escaping the fact that industry is a huge consumer of energy. If peak oil and global warming are real issues - and there&#39;s a growing body of evidence to suggest they are, then I predict energy management will become a major issue for industry over the next decade and beyond. And a large part of this burden will fall on machine designers.<br /> <br /> <strong>Efficient By Design</strong><br /> <br /> Reliable machines will not be enough. Highly efficient, reliable machines will be required. This begs the question: how efficient are the fluid power machines you design, build, maintain or repair? Maybe this is an issue you don&#39;t think too much about. But according to a study by the ORNL/NFPA mentioned in the January 2014 issue of Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics, the average efficiency of fluid power systems is just 21%!<br /> <br /> As a consultant advising clients in a diverse range of industries, power transmission efficiency is an issue I deal with a lot. Let me illustrate with a couple of examples:<br /> &nbsp;<br /> One client, the designer of a three-wheeled vehicle, approached me to design a hydraulic drive. He wanted to power at least two-wheels, ideally three.<br /> <br /> To keep cost to a minimum, the machine designer asked me to consider gear pumps and motors. A gear pump or motor in good condition is 85 percent efficient. So a gear pump driving a gear motor has a best-case efficiency of 0.85 x 0.85 = 0.72. That&#39;s 72 percent - not considering losses through valves and conductors.<br /> <br /> But say a gear-type flow divider was included to achieve multiple wheel drive. The theoretical efficiency would now be 0.85 x 0.85 x 0.85 = 0.61. That&#39;s 61 percent, not including losses through valves and conductors. Compare this with a chain drive in good condition, which is 97 to 98 percent efficient. This explains why you don&#39;t see too many hydraulic bicycles around!<br /> <br /> In this application where the available input power is limited by space and weight, the question I had to ask my client was: Can you afford to lose 40 to 50 percent of available input power to heat? In his case the answer was no. But in a similar industrial application we have the luxury of installing a bigger electric motor, without being too concerned about the energy losses - for the time being at least.<br /> <br /> Another client is examining his options for a rotary drive in a remote location with no access to the electricity grid. He can generate his own electricity but likes the idea of using an air motor. He wants to know comparative costs. It&#39;s not a big drive - only 20 horsepower.<br /> <br /> An air motor has an efficiency of around 15 percent. So I explained to my client that to drive his 20 horsepower air motor he&#39;ll need a 140 horsepower air compressor! That pretty much settles it in his application. He&#39;s not going with the pneumatic option. In an industrial situation though, where a large air compressor is already available, these energy losses may be tolerated - for now.<br /> <br /> Contrast these two examples with this one: another client for whom I am advising on the design of a 6,000 ton press. Regardless of efficiency, hydraulic power transmission is really his only option. But this is also a relatively efficient use of hydraulics. One of the reasons for this is, in high force applications, the efficiency of a hydraulic cylinder approaches 100 percent.<br /> <br /> And because it&#39;s a high-pressure application, piston pumps will be essential. The overall efficiency of an axial piston pump in good condition is 92 percent. So the theoretical efficiency of the press hydraulic circuit is 0.92 x 1 = 0.92 or 92 percent - not including losses through valves and conductors.<br /> <br /> A significant, &#39;built-in&#39; inefficiency in this application however, is the compressibility of the hydraulic fluid - particularly given the necessarily high working pressure and large volume of the cylinder. But clearly, this is not an application for gear or chain drives.<br /> <br /> <strong>Consider Efficiency</strong><br /> <br /> This is not to say hydraulics, and even pneumatics, aren&#39;t appropriate solutions for rotary drives. Energy efficiency is just one of many issues that must be considered when selecting a power transmission option. But like the many factors that influence machine reliability, if efficiency is overlooked at the design stage and not considered during the equipment selection process, this can increase the lifetime ownership cost of the asset. And even more so in the years come.</p> <p>In other words, not properly considering a hydraulic machine&#39;s efficiency can be a costly mistake. To discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-efficient-are-your-hydraulic-machines#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 17 Feb 2015 00:40:00 +0000 30881 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Are you (or a kid you know) into Lego? http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/are-you-or-kid-you-know-lego <div class="node-body blog-body"><p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Liebherr.png"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Liebherr.png" style="float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px; height: 166px; width: 222px;" title="Click on image for larger view." /></a>If you&#39;re reading this, you&#39;re probably interested in hydraulics, pneumatics, or both. And, to quote Bill Cosby, you probably &quot;started out as a child.&quot;</p> <p>So assuming you started out life as a child, there&#39;s a good chance you spent much of your childhood playing with <strong><a href="http://www.lego.com/en-us/" target="_blank">Lego</a></strong> building blocks. You may have even built some pretty sophisticated pieces.</p> <p>But wouldn&#39;t it be cool to be a professional Lego model builder? We&#39;ve probably all seen the incredible structures people have built using Legos. But I found a builder who seems to specialize in building Lego models of heavy equipment that makes extensive use of hydraulics in the real world. But this is Lego World, so the machines use pneumatic rather than hydraulic power.</p> <p>Check them out by <strong><a href="http://www.engineeringwithabs.ch/a314.htm" target="_blank">clicking here</a></strong>, and tell me you&#39;re not impressed!</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hitch-post">The Hitch Post</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/are-you-or-kid-you-know-lego#comments Learning Resources The Hitch Post Fri, 13 Feb 2015 17:38:00 +0000 30851 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Which Hydraulic Fluid Should You Use? http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/which-hydraulic-fluid-should-you-use <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Most hydraulic systems will operate satisfactorily using a variety of fluids. These include engine oil, automatic transmission fluid and oil formulated specifically for the hydraulic compartment. But which type of fluid is best for a particular application? While it is not possible to make one, definitive recommendation that covers all types of hydraulic equipment in all applications, the following are some of the factors that need to be considered when selecting (or changing) a hydraulic fluid.<br /> <br /> <strong>Multigrade or Monograde</strong><br /> <br /> Viscosity is THE single most important factor when selecting a hydraulic fluid. It doesn&#39;t matter how good the other properties of the oil are, if the viscosity grade is not correctly matched to the operating temperature range of the hydraulic system, maximum component life will not be achieved. Defining the correct fluid viscosity grade for a particular hydraulic system involves consideration of several interdependent variables. These are:</p> <ul> <li> starting viscosity at minimum ambient temperature (lowest cold start temperature);</li> <li> maximum expected operating temperature, which is influenced by maximum ambient temperature; and</li> <li> permissible and optimum viscosity range for the system&#39;s components.