Hydraulics & Pneumatics - Hydraulics & Pneumatics is the leading international technical resource for fluid power http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/rss.xml en Smart Components Enhance Flow Control for Hydroelectric Francis Turbines http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/smart-components-enhance-flow-control-hydroelectric-francis-turbines <div class="node-body article-body"><p><a href="http://www.gilkes.com/" target="_blank">Gilkes</a> and <a href="http://www.westernintech.com/" target="_blank">Western Integrated</a>&nbsp;Technologies (WI), a <a href="https://www.parker.com/portal/site/PARKER/menuitem.b90576e27a4d71ae1bfcc510237ad1ca/?vgnextoid=c38888b5bd16e010VgnVCM1000000308a8c0RCRD&amp;vgnextfmt=default" target="_blank">Parker Hydraulics</a> systems integrator, worked together in designing and manufacturing two hydro-electric power units used in a hydro-dam on <a href="http://www.northernwater.org/WaterProjects/CarterLakeOutlet.aspx" target="_blank">Carter Lake</a> in Northern Colorado. WI aided the UK-based manufacturer of Francis-turbine generators, supplying Parker parts and services to integrate smart monitoring and flow control into the design.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/compact-hybrid-actuation-system-targets-renewable-energy-designs ">Compact Hybrid Actuation System Targets Renewable-Energy Designs</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/real-time-fluid-monitoring-go">Real-Time Fluid Monitoring on the Go</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/parker-hannifin-announces-new-leadership">Parker Hannifin Announces New Leadership</a></p> </div> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/hydraulics%20assembly%20with%20accumulaotrs_0.jpeg" style="font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; text-decoration: underline;" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/hydraulics%20assembly%20with%20accumulaotrs.jpeg" style="margin: 3px; font-size: 12.8px; width: 200px; height: 250px; float: left;" title="2. This picture shows the hydraulic system with its accumulators. (Click to enlarge.)" /></a></p> <p>The project is conducted at <a href="http://www.northernwater.org/WaterProjects/CarterLakeOutlet.aspx" target="_blank">Carter Lake Hydroelectric</a>, a plant owned and operated by the Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District. The hydraulics installation controls the flow of water to a powerhouse from the 112,000-acre-foot mountain lake. The Francis turbines leverage the power from the flowing water to spin a generator, producing electricity for the plant and surrounding areas. Water is then directed back to the distribution canal so that it can be used by homes and businesses.</p> <p>To keep the hydraulic oil clean, a Parker&rsquo;s WPF pressure filter is installed at the inlet of the power unit; oil is then be recycled through a low-pressure tank top return filter. Meanwhile, a desiccant breather removes moisture from incoming air. The power unit is also plumbed with stainless steel tubing to protect the interior from moisture, and Parker <a href="http://www.parker.com/literature/Instrumentation%20Products%20Division/Catalogs/Cat%204230-4233-Dec09%20-%20Final%20for%20Web.pdf" target="_blank">ALok fittings</a> secure piping and fittings to prevent leaks.</p> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/manifold%20switches%20and%20fittings_0.jpeg" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/manifold%20switches%20and%20fittings.jpeg" style="width: 200px; height: 150px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="3. Manifolds were customized with Parker fittings to prevent leaks. (Click to enlarge.)" /></a>To regulate the generator frequency, wicket gates are paired with a smart system that comprises <a href="http://www.parker.com/portal/site/PARKER/menuitem.de7b26ee6a659c147cf26710237ad1ca/?vgnextoid=fcc9b5bbec622110VgnVCM10000032a71dacRCRD&amp;vgnextfmt=EN&amp;vgnextcatid=12204367&amp;vgnextcat=D1FV+PROPORTIONAL+PRESSURE+REDUCING+VALVE%2C+NG6" target="_blank">proportional valves with onboard electronics</a>&nbsp;and a&nbsp;proportional&ndash;integral&ndash;derivative&nbsp;controller (<a href="http://www.parker.com/portal/site/PARKER/menuitem.de7b26ee6a659c147cf26710237ad1ca/?vgnextoid=fcc9b5bbec622110VgnVCM10000032a71dacRCRD&amp;vgnextfmt=default&amp;vgnextcatid=2446854&amp;vgnextcat=PID%20DIGITAL%20DRIVE%20MODULE&amp;redirect=true" target="_blank">PID) and position-feedback device</a>. These ensure that the position of the wicket-gates maintains a regular volumetric flow rate. In case of a power failure, the turbine can be operated via manual valves installed parallel to the electrically operated valves.