</li> </ul> <p>If the hydraulic system is required to operate in freezing temperatures in winter and tropical conditions in summer, then it&#39;s likely that multigrade oil will be required to maintain viscosity within permissible limits across a wide operating temperature range. If fluid viscosity can be maintained in the optimum range, typically 25 to 36 centistokes, the overall efficiency of the hydraulic system is maximized (less input power is given up to heat). This means that under certain conditions, the use of a multigrade oil can reduce the power consumption of the hydraulic system. For mobile hydraulic equipment users this translates to reduced fuel consumption.<br /> <br /> There are some cautions when using multigrade fluids in hydraulic systems. The viscosity index (VI) improvers used to make multigrade oils can have a negative effect on the air separation properties of the oil. This is not ideal, particularly in mobile hydraulic systems which typically have a relatively small reservoir with corresponding reduction in de-aeration characteristics.<br /> <br /> And if a multigrade not specifically formulated for use in hydraulic systems, such as engine oil is used, the high shear rates and turbulent flow conditions often present in hydraulic systems destroy the molecular bonds of the VI improvers over time resulting in loss of viscosity. For this reason, if a multigrade engine oil is used in a hydraulic system, it is recommended that the system&#39;s minimum permissible viscosity values be increased by 30% to compensate for VI improver shear down.<br /> <br /> Either way, if the hydraulic system has a narrow operating temperature range and it is possible to maintain optimum fluid viscosity with a monograde, it&#39;s wise to &#39;keep it simple&#39; and not use a more complex multigrade oil.<br /> <br /> <strong>Detergent or No Detergent</strong><br /> &nbsp;<br /> DIN 51524; HLP-D fluids are a class of ant-wear hydraulic fluids that contain detersive and dispersive additives. The use of these fluids is approved by most major hydraulic component manufacturers. Detergent oils have the ability to emulsify water, and disperse and suspend other contaminants such as varnish and sludge. This keeps components free from deposits but means that contaminants are not precipitated out - they must be filtered out. These can be desirable properties in mobile hydraulic systems, which unlike industrial systems generally have reduced opportunity for the settling and precipitation of contaminants in the reservoir, due to its relatively small volume.<br /> <br /> The main caution with these fluids is that they have excellent water emulsifying ability, which means that if present, water is not separated out of the fluid. Water accelerates aging of the oil, reduces lubricity and filterability, reduces seal life and leads to corrosion and cavitation. And emulsified water can be turned into steam at highly loaded parts of the system. These problems can be avoided by maintaining water content below the oil&#39;s saturation point at operating temperature.<br /> <br /> <strong>Anti-wear or R&amp;O</strong><br /> <br /> The purpose of anti-wear additives is to maintain lubrication under boundary conditions. The most common anti-wear additive used in engine and hydraulic oil is Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZnDTP). This is slowly changing due to environmental considerations, given that zinc is a &#39;heavy&#39; metal.&nbsp; The presence of ZnDTP in the oil is not always seen as a positive, due to the fact that it can chemically break down and attack some metals, and reduce filterability. Stabilized ZnDTP chemistry has largely overcome these shortcomings, making it an essential additive to the fluid used in any high-pressure, high-performance hydraulic system, such as those fitted with piston pumps and motors. A ZnDTP concentration of at least 900 PPM can be beneficial in mobile applications and is recommended by some OEMs.<br /> <br /> <strong>Conclusion</strong><br /> &nbsp;<br /> As far as hydraulic oil recommendations go, for commercial reasons relating to warranty, it is wise to follow the equipment manufacturer&#39;s recommendations. However in some applications the use of a different type of fluid to that originally specified by the equipment manufacturer may increase hydraulic system performance and reliability. But always discuss the application with a technical specialist from your oil supplier and the equipment manufacturer before switching to a different type of oil. Because at the end of the day, using the WRONG fluid can be a costly mistake. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/which-hydraulic-fluid-should-you-use#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 10 Feb 2015 00:37:00 +0000 30841 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com How To Calculate Hydraulic Pump and Motor Efficiency http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-calculate-hydraulic-pump-and-motor-efficiency <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>In a condition-based maintenance environment, the decision to change-out a hydraulic pump or motor is usually based on either remaining bearing life or deteriorating efficiency, whichever occurs first.<br /> <br /> Despite recent advances in predictive maintenance technologies, the maintenance professional&#39;s ability to determine the remaining bearing life of a pump or motor, with a high degree of accuracy, remains elusive.<br /> <br /> Deteriorating efficiency on the other hand is easy to detect. Because it typically shows itself through increased cycle times. In other words, the machine slows down. When this occurs, quantification of the efficiency loss is not always necessary. Reason being, if the machine slows to the point where its cycle time in unacceptably slow, the pump or motor is changed out. End of story.<br /> <br /> In certain situations however, it can be helpful, even necessary, to quantify the pump or motor&#39;s actual efficiency and compare it to the component&#39;s native efficiency. And for this, an understanding of hydraulic pump and motor efficiency ratings is essential.<br /> <br /> There are three categories of efficiency used to describe hydraulic pumps (and motors). Volumetric efficiency, mechanical/hydraulic efficiency and overall efficiency.<br /> <br /> Volumetric efficiency is determined by dividing the actual flow delivered by a pump at a given pressure by its theoretical flow. Theoretical flow is calculated by multiplying the pump&#39;s displacement per revolution by its driven speed. So if the pump has a displacement of 100 cc/rev and is being driven at 1000 RPM its theoretical flow is 100 liters/minute.<br /> <br /> Actual flow has to be measured using a flow meter. If when tested, the above pump had an actual flow of 90 liters/minute at 207 bar (3000 PSI), we can say the pump has a volumetric efficiency of 90% at 207 bar (90 / 100 x 100 = 90%).<br /> <br /> It&#39;s volumetric efficiency we use most in the field to determine the condition of a hydraulic pump - based on its increase in internal leakage through wear or damage. But without reference to theoretical flow, the actual flow measured by the flow meter would be meaningless.<br /> <br /> A pump&#39;s mechanical/hydraulic efficiency is determined by dividing the theoretical torque required to drive it by the actual torque required to drive it. A mechanical/hydraulic efficiency of 100% would mean if the pump was delivering flow at zero pressure, no force or torque would be required to drive it. Intuitively, we know this is not possible - due to mechanical and fluid friction.<br /> <br /> Like theoretical flow, theoretical drive torque can be calculated. For the above pump, in SI units: 100 cc/rev x 207 bar / 20 x pi = 329 Newton meters. But like actual flow, actual drive torque must be measured. And this requires the use of a dynamometer. Not something we can, or need-to do, in the field. For the purposes of this example though, let&#39;s assume the actual drive torque was 360 Nm. Mechanical/hydraulic efficiency would be 91% (329 / 360 x 100 = 91%).