</p> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/manifold%20with%20controllers_1.jpeg" style="font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; text-decoration: underline;" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/manifold%20with%20controllers.jpeg" style="margin: 3px; border-style: solid; font-size: 12.8px; width: 150px; height: 113px; float: right;" title="4. Manifolds are integrated with controllers. (Click to enlarge.) " /></a></p> <p>The custom designed manifolds integrate Parker cartridge valves, including hydraulic-system check valves, relief valves, and unloading valves. Parker test points provide individual pressure monitoring for certain functions, and Parker electronic pressure transmitters/switches are used for pressure monitoring and lead/lag motor pump control.&nbsp;</p> <p>This article was adapted from the <a href="http://blog.parker.com/hydraulic-power-units-control-all-functions-of-hydro-electric-turbine" target="_blank">contributed article</a> by Todd Yoshioka, Parker Territory Manager and&nbsp;Western Integrated Technologies on <a href="http://blog.parker.com/" target="_blank">Parker&rsquo;s Blog</a>.&nbsp;</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/smart-components-enhance-flow-control-hydroelectric-francis-turbines#comments Fittings & Couplings Hydraulic Filters Other Industries News Fri, 27 May 2016 16:10:00 +0000 38471 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>1. Spanning 112,000&nbsp;acre-feet, Carter Lake is an impressive reservoir for the Carter Lake Hydroelectric plant in northern Colorado.&nbsp;</p> Courtesy of Word Press and Northern Water How To Reduce Noise Emission From Hydraulic Systems http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-reduce-noise-emission-hydraulic-systems <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Many industrialized countries have regulations that restrict noise levels in the workplace. The high power density, and corresponding high noise emission of hydraulic components, means that industrial hydraulic systems are often the target of efforts to reduce mean noise levels in the workplace.<br /> <br /> The dominant source of noise in hydraulic systems is the pump. The hydraulic pump transmits structure-borne and fluid-borne noise into the system and radiates air-borne noise.<br /> <br /> All positive-displacement hydraulic pumps have a specific number of pumping chambers, which operate in a continuous cycle of opening to be filled (inlet), closing to prevent back flow, opening to expel contents (outlet) and closing to prevent back flow.<br /> <br /> These separate but superimposed flows result in a pulsating delivery, which causes a corresponding sequence of pressure pulsations. These pulsations create fluid-borne noise, which causes all downstream components to vibrate. The pump also creates structure-borne noise by exciting vibration in any component with which it is mechanically linked, e.g. tank lid. The transfer of fluid and structure induced vibration to the adjacent air mass results in air-borne noise.<br /> <br /> While fluid-borne noise attributable to pressure pulsation can be minimized through hydraulic pump design, it cannot be completely eliminated. In large hydraulic systems or noise-sensitive applications, the propagation of fluid-borne noise can be reduced by the installation of a silencer. The simplest type of silencer used in hydraulic applications is the reflection silencer, which eliminates sound waves by superimposing a second sound wave of the same amplitude and frequency at a 180-degree phase angle to the first.<br /> <br /> The propagation of structure-borne noise created by the vibrating mass of the power unit (the hydraulic pump and its prime mover) can be minimized through the elimination of sound bridges between the power unit and tank, and the power unit and valves. This is normally achieved through the use of flexible connections i.e. rubber mounting blocks and hoses, but in some situations it is necessary to introduce additional mass, the inertia of which reduces the transmission of vibration at bridging points.<br /> <br /> The magnitude of noise radiation from an object is proportional to its area and inversely proportional to its mass. Reducing an object&#39;s surface area or increasing its mass can therefore reduce its noise radiation. For example, constructing the hydraulic reservoir from thicker plate (increase in mass) will reduce its noise radiation.<br /> <br /> The magnitude of air-borne noise radiated directly from the hydraulic pump can be reduced by mounting the pump inside the tank. For full effectiveness, there must be a clearance of 0.5 meters between the pump and the sides of tank, and the mounting arrangement must incorporate decoupling between the power unit and tank to insulate against structure-borne noise. The obvious disadvantage of mounting the hydraulic pump inside the tank is that it restricts access for maintenance and adjustment.<br /> <br /> And if hydraulic system noise remains outside the required level after all of the above noise propagation countermeasures have been exhausted, encapsulation or screening may need to be considered.<br /> <br /> <strong>Bottom line</strong>: excessive noise from hydraulic machines is often the result of design mistakes. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-reduce-noise-emission-hydraulic-systems#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 24 May 2016 00:25:00 +0000 38461 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com 3D-Printed Excavator to Debut at IFPE 2017 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/construction/3d-printed-excavator-debut-ifpe-2017 <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/logo_-_ceca_2.jpg" style="width: 100px; height: 100px; margin: 3px; float: left;" /><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/IFPE-2017-185.jpg" style="width: 61px; height: 100px; margin: 3px; float: left;" />At the joint <a href="http://www.conexpoconagg.com/?gclid=CNHCxN_B5swCFQkwaQodWu4GCw" target="_blank">CONEXPO-CON/AGG</a> and the <a href="http://www.ifpe.com/" target="_blank">International Fluid Power Expo </a>(IFPE) scheduled for March 2017 will spotlight some of the most innovative products to likely shape the future of the construction industry. One of the main displays embodying the shows&rsquo; theme, &ldquo;Imagine What&rsquo;s Next,&rdquo; will be the first fully functional 3D-printed construction excavator. A live 3D-printing demonstration is currently in the plans for the show.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/clippard-joins-online-3d-community">Clippard joins online 3D community</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/construction/cat-makes-big-impact-its-hybrid-excavator ">Cat makes a big impact with its hybrid excavator</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/construction/mini-excavator-loaded-big-features">Mini excavator loaded with big features</a></p> </div> <p>The excavator is a joint collaboration between the Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM), National Fluid Power Association (NFPA), Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power (CCEFP) from the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the U.S. Department of Energy&rsquo;s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).</p> <p>The project is still in progress as the group enlists help from two separate research teams of graduate engineering students at Georgia Tech and the University of Minnesota. The Georgia Tech team will brainstorm new designs for the boom and bucket, while the Minnesota team designs the hydraulic oil reservoir, heat exchanger, and cooling system. Both teams expect to improve efficiency and decrease the weight and size of the excavator.</p> <p>The group also invites any interested party of engineering students to design a streamlined cab and human-machine interface. Designs can be submitted through the <a href="http://www.ccefp.org/" target="_blank">Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power&rsquo;s website</a>, and a cash prize of $2000 will be awarded to the team with the best 3D-printed design. On top of that, the team will win a trip to Tennessee to print their design at the ORNL.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/construction/3d-printed-excavator-debut-ifpe-2017#comments Construction News Thu, 19 May 2016 16:02:00 +0000 38451 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Fluid Power Gives Robot Arms All the Right Moves http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/fluid-power-gives-robot-arms-all-right-moves <div class="node-body blog-body"><p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/hybrid-robot-4.jpg"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/hybrid-robot-4.jpg" style="width: 266px; height: 308px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" title="A robotic manipulator developed by Disney Research produces surprisingly lifelike and highly responsive motions using combined hydraulic and pneumatic systems." /></a>Hydraulics and pneumatics technologies are two widely used methods of power transmission. Hydraulics is most often used for its ability to move heavy loads with highly controlled motion, whereas pneumatics is more often associated with applications involving lighter loads and rapid, repetitive motions.</p> <p>Many machines use hydraulic, pneumatic, and electromechanical systems, and you&#39;ll often see pneumatic or pneumatic systems integrated with electromechanical drives. But you&#39;ll rarely see hydraulic and pneumatic systems working in an integrated system.</p> <h3>Air and Oil Usually Don&#39;t Mix</h3> <p>When pneumatic and hydraulic systems are paired together, they are usually called <strong><a href="/other-technologies/book-2-chapter-3-air-oil-circuits" target="_blank">air-over-oil systems</a></strong>. In most cases, compressed air is used as an energy source to drive the hydraulic system. This may involve an air-driven hydraulic pump, often referred to as an <strong><a href="/other-technologies/book-2-chapter-13-pressure-intensifier-circuits" target="_blank">intensifie</a></strong>r.