<br /> <br /> Overall efficiency is simply the product of volumetric and mechanical/hydraulic efficiency. So continuing with the above example, the overall efficiency of the pump is 0.9 x 0.91 x 100 = 82%. Overall efficiency is used to calculate the drive power required by a pump at a given flow and pressure. For example, let us calculate, in SI units, the required drive power for an external gear pump with an overall efficiency of 85%. And bent axis piston pump with an overall efficiency of 92%. We&#39;ll assume the output flow and pressure for both pumps is 90 liters/minute at 207 bar:<br /> <br /> External gear pump: 90 x 207 / 600 x 0.85 = 36.5 kW<br /> <br /> Bent axis piston pump: 90 x 207 / 600 x 0.92 = 33.75 kW<br /> <br /> As you&#39;d expect, the more efficient pump requires less drive power for the same output flow and pressure. With a little more math, we can quickly calculate the heat load of each pump:<br /> <br /> Drive power for a (non-existent) 100% efficient pump would be: 90 x 207 / 600 x 1 = 31.05 kW<br /> <br /> So at this flow and pressure, the heat load or power lost to heat for each pump is:<br /> <br /> External gear pump: 36.5 - 31.05 = 5.5 kW<br /> <br /> Bent axis piston pump: 33.75 - 31.05 = 2.7 kW<br /> <br /> No surprise then, that a system with gear pumps and motors requires a bigger heat exchanger than an equivalent (all other things equal) system with piston pumps and motors. As this example shows, not giving efficiency its due consideration can be a mistake. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-calculate-hydraulic-pump-and-motor-efficiency#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 03 Feb 2015 01:07:00 +0000 30601 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Standardized test methods http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/standardized-test-methods <div class="node-body article-body"><p><span style="font-size: 12.8000001907349px;"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/01/501HP30_0.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 347px; margin: 3px;" />Standardized methods for pressure-fatigue testing of hydraulic components have been established by the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA), SAE International, and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). These test procedures are designed to realistically replicate fatigue failure under accelerated test conditions in order to provide a cost-effective means of assessing component reliability.&nbsp; Several examples are listed in the table.</span></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/standardized-test-methods#comments Technologies Mon, 02 Feb 2015 19:28:00 +0000 30591 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Pressure Rating Hydraulic Components http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/pressure-rating-hydraulic-components <div class="field-byline"> Thomas S. Wanke </div> <div class="field-deck"> Fatigue pressure ratings are an important element of product design and lifecycle management in fluid-power systems. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The rated fatigue pressure of components is a fundamental consideration in fluid-power system design. It&rsquo;s uniquely important in hydraulics because an internal pressure wave transmits through the circuit each time the load is engaged.</p> <p>In applications with short cycle times, such as injection molding, die-casting, and rock breaking, the pressure envelope can be energized hundreds of times per day. High-pressure cyclic loading can lead to the initiation of microscopic cracks.&nbsp; If the cracks propagate and link together, fatigue or failure of the component may occur.&nbsp; In applications where the system&rsquo;s dynamic load is unpredictable, such as in mobile, off-highway, and construction equipment, high-pressure excursions, or spikes, also occur.&nbsp; If the pressure spike is sufficiently high, a single event can cause fittings, tubes, hoses, or valves to burst. In either case, exceeding the pressure rating of components can result in fluid loss, component failure, and machine downtime.&nbsp;</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/look-hydraulic-hose-failures ">A Look at Hydraulic Hose Failures</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-hydraulic-system-causes-structural-failure ">Troubleshooting Challenge: Hydraulic system causes structural failure</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/4-ways-reduce-hydraulic-cylinder-failure-and-repair-costs">4 Ways to Reduce Hydraulic Cylinder Failure and Repair Costs</a></p> </div> <p>The fluid-power industry uses accelerated test methods for validating the internal rated fatigue pressure (RFP) of components. The RFP represents the maximum pressure that a component is verified to sustain with a known probability for the rated life without failure. Several common methods for fatigue pressure-rating components are listed <em>(see the table in &ldquo;<a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/standardized-test-methods" target="_blank">Standardized test methods</a>&quot;)</em>.</p> <p>Three basic criteria are used to verify the pressure rating of fluid-power components:</p> <p>&bull; Proof and leakage</p> <p>&bull; Single-cycle burst</p> <p>&bull; Cyclic endurance</p> <p><strong>Proof pressure and leakage tests</strong> are designed to prove the fabrication integrity of test specimens.&nbsp; The safety factor in a proof test is typically &ldquo;2 times.&rdquo; Thus, a component rated to 5,000 psi must pass a 10,000-psi proof test.</p> <p>In the SAE J343 proof test, hose assemblies are hydrostatically tested to the specified proof pressure for at least 30 seconds and not more than one minute. The specimen must not show any evidence of failure or leakage. SAE J343 also includes a two-cycle hydrostatic leakage test at 70% of the specified minimum burst pressure. The duration of the test is 5.0 to 5.5 minutes. As in the proof test, the specimens must not leak.</p> <p>A proof test requires an intensifier with proportional control, plus high-pressure tubes, fittings, and sensors. To observe leaks, the component must be filled with liquid and placed in a transparent enclosure. If the specimen passes a proof test, it may be evaluated in a single-cycle burst test.</p> <p><strong>Burst tests</strong> are designed to simulate a single high-pressure excursion within a component.&nbsp; The typical safety factor is &ldquo;4 times.&rdquo; Thus, a component rated to 5,000 psi must have an average burst pressure exceeding 20,000 psi. NFPA T6.1 specifies the evaluation of five specimens; therefore, the standard deviation of the mean burst pressure can be factored into the burst rating.&nbsp;<img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/01/a-Failed-hose-2.jpg" style="font-size: 12.8000001907349px; line-height: 20px; margin: 3px; width: 595px; height: 185px;" title="Improper crimping or a mismatch between the end fitting and the hose will typically cause this type of failure mode during burst testing." /></p> <p>A single-cycle burst test gradually increases the internal pressure of a component up to a magnitude that&rsquo;s sufficiently high to cause failure. Because this is a static pressure test, it&rsquo;s important that the rate of pressure rise be limited to 1% per second of the estimated burst pressure. Useful tools for safely conducting a burst test include a concrete enclosure with a heavy steel-plate cover, an air-over-water intensifier with proportional control, plus high-pressure tubes, fittings, and sensors. The component under test must be filled with liquid to limit the amount of energy released when it bursts. As one might imagine, spill containment is necessary.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/01/b-Failed-tube.jpg" style="font-size: 12.8000001907349px; line-height: 20px; margin: 3px; width: 595px; height: 242px;" title="This occurrence during burst testing is typical of a round, hollow structure where maximum hoop stress has been exceeded." /></p> <p>The various photos in the article show results from several successful burst tests. Test specimens must be discarded after high-pressure burst testing because component integrity has been compromised.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Cyclic endurance tests</strong> simulate the repetitive pressure-loading encountered in fluid-power systems. The cyclic test pressure (CTP) is typically 1.25 to 1.33 times higher than RFP. Thus, a component that has a 5,000 psi RFP will typically be evaluated at a CTP of 6,250 to 6,650 psi. Hydraulic hoses are subjected to the cyclic fatigue pressure a minimum of 100,000 times. Typically, metal components used in hydraulic equipment have a million-cycle life rating. Shown in the &ldquo;Typical pressure trace&rdquo; figure is a plot of fluid pressure resulting from cycle endurance testing.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/01/TypicalPressureTrace.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 366px; margin: 3px;" title="This plot shows typical fluid-pressure results obtained from cycle endurance testing." /></p> <p>Pressure-wave evolution, overshoot, plateau pressure, pulse duration, and decay times are specified within standard test procedures to reduce test variability. The duration of each pressure-cycle is typically less than two seconds. Maximum pressure-rise rate can reach as high as 80,000 psi per second.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/01/h-failed-hose.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 143px; margin: 3px;" title="Shown here is a typical burst failure of a non-conductive thermoplastic hose." /></p> <p>Large components, such as cylinders, require very high instantaneous flow rates generate the desired pressure-rise rate due to fluid and system capacitance. If the system can generate a sufficient flow, it&rsquo;s possible to concurrently test multiple samples. Four hose specimens are required to conduct a cyclic endurance test per SAE J343. In NFPA T2.6.1, the number of test specimens required to verify the rated fatigue pressure depends on the material of construction, CTP, design assurance, and confidence levels.</p> <p>Engineers routinely evaluate fatigue pressure ratings to validate new suppliers, designs, and materials. In the following examples, endurance tests were used to diagnose field problems and enhance product reliability.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Filter housings</strong> that were failing at 5,000 psi in the field were evaluated per NFPA T2.6.1. The failures transpired in the root of the thread on the bowl. After redesigning the area where the failure occurred, the filter housing was retested with no failures in the lab or the field.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Sectional spool valves</strong> were failing in the field at 5,000 psi. The failure took place in the casting between the work ports. After redesigning the area where the failure occurred, the valve section was retested with no failures in the lab or the field.</p> <p><strong>Hydraulic hoses</strong> were failing in the refuse hauling fleet of a national contract waste-disposal company within one year of service. After evaluating the fatigue ratings of hoses from several manufacturers, the fleet converted to more durable hoses and subsequently experienced much lower oil consumption and maintenance costs.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>THOMAS S. WANKE is the Director of the Fluid Power Institute at the Milwaukee School of Engineering. He may be reached at (414)277-7191 or wanke@msoe.edu.</em></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/pressure-rating-hydraulic-components#comments Technologies Mon, 02 Feb 2015 18:09:00 +0000 30581 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Forklift Trucks Reap Benefits of Hybrid Hydraulics http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/forklift-trucks-reap-benefits-hybrid-hydraulics <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Eaton Hydraulics, Eden Prairie, Minn., is moving lift truck technology to the next level with its new hydraulic hybrid drive. Engineers from lift truck manufacturers recently visited an Eaton facility in Germany for a first-hand feel of this efficient technology installed in a machine demonstrator.</p> <p>&ldquo;The Eaton hydraulic hybrid power system means cities and businesses can significantly reduce the amount of fuel consumed and emissions produced,&rdquo; said Astrid Mozes, chief technology officer, Hydraulics Group, Eaton. &ldquo;Our innovative products and technical solutions provide businesses a competitive edge by reducing operating costs, improving safety and increasing efficiency and productivity.&rdquo;</p> <p>Forklift trucks move goods from one place to another in distribution, logistics, warehouses and manufacturing. In these environments, Eaton&rsquo;s system helps improve energy efficiency, productivity, safety, reduce emissions and operating costs.</p> <p>Eaton&rsquo;s hybrid hydraulic drive demonstrated up to a 35% reduction in fuel consumption and emissions over that of a baseline. The improvement was achieved by improving system efficiencies and capturing energy from braking, then using that energy to supplement the engine&rsquo;s power during acceleration.</p> <p>Productivity improvement comes from the system&rsquo;s management of engine speed and torque to improve performance and efficiency. The system also reduces conventional use of brakes, which means less wear and tear on this key machine component. It also addresses the engine start, replacing the function of traditional electric starters. These innovations add up to lower maintenance costs.</p> <p>Eaton&rsquo;s system has also simplified three operator inputs into one control lever for smoother and more efficient lifting, making it an easier machine to operate. In addition, by simplifying inputs, Eaton&rsquo;s system reduces the potential for operator error, leading to improved worker and operational safety.</p> <p>Participants at the recent lift truck test-drive experience in Germany offered favorable reviews of the system with such comments as:</p> <p>&ldquo;The packaging of the system is great;&rdquo; &ldquo;truck reversals were very smooth;&rdquo; &ldquo;I like the idea of the open-circuit system;&rdquo; and &ldquo;I was impressed with the control of the transmission.&rdquo;</p> <p>For more information about Eaton&rsquo;s hydraulic products and services, visit <a href="http://www.eaton.com/Eaton/ProductsServices/Hydraulics/index.htm?wtredirect=www.eaton.com/hydraulics" target="_blank">www.eaton.com/hydraulics</a>.&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/forklift-trucks-reap-benefits-hybrid-hydraulics#comments News Mon, 02 Feb 2015 16:57:00 +0000 30571 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Getting Behind the Wheels http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/getting-behind-wheels <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Have you ever wanted to drive a garbage truck? I don&rsquo;t mean as a profession, just because you could. The opportunity arose for me, and I jumped at the chance.</p> <p>I remember even as young boy watching garbage trucks as they came through the neighborhood. Each truck had a three-man crew &mdash;&nbsp;one for each side of the street, and a driver. It was especially fun to watch when one of the men stationed at the back would operate the packer drive. A big jaw would rise up out of the bowels of the machine and move toward the truck&rsquo;s rear bumper. Then it would move down, crushing anything in its path, and retreat into the darkness of the waste chamber while compacting all the material from the previous load.