</p> <p>In a huge departure from convention, a <strong><a href="http://www.disneyresearch.com" target="_blank">Disney Research</a></strong> team led by John P. Whitney, assistant professor at Northeastern University&#39;s College of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Boston, has come up with a hybrid hydraulic-pneumatic system to create surprisingly lifelike motions while maintaining precise force control.</p> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/Disney%20actuatorLR.jpg"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/Disney%20actuatorLR.jpg" style="width: 266px; height: 159px; float: left; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" title="Rotary actuators developed by Disney Research pair rolling-diaphragm cylinders — one actuated actuated by hydraulics against one actuated by pneumatics. Click on image for larger view." /></a>The system uses a series of rolling-diaphragm cylinders that use hydraulic power to move in one direction and compressed to move in the other. Two single-acting cylinders are paired to form a single rotary actuator. Essentially, force from the air cylinder creates a preload against the hydraulic cylinder. The compressed air in the one cylinder provides the return force that would otherwise be provided by a spring. Each cylinder, then, requires only one hydraulic line and one pneumatic line. The result is a system that the team describes as light, fast, and dexterous, with low friction and no backlash.</p> <h3>Mimicking Human Movement</h3> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/hybrid-robot-2.JPG" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/hybrid-robot-2.JPG" style="width: 333px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px; height: 155px;" title="An operator controls Disney's robotic manipulator with joysticks and a virtual reality headset. Click on image for larger view." /></a>For the latest version of the system, Disney Research built a human-safe, humanoid robot consisting of an upper torso with two arms and a head carrying stereo cameras. Each arm has four degrees of motion.</p> <p>Using a virtual-reality headset for visual input from the robot&#39;s stereo cameras, an operator manipulates arms of a remote controller, and the robot follows the moves precisely in real time. The headset lets the operator see through the robot&#39;s eyes, and dual-axis motion of its head follows the movements of the operator&#39;s head via electric servos.</p> <p>The low-impedance hydraulic system provides haptic feedback for precise enough control for delicate tasks, such as picking up a raw egg or even threading a needle.&nbsp; It consistently transmits contact forces to the operator while generating a high-fidelity remote sense of touch using haptic feedback.</p> <p><a href="https://youtu.be/HY4bfnHMdtk" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/Video.png" style="width: 300px; height: 169px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" title="Click on the image above to watch a video of the system in action." /></a>&quot;The transmission provides our robot with incredibly smooth and fast motion while also allowing life-like interaction with people and the handling of delicate objects,&quot; says Jessica Hodgins, vice president at Disney Research and a professor of robotics at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh. &quot;For now, the robot is remotely controlled by a human operator, but we would expect the same level of mechanical performance once the motions are automated.&quot;</p> <p>The team&#39;s results were presented yesterday at the <a href="http://www.icra2016.org/" target="_blank">IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation</a> (ICRA 2016) in Stockholm. <strong><a href="https://s3-us-west-1.amazonaws.com/disneyresearch/wp-content/uploads/20160503162533/A-Hybrid-Hydrostatic-Transmission-and-Human-Safe-Haptic-Telepresence-Robot-Paper.pdf" target="_blank">Click here</a> </strong>to download a PDF of the technical paper, &quot;A Hybrid Hydrostatic Transmission and Human &ndash; Safe Haptic Telepresence Robot.&quot;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/fluid-power-gives-robot-arms-all-right-moves#comments News The Hitch Post Tue, 17 May 2016 20:17:00 +0000 38441 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com How To Deal With Water In Hydraulic Oil http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-deal-water-hydraulic-oil <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>If you&#39;ve worked with hydraulic equipment for any length of time, it&#39;s likely that you&#39;ve come across a hydraulic system with cloudy oil. Oil becomes cloudy when it is contaminated with water above its saturation level. The saturation level is the amount of water that can dissolve in the oil&#39;s molecular chemistry and is typically 200 - 300 ppm at 68&deg;F (20&deg;C) for mineral hydraulic oil. Note that if hydraulic oil is cloudy it indicates that a minimum of 200 - 300 ppm of water is present. I recently audited a hydraulic system with cloudy oil that was found to contain greater than 1% (10,000 ppm) water.