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/waste-management/ohio-town-welcomes-first-hydraulic-hybrid-garbage-trucks ">Ohio Town Welcomes First Hydraulic Hybrid Garbage Trucks</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/Accumulators/Article/False/84207/TechZone-Accumulators">Hydraulic hybrid garbage truck trashes energy waste</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/rail-truck-bus/ameripride-takes-delivery-first-hydraulic-hybrid-truck">Ameripride Takes Delivery of First Hydraulic Hybrid Truck </a></p> </div> <p>In fact, this may be the first time I noticed that hydraulic fluid should be kept clean. No, I wasn&rsquo;t a hydraulics savant, I just observed that even though the trucks were dirty &mdash;&nbsp;especially inside the packing chamber &mdash;&nbsp;you could see shiny rods with a mirror-like finish. That always seemed puzzling.</p> <p>Many years later, I discovered, of course, that those were piston rods. They were kept clean by scrapers and seals to keep dirt out of the hydraulic system and keep the hydraulic oil in. I also learned that hydraulics was used because no other technology could transmit the extremely high forces to compact municipal waste within such a confined area.</p> <p>Getting back to driving a garbage truck, my opportunity came when the City of Oberlin, Ohio scheduled a reception to introduce a fleet of new refuse and recycling trucks using Parker Hannifin&rsquo;s RunWise hybrid hydraulic systems. You can read details beginning on page 14. After the formal presentations, attendees were invited to drive one of the tucks. That&rsquo;s the only invitation I needed. I went straight for the trucks waiting outside &mdash; even bypassing refreshment table.</p> <p>As I climbed into the driver seat, I was surprised to see another driver station on the truck&rsquo;s curb side. The driver station on the vehicle&rsquo;s left side was pretty normal looking. However, the right-hand seat (on the curb side) has a duplicate set of controls &mdash; steering wheel, accelerator and brake pedals, and transmission shifters. The dual driver stations allow a driver to sit on the curb side of the vehicle when collecting waste. However, sitting on the curb side would be inconvenient when driving to and from a landfill or recycling center, so this is when the driver station in the normal position would be used.</p> <p>In this case, the station on the curb side uses the hybrid hydraulic drive, which provides multiple benefits during the frequent starting and stopping while collecting waste. The conventional drive is more economical for longer-distance travel, so the two drives combine to substantially reduce fuel consumption of each truck. The driving experience itself was uneventful, but at least I can be the envy of my friends, because I&rsquo;ve driven a garbage truck, and they haven&rsquo;t.&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/getting-behind-wheels#comments Technologies Fri, 30 Jan 2015 21:20:00 +0000 30561 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulic Quadruped Uses Mini Servovalves http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/hydraulic-quadruped-uses-mini-servovalves <div class="node-body article-body"><p>HyQ, the hydraulically actuated quadruped, is a responsive, running, jumping robot designed by researchers at the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.iit.it/en/advr-labs/dynamic-legged-systems.html" target="_blank">Institute Italiano di Tecnologia</a>. Hydraulic cylinders at the leg joints generate torque for&nbsp;movement and produce high load-bearing capability and impact resilience. A broad bandwidth for hydraulic actuation is provided by high-performance, compact&nbsp;<a href="http://www.moog.com/markets/motorsport/e024-series-servo-valves-for-formula-1/" target="_blank">E024-LA mini servo valves</a>&nbsp;supplied by&nbsp;<a href="http://www.moog.com/" target="_blank">Moog Industrial Group</a>.</p> <p><em><strong><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ENHvCGrnr2g" target="_blank">Click here</a></strong> to see a video of the robot in action as it walks over obstacles, climbs stairs, trots, and even remains upright after being slammed by a heavy weight.</em></p> <p>Originally used in F1 race cars, the E024-LA servo valve is powerful and lightweight, weighing only 5.25 ounces and supplying a maximum pressure of 3000 psi. The E024-LA servo valves provide high bandwidth of 250 Hz for hydraulic liquid flowrate. Paired with the high bandwidth servo valves, the naturally high hydraulic stiffness gives a broader range for torque control, a high frequency response, and rigidity/elasticity modulation for the limbs.<img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/real%20valve_0.jpg" style="width: 350px; height: 263px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="Figure 1: Moog E024-LA mini servo valve " /></p> <p>Researchers at IIT chose a hydroelectric design for the HyQ to meet the robot&rsquo;s design requirements. While the HyQ is able to demonstrate quasi-static movements such as walking or climbing, it is also able to perform highly dynamic and impactful movements like trotting, running, and jumping without breaking or falling over in the process. This requires robustness and high capacity for severe loading of the actuation system. Lastly, the HyQ fulfills both previous requirements in rugged terrain and random environments, where obstacles may obstruct the HyQ&rsquo;s route of travel. This requires a reliable feedforward signal, or pre-calculated signal, to predict the robot&rsquo;s next movement. It also requires effective feedback for torque regulation.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/SystemInstrumen/Article/False/88287/TechZone-SystemInstrumen ">Hydraulic robot provides precise positioning</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/Cylinders/Article/False/86387/TechZone-Cylinders">Servopneumatics lets robot mimic nature</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/hydraulic-cylinder-testing-unit-records-pressures-3000-psi">Hydraulic Cylinder Testing Unit Records Pressures to 3000 psi</a></p> </div> <p>Hydroelectric actuation provides higher torque and better torque control than the high-gear-ratio electronics that are commonly used in robotics. Unlike hydraulics, electronic gear systems are more likely to break under impact or high loading and are not suited for robots like HyQ that need to be robust or produce a high torque for dynamic movements. Electronic systems require several gears for precise torque control and can be bulky and rigid.</p> <p>The fast-acting E024-LA servo valves are ideal for quick changes in direction or leg movement. The compactness of the hydraulic system and the convenience of a single reservoir to all actuators allow room for other features like motion and inertia sensors.</p> <p>The HyQ&rsquo;s movements are torque-controlled. Figure 2 shows the torque control schematic containing an outer position loop and an inner torque loop. Inverse-dynamic feedforward torque is the primary input to the inner torque loop in the control scheme. Feedforward torque is pre-calculated using rigid-body inverse dynamics and is used to predict the robot&rsquo;s next movement. Positional negative feedback is used to regulate torque when an obstacle occurs, but at a low gain so that the robot does not retract or stop when it encounters an obstacle.</p> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/01/blockDiagram.gif"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/01/blockDiagram.gif" style="width: 400px; height: 163px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" title="Figure 2: Control schematic containing an inner torque loop and an outer position loop. the inverse dynamics control calculates feedforward torque needed to generate a desired movement at the leg joints. It is the main input to the inner torque loop. Click on image for larger view." /></a>Torque inputs from positional feedback and dynamic data are directed to the inner torque loop (Figure 2) for further processing. A torque controller receives these inputs, processes them, and then commands the Moog E024-LA mini servo valve to increase or decrease fluid pressure in the cylinders. The resulting torque generated by the cylinders generates feedback to the torque controller for further modification; the torque control system not only responds to feedforward inverse dynamics calculations or feedback position control, but also to the hydraulic feedback of the robot.&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/hydraulic-quadruped-uses-mini-servovalves#comments Hydraulic Valves News Fri, 30 Jan 2015 16:47:00 +0000 30551 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Capacity Controls Deliver Energy—and Cost—Savings http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/capacity-controls-deliver-energy-and-cost-savings <div class="field-deck"> The greatest opportunity to save power, particularly in multiple-compressor facilities, lies in correcting the misuse or poor application of compressor-unloading controls. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>We have seen instances where a plant staff embarked on a significant compressed-air conservation program on the demand side, resolving issues such as:</p> <p><strong>Ÿ</strong>&bull;Identifying and repairing air leaks</p> <p>Ÿ&bull;Eliminating open blowing</p> <p>&bull;Fixing malfunctioning condensate drains</p> <p>&bull;Managing all potential inappropriate uses</p> <p>After successful completion of the program, the staff found that the facility was consuming less compressed air for production, but electrical-energy consumption did not go down proportionally. The reason: Without appropriate capacity controls operating correctly on compressors, it is impossible to effectively translate lower air use into lower electrical-energy input.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label"> Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/pump-controls-optimize-hpu-performance ">Pump Controls Optimize HPU Performance</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/chapter-9-relief-and-unloading-pressure-controls ">CHAPTER 9: Relief and Unloading Pressure Controls</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/IndZone/Agricultural/Article/False/83592/IndZone-Agricultural">Electrohydraulic controls double machine&rsquo;s productivity</a></p> </div> <p>When working effectively, compressor-unloading controls should:</p> <p>Ÿ&bull; Match air supply to demand when needed to eliminate or minimize system overpressure</p> <p>Ÿ&bull; Maintain the necessary minimum acceptable operating-system pressure</p> <p>Ÿ&bull; Reduce the input power cost to the optimum point proportional to the air flow demand</p> <p>Ÿ&bull; Turn off unneeded air compressors and bring them back on when required</p> <p>Regardless of the type of air compressor, the operating principles of capacity controls can be grouped into several basic categories. (Note that some will only perform on certain types of compressors.) The following are descriptions, as well as pros and cons, of these categories.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/01/2001.04-VanOrmer-tableWEB.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 257px; margin: 3px;" /></p> <p><strong>Automatic start-stop (AS-S) </strong></p> <p>This control simply starts and stops the electric motor or driver automatically. It can operate any type of compressor. A pressure switch usually accomplishes this function, shutting off the motor at the upper pressure limit and restarting it at the minimum system pressure.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> The air compressor runs at its two most efficient modes&mdash;fully loaded and off.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Most AC electric motors can survive only a finite number of starts over a given timeframe, primarily due to heat build-up. This limits the application of AS-S controls, particularly for motors larger than 10 to 25 hp.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> The compressor must run above minimum system pressure to hold that pressure.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> The system must have adequate air-storage capacity to perform satisfactorily.</p> <p><strong>Continuous-run controls (step type) </strong></p> <p>With these controls, the driver or electric motor runs continuously while the air compressor is unloaded in some manner to match supply to demand. System pressure usually commands the unloading arrangement.</p> <p>Continuous-run controls can be categorized as step or modulating type.</p> <p>The most common is the two-step control, which holds the compressor inlet either fully open or fully shut. Over the complete operational band, the compressor runs fully loaded (or at full flow) from the preset minimum pressure (or load point) to the preset maximum pressure (or no-load point).</p> <p>At the latter, the control shuts off air flow completely. The unit then runs at no flow and full idle until system pressure falls back to the load point. Afterward, the control goes immediately to full-flow capacity. A pressure switch typically actuates the two-step control, which can be either the primary control or part of a dual-control system on virtually every type of air compressor. (Some reciprocating compressors can be fitted with 3- and 5-step controls.)</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> The compressor runs at its two most efficient modes&mdash;full load and full idle&mdash;which results in the lowest possible input power cost. Full idle at lowest input power is accomplished almost immediately, except in the case of lubricated or lubricant-cooled rotary-screw compressors (see &ldquo;Lubrication and idling&rdquo;).</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Both correct piping and adequate air storage are necessary to allow enough idle time over the operational pressure band to generate any significant energy savings.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> When two-step controls are misapplied, not only is there little or no power cost savings, but short cycling (in other words, 20 sec. on, 20 sec. off) can damage the equipment and shorten the life of normal wearing parts.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Too much backpressure in the interconnecting system can cause short cycling or ineffective unloading.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> At 85 to 95% loads, step controls consume some extra power because they have to compress at full capacity to a higher pressure just to hold lower design system pressures.</p> <p><strong>Continuous-run controls (modulating type) </strong></p> <p>These controls match supply to demand very accurately all along the operating pressure-band range. Most incorporate some type of regulator, which in effect converts the operating pressure control band into a proportional band. If system pressure fluctuates as little as 1 psi, the modulating control immediately decreases or increases flow proportionally, depending on the signal. (This control generally is installed only on lubricant-cooled rotary-screw and centrifugal compressors.)</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> The minimum set system pressure draws the most power. As system demand falls, pressure rises, flow cuts back, and power usage also falls. This leads to savings at higher demand (and is the opposite of two-step unloading, in which the power draw actually increases as system demand falls).</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> More efficient at high loads.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Holds a relatively steady pressure when demand is stable, and responds quickly to any change.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Does not depend on storage capacity to operate effectively.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Generally, there&rsquo;s greater inefficiency at lower loads.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Too much backpressure in the interconnecting piping can force multiple units into running on part load, when one or more could be shut off.</p> <p><strong>Controls for rotary screw compressors </strong></p> <p>Today, the industry&rsquo;s most commonly used air compressor in sizes above 30 hp is the lubricant-cooled rotary-screw compressor. A significant number (80% to 85%) of these compressors use some form of modulating control as the primary unloading control, or as the upper-range portion of a dual control.</p> <p>Controls for oil-injected rotary-screw compressors come in two forms: <em>throttled inlet</em> and <em>variable displacement</em>.</p> <p>In a <strong>throttled inlet control</strong>, the compressor&rsquo;s inlet valve is opened or closed to match supply to demand as sensed by a pressure regulator. The inlet valve modulates continuously and responds immediately to any change in the sensed system pressure. In effect, flow capacity is controlled by restricting air intake. The control holds a constant system pressure with minimal valve movement at any given steady system demand.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Smooth, non-cycling control of system pressure is easier on the power train and most other components.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Relatively efficient at loads from 60 to 100%.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Will not short cycle, regardless of storage capacity and or piping.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Simple to operate and maintain.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Usually results in lower lubricant carryover in lubricated units.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Relatively inefficient at loads below 60%.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Backpressure must be overcome to reach full capacity.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Instant response may make the machine back down and unload, even when flow is needed for the base load.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Sensitivity and rapid reaction make correct piping and backpressure control necessary for optimum operation. (This is true for all types of unloading controls.)</p> <p><strong>Variable-displacement controls</strong> for rotary-screw compressors all match output to demand by modifying or controlling the effective length of the rotor compression volume. The inlet pressure remains the same throughout the turn down, and the compression ratio stays relatively stable. This method of reducing flow without increasing compression ratios holds a power advantage over modulating and/or two-step controls in the operating range from 50% to full load.</p> <p>The two most common of these unloading controls are the spiral-cut high lead valve and the poppet valve. Both methods will open or close selected ports in the compressor cylinder, thus changing the seal-off points. These ports are located at the start of the compression cycle, where pressure is very low. Opening them even a small amount prevents compression from occurring until the rotor tip passes the cylinder bore casing that separates the ports. This effectively reduces the trapped volume of air to be compressed and, consequently, the horsepower needed to compress it.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Very efficient part-load performance from 50 to 100%.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Maintains set pressure at minimum system pressure.</p> <p><strong>Pro:</strong> Very responsive.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> At higher loads, some units lose efficiency due to increased leakage.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> The mechanism is complex.</p> <p><strong>Con:</strong> Still must run two-step or modulation in lower operating range.</p> <p><strong>Variable-speed drives</strong> (VSDs) control the speed of the prime mover. In theory, the performance-unloading curve for compressors powered by VSDs is very attractive. Depending on the type of compressor, model, conditions, etc., unloading can be almost optimal in the range from 50% or 60% to 90% of load, i.e., 75% power could produce close to 75% flow.</p> <p>Variable-speed turbines and engines have proved effective for years on all types of compressors. These drives maintain system pressure at the minimum set point and will immediately modulate as pressure rises in the sensed system.</p> <p>In the world of electric motors, the most commonly applied VSD has been the variable-frequency driver (VFD), usually as a retrofit or part of a special package. VFDs convert 60-Hz alternating current to direct current, and then reconvert it to AC at the frequency required to turn the motor at the desired speed. This conversion usually consumes about 2% to 4% more energy; therefore, VFDs are less efficient at full load than other types of controls.</p> <p>Many VFDs have been installed successfully on lubricant-cooled, rotary-screw compressor packages over the years. However, some areas of concern have limited their economies relative to cost and overall performance, particularly in retrofits.</p> <p>First, the design of some rotary-screw compressors causes efficiency to drop at less than full-load speed. Second, changing speeds can produce harmonic amplification problems that were not considered at the original design speed. Third, the motor itself may have efficiency problems at the low end of the speed range, possibly because of inadequate heat rejection and cooling capacity. Compressors with air ends designed specifically for VFDs will eliminate or minimize many of these potential problems.</p> <p>Another type of VSD is the <strong>switched-reluctance</strong> system. This electrical control converts standard three-phase AC power into two-phase DC. The rectified AC voltage is passed to a bank of capacitors, at which point it is increased to 600-V DC and stored. The bank then supplies the power required by each phase of a brushless motor, eliminating surge currents in the main power supply. The brushless motor has the inherent ability to survive an unlimited number of starts and stops per hour because the absence of inrush current surges keeps its operating temperature low. The true application for any compressor with a variable-speed drive is a trim machine, not the plant air system&rsquo;s base-load unit.</p> <p>Hank van Ormer, president of Air Power USA, Baltimore, Ohio, is also a lecturer and author. For more information, visit <a href="http://www.airpowerusainc.com/" target="_blank">www.airpowerusainc.com</a> or email <a href="mailto:support@airpowerusainc.com">support@airpowerusainc.com</a>. To view or download a list of his books covering best practices with compressed air, visit bit.ly/HP1501APUSA.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/capacity-controls-deliver-energy-and-cost-savings#comments Controls & Instrumentation Thu, 29 Jan 2015 20:55:00 +0000 30541 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Norgren Announces Name Change http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/norgren-announces-name-change <div class="field-deck"> Norgren products rebranded under IMI Precision Engineering umbrella </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/IMI%20Norgren.png" style="width: 211px; height: 119px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" />Norgren Inc., Littleton, Colo., a global provider of pneumatic motion and fluid control products and services, will be part of a new division of long-time parent company, <a href="http://www.imiplc.com/" target="_blank">IMI plc</a>. All of IMI&rsquo;s fluid power businesses will be brought into a single division, called <a href="http://www.imiplc.com/our-businesses/imi-precision-engineering.aspx" target="_blank">IMI Precision Engineering</a>. Norgren&rsquo;s international range of products will become IMI Norgren, one of a portfolio of flagship product brands that also includes <a href="http://www.imi-precision.com/imi-buschjost" target="_blank">IMI Buschjost</a>, <a href="http://www.imi-precision.com/imi-fas" target="_blank">IMI FAS</a>, <a href="http://www.imi-precision.com/imi-maxseal" target="_blank">IMI Maxseal</a>, and <a href="http://www.imi-precision.com/imi-herion" target="_blank">IMI Herion</a>.</p> <p>Mark Shellenbarger, Global Marketing Director for IMI Precision Engineering, explained: &ldquo;With IMI Precision Engineering we can now bring all of our world-class products &ndash; including Norgren &ndash; under one clearly named division. This showcases the IMI brand name, brings real clarity to our market and allows us to build on the collective strength of our key product brands.&rdquo;</p> <p>IMI Precision Engineering joins <a href="http://www.imiplc.com/our-businesses/imi-hydronic-engineering.aspx" target="_blank">IMI Hydronic Engineering</a> and <a href="http://www.imiplc.com/our-businesses/imi-critical-engineering.aspx" target="_blank">IMI Critical Engineering</a> as one of three new divisions within IMI. Company addresses, phone numbers and legal entities remain unchanged. For further information visit .</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/norgren-announces-name-change#comments News Thu, 29 Jan 2015 19:04:00 +0000 30531 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Seal Supplier Partners with MSOE for New Test Method http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/seals/seal-supplier-partners-msoe-new-test-method <div class="field-deck"> First-of-its kind test for rod wipers sets new industry criteria for contaminant exclusion. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><a href="http://hallite.com/" target="_blank">Hallite Seals Americas Inc.</a>, Wixom, Mich. announced today the successful development of a new test procedure for assessing the amount of dirt and dust that enters a typical hydraulic system through a cylinder&#39;s rod wiper. Developed in cooperation with <a href="http://www.msoe.edu" target="_blank">Milwaukee School of Engineering</a>&rsquo;s (MSOE) <a href="http://www.msoe.edu/fpi" target="_blank">Fluid Power Institute</a>, the test breaks new ground because it features a novel methodology for measuring dry particles attributed to being a major cause of hydraulic system inefficiency, degradation and failure. It also fills a critical need for manufacturers of hydraulic cylinders.<br /> <br /> The rod wiper located in the sealing configuration of a hydraulic cylinder is designed to limit the ingression of dirt, dust and grit, making it one of the most critical system components. However, there is no specific <a href="http://www.iso.org/iso/home.html" target="_blank">ISO</a> method for testing a rod wiper&rsquo;s ability to prevent particles larger than 4, 6, and 14 &micro;m from entering a hydraulic system. These microscopic particle sizes are most damaging to hydraulic systems as referenced in ISO 4406 for coding contamination levels in hydraulic fluids.<br /> <br /> &ldquo;The MSOE rod wiper test uses an online particle counting method instead of traditional gravimetric measurement where particles are weighed,&rdquo; explained Chuck White, Business Development Manager for Hallite. &ldquo;The particle count approach provides a more complete and accurate assessment of contaminants than weight because two samples can have the same gravimetric weight in oil, but one may contain many more dirt particles than the other indicating much greater potential for damage to precision components. This new method raises the bar on keeping solid contaminants out of the system now to avoid problems later.&rdquo;</p> <h3> The test procedure</h3> <p>MSOE used the <a href="http://standards.sae.org/j1195_199308/" target="_blank">SAE J1195</a>&nbsp; standard combined with best practices to establish a baseline for developing the rod wiper test procedure. A rig was built in the MSOE test lab and parameters such as duration, cycle rate, pressure and temperature were set using input from hydraulic cylinder manufacturers to best simulate the rigor of actual field conditions. It took eight months of development, verification, trials and adjustments to establish a repeatable test procedure. Once the new procedure was completed and proven, MSOE tested the Hallite 520 and 820 wipers against two seals from other manufacturers.<br /> <br /> The test procedure involved installing the rod wiper into the specified test fixture, heating the hydraulic circulation fluid to150˚F, pumping the oil over the top of the rod and letting it drain down into the reservoir while circulating high-velocity particles (ISO 12103-1-A4 Course Test Dust) of contamination in the chamber. The objective was to count how much dirt and grit got past the wiper. Based on the conditions and method used, data suggests that the Hallite 520 and 820 wipers allowed less than one half the amount of contaminant from entering into the test system compared to competitive wipers that were tested.<br /> <br /> <img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/Hallite-MSOE.png" style="width: 222px; height: 505px; float: left; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" title="Shown here is a screen capture from the animated video demonstrating the rod wiper test procedure." />&nbsp;&ldquo;Hallite has a reputation as a trusted brand for wiper technology, but we needed competitive third-party validation for the integrity of our material and design,&rdquo; continued White. &ldquo;We are very excited about the performance results because they demonstrate how our products work in some of the most aggressive field environments. Also, working together with MSOE and key customers to develop and conduct a test of this quality is invaluable as it forged a three-way partnership that emphasizes the importance of rod wipers and gives Hallite an opportunity to demonstrate our continued commitment to understanding and developing technologies to improve the effectiveness of hydraulics systems.<br /> <br /> Finally, by cooperating with one of the leading academic fluid power research laboratories in the nation where students are building and managing the mechanical functions for test fixtures, Hallite is providing real-world interaction to help the next generation of hydraulics engineers learn more about seals and how they interact. This paves the path for innovative future testing methods.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> <strong>About Hallite</strong> &mdash; Hallite is a&nbsp; manufacturer of high-performance hydraulic seals and selaing systems, such as rod wipers, gaskets, rubber and plastics parts for a variety of applications in mining, construction, agriculture, and material handling. Engineered in a wide variety of advanced materials, the full range of products are readily accessible through Hallite&rsquo;s global manufacturing presence and a worldwide network of service partners. Hallite is a member of the Fenner PLC Group of companies. For more information, visit<strong> <a href="http://www.hallite.us" target="_blank">www.hallite.com</a></strong>.<br /> <br /> <strong>About the Fluid Power Institute</strong> &mdash; MSOE&rsquo;s Fluid Power Institute (FPI) has been a pioneer in motion control and fluid power education since its inception in 1962.&nbsp; FPI has active programs in fluid power systems design, electrohydraulics, test and evaluation, fluid development, and contamination control. FPI recently added a new off-campus 12,500ft<sup>2</sup> laboratory facility to support the R&amp;D needs of the fluid power Industry. This high-bay laboratory has drive-in access, reconfigurable workspaces, and multiple power units for realistic endurance testing of fluid power equipment. For more information, visit <strong><a href="http://www.msoe.edu/fpi" target="_blank">www.msoe.edu/fpi</a></strong>.</p> <p>A white paper describing the MSOE test and a graphic animation depicting how it was conducted are available upon request by emailing <em>Lisa Gentile, Marketing Manager at Hallite Seals Americas, at <strong><a href="mailto:lgentile@hallite.us?subject=Inquiry%20about%20article%20on%20H%26P%20website">lgentile@hallite.us</a></strong></em>.</p> <p><em>For additional information, contact <strong><a href="mailto:lgentile@hallite.us?subject=Inquiry%20about%20article%20on%20H%26P%20website">Lisa Gentile</a></strong> or Tom Wanke, Director of the Fluid Power Institute at MSOE at <strong><a href="mailto:lgentile@hallite.us?subject=Inquiry%20about%20article%20on%20H%26P%20website">wanke@msoe.edu</a></strong>.</em><br /> &nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/seals/seal-supplier-partners-msoe-new-test-method#comments Seals News Thu, 29 Jan 2015 16:23:00 +0000 30521 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com