<br /> <br /> Water in hydraulic oil has a number of negative effects:</p> <ul> <li>Depletes some additives and reacts with others to form corrosive by-products which attack some metals.</li> <li>Reduces lubricating film-strength, which leaves critical surfaces vulnerable to wear and corrosion.</li> <li>Reduces filterability and clogs filters.</li> <li>Increases air entrainment ability.</li> <li>Increases the likelihood of cavitation occurring.</li> </ul> <p>Methods for removing free (unstable suspension) and emulsified (stable suspension) water include:</p> <ul> <li>polymeric filters;</li> <li>vacuum distillation; and</li> <li>head space dehumidification.</li> </ul> <p>Vacuum distillation and head space dehumidification also remove dissolved water.<br /> <br /> <strong>Polymeric filters</strong> - These look like conventional particulate filters, however the media is impregnated with a super-absorbent polymer. Water causes the polymer to swell, which traps the water within the media. Polymeric filters are best suited for removing small volumes of water and/or maintaining water contamination within pre-determined limits.<br /> <br /> <strong>Vacuum distillation</strong> - This technique employs a combination of heat and vacuum. At 25 inches Hg, water boils at 133&deg;F (56&deg;C). This enables water to be removed at a temperature that does not damage the oil or its additives.<br /> <br /> <strong>Head space dehumidification</strong> - This method involves circulating and dehumidifying air from the reservoir head space. Water in the oil migrates to the dry air in the head space and is eventually removed by the dehumidifier.<br /> <br /> Like all other forms of contamination, preventing water ingress is cheaper than removing it from the oil. A major point of water ingression is through the reservoir head space. Many hydraulic system reservoirs are fitted with breather caps that allow moisture (and particles) to enter the reservoir as the oil volume changes through either thermal expansion and contraction, or the actuation of cylinders.<br /> <br /> Replacing the standard breather cap with a hygroscopic breather will eliminate the ingression of moisture and particles through the reservoir&#39;s vent. These breathers combine a woven-polyester media that filters particles as small as 3 microns, with silica gel desiccant to remove water vapor from incoming air. The result is relative humidity levels within the reservoir head space that make condensation unlikely, therefore reducing water contamination of the oil.<br /> <br /> <strong>Bottom line</strong>: failure to address water contamination can be a very costly mistake. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-deal-water-hydraulic-oil#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 17 May 2016 00:55:00 +0000 38431 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Husco Executive Honored as Wisconsin Business Leader of the Year http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/husco-executive-honored-wisconsin-business-leader-year <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Agustin &ldquo;Gus&rdquo; Ramirez was named the <a href="http://www.hbs-wi.com/249/" target="_blank">2015 Wisconsin Business Leader of the Year</a> by the Harvard Business School Club of Wisconsin and the <em><a href="http://www.jsonline.com/" target="_blank">Milwaukee Journal Sentinel</a>.</em>&nbsp;The award honors individuals who excel in business and give back to the community through philanthropy and civic engagement. Ramirez was recognized for his longstanding leadership roles at <a href="http://www.huscointl.com/" target="_blank">Husco International</a> and his commitment to education for Milwaukee&rsquo;s underserved populations.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/kaman-s-moon-receives-ptda-mcdonald-award ">Kaman&rsquo;s Moon Receives PTDA McDonald Award</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/astrid-mozes-receives-women-manufacturing-award">Astrid Mozes Receives Women in Manufacturing Award</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/moog-celebrates-50-years-photo-contest">Moog Celebrates 50 Years with a Photo Contest</a></p> </div> <p><strong>Excellence in Business </strong></p> <p>Beginning in 1985, Ramirez served as chairman and CEO of Husco International, a privately held company that distributes hydraulic controls for off-highway equipment like forklifts, cranes, excavators, and mining trucks. During his tenure as CEO, Husco&rsquo;s annual sales increased from $20 million to $200 million. His son, Austin Ramirez, took on the role of CEO in 2011.</p> <p>Ramirez currently serves as the International Executive Chairman of Husco. He leverages his acumen for corporate planning and business to make strategic investments that differentiate Husco and prepare it for future growth. Under his leadership, the company has expanded internationally to England, China, and India.</p> <p>As a master&rsquo;s graduate of aerospace engineering from Georgia Tech University, Ramirez sees his technological background as a significant attribute to his success in corporate planning. &ldquo;Engineering helped me in terms of understanding the technology we were involved in,&rdquo; he says. &ldquo;It was an important background.&rdquo;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Civic Involvement </strong></p> <p>The World Business Leader award also honors Ramirez for his leadership in education and community affairs. He serves as the executive director for <a href="http://www.stcmilwaukee.org/" target="_blank">Schools that Can Milwaukee</a>, an organization founded by his daughter, Abby Ramirez Andrietsch. The main goal of the organization is to increase the number of high-quality traditional-district, public-charter, and private-choice schools in urban communities.</p> <p>Having changed languages and cultures three times before the age of 10, Ramirez is committed to providing high-quality education to young students, especially those in the underserved Hispanic community. The Agustin A. Ramirez Jr. Family Foundation provides scholarships to more than 100 Milwaukee students per year, and builds Christian schools in Central America and Milwaukee.&nbsp;</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/husco-executive-honored-wisconsin-business-leader-year#comments News Mon, 16 May 2016 21:19:00 +0000 38421 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>Agustin Ramirez is honored by the Harvard Business School Club of Wisconsin for his leadership in corporate business and civic engagement across the globe.&nbsp;</p> CHAPTER 14: Sequence Valves and Reducing Valves (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/chapter-14-sequence-valves-and-reducing-valves-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 15px; line-height: 22.2px;"><a href="http://bit.ly/1TRFsVC"><img align="left" alt="HydraForce" height="150" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/HydraForce_square_logo_PF-tag_RGB.png" style="padding: 5px;" /></a><strong>Chapter 14 is sponsored by HydraForce</strong></span><br /> <span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 15px; line-height: 22.2px;">Reducing valves are normally open and respond to outlet pressure to keep outlet flow from going above their set pressure. They also can have a bypass check valve. Reducing valves always have an external drain connected directly to tank. Any backpressure in this drain line adds to the valve&rsquo;s spring setting. </span></p> <p><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 15px; line-height: 22.2px;">Relief valves, unloading valves, sequence valves, counterbalance valves, and reducing valves are the most difficult to discern on a schematic drawing because their symbols are so similar. Take extra care when diagnosing a problem to make sure these valves are correctly identified and their function understood.</span></p> <p><strong>Register/Login below to access this .PDF DOWNLOAD</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/08/full-wallchart.JPG" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics & Pneumatics Wall Chart</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=38401&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Gold Mon, 16 May 2016 13:51:00 +0000 38401 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Principios Ingenieriles Básicos - Circuitos de Presión http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/principios-ingenieriles-b-sicos-circuitos-de-presi-n <div class="node-body blog-body"><p class="rtejustify">Los siguientes escenarios muestran circuitos b&aacute;sicos de presi&oacute;n con bombas fijas para as&iacute; ilustrar configuraciones, que al entenderse, podr&iacute;an utilizarse&nbsp;para&nbsp;dise&ntilde;ar circuitos m&aacute;s complejos. Recuerden que igualmente generalmente&nbsp;es necesario reducir circuitos complejos en varios simples que faciliten el an&aacute;lisis.</p> <h3 class="rtejustify">Presi&oacute;n Piloto</h3> <p class="rtejustify">Cuando se utilizan v&aacute;lvulas direccionales con centro t&aacute;ndem (p a tanque, A&nbsp;y B&nbsp;bloqueados),&nbsp;o abierto (centro H donde todas las conexiones van a tanque),&nbsp;en circuitos que requieren de presi&oacute;n piloto para accionar las v&aacute;lvulas, tiene que haber una manera de mantener la presi&oacute;n cuando las mismas est&aacute;n en la posici&oacute;n central. Uno de los m&eacute;todos consiste en instalar una v&aacute;lvula anti retorno que genere&nbsp;&lsquo;contra-presi&oacute;n&rsquo; en la l&iacute;nea a&nbsp;tanque. Se recomendar&iacute;a instalar una que genere la&nbsp;m&iacute;nima&nbsp;requerida&nbsp;- recordemos que mientras mayor sea el delta en modo &#39;stand-by&#39;, mayor ser&aacute; el calor generado por el sistema. Digamos que se selecciona una con un resorte de 50 psi.</p> <h3 class="rtejustify">Retracci&oacute;n a baja presi&oacute;n</h3> <p class="rtejustify"><img alt="Retracción a baja presión" longdesc="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/node/38391/retraccionabajapresion" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2014/04/Fig1_12.png" style="font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; text-align: justify; width: 300px; float: right; margin: 0px 10px; height: 142px;" />Energizando el solenoide de la v&aacute;lvula direccional se extiende el cilindro a m&aacute;xima presi&oacute;n, determinada por el ajuste de la v&aacute;lvula reguladora de presi&oacute;n principal. De-energizando el solenoide, se retrae el cilindro y se mantiene as&iacute; a la presi&oacute;n reducida de la v&aacute;lvula reguladora de presi&oacute;n piloto. La v&aacute;lvula anti retorno impide que la v&aacute;lvula de presi&oacute;n piloto opere durante la extensi&oacute;n del cilindro.</p> <h3 class="rtejustify">Dos reguladoras de presi&oacute;n</h3> <p><strong style="font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; text-align: justify;"><img alt="Dos reguladoras de presión" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2014/04/Fig2_11.png" style="margin: 0px 10px; font-size: 12.8px; width: 300px; height: 245px; float: right;" /></strong></p> <p class="rtejustify">La utilizaci&oacute;n de dos v&aacute;lvulas de presi&oacute;n en &eacute;ste circuito permite&nbsp;tener dos presiones de trab<span style="font-size: 12.8px;">ajo</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">. En la&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">ca</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">rrera</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;"> de </span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">sub</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">ida</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;"> del cilindro, la</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">&nbsp;v&aacute;lvula reguladora de presi&oacute;n de baja limita la misma en el sistema. En la carrera de bajada, la </span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">regul</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">ad</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">ora</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;"> a </span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">alt</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">a</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;"> presi&oacute;n limita la fuerza m&aacute;xima de prensado en el ciclo de trabajo. El&nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 12.8px;">utilizar la v&aacute;lvula de presi&oacute;n baja ahorra energ&iacute;a al mantener el cilindro extendido a baja presi&oacute;n.</span></p> <div> <h3>Presi&oacute;n reducida</h3> <img alt="Presion reducida" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2014/04/Fig3_8.png" style="margin-right: 10px; margin-left: 10px; font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; width: 300px; height: 303px; float: right;" /></div> <div> <p class="rtejustify">En un sistema con una sola bomba, la presi&oacute;n reducida para una rama del circuito se&nbsp;puede obtener mediante el uso de una v&aacute;lvula reductora de presi&oacute;n. El circuito que mostramos es el t&iacute;pico de una soldadora, que requiere una fuerza alta de sujeci&oacute;n, determinada por la reguladora de presi&oacute;n, y una fuerza reducida en la pistola de soldadura determinada por la reductora de presi&oacute;n. El colocar la v&aacute;lvula anti retorno en paralelo con la reductora permite el paso libre del caudal de retorno cuando el cilindro se retrae.</p> <h3>Control remoto</h3> <img alt="Control remoto, tres presiones" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2014/04/Fig4_9.png" style="margin-right: 10px; margin-left: 10px; font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; float: right; height: 245px; width: 300px;" /> <p class="rtejustify">La regulaci&oacute;n de presi&oacute;n de una bomba desde una estaci&oacute;n remota puede ser logrado utilizando v&aacute;lvulas reguladoras de presi&oacute;n piloto peque&ntilde;as, conectadas a la principal. Cuando la v&aacute;lvula de solenoide de 3 v&iacute;as est&aacute; de energizada, la presi&oacute;n se limita a 1,500 psi en &eacute;ste circuito. Al energizarla, se permite un venteo a 500 o 1,000 psi, dependiendo de la posici&oacute;n de la v&aacute;lvula de 4 v&iacute;as, que viene determinada a su vez por la se&ntilde;al piloto que recibe.</p> <h3 class="rtejustify">Dos presiones</h3> <img alt="Dos presiones" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2014/04/FIG5.png" style="margin-right: 10px; margin-left: 10px; font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; height: 254px; width: 300px; float: right;" /> <p class="rtejustify">Las v&aacute;lvulas reguladoras de presi&oacute;n piloto proporcionan dos presiones para el cilindro de cierre de los moldes y el de inyecci&oacute;n en el circuito de una m&aacute;quina de inyecci&oacute;n de pl&aacute;stico. Con la v&aacute;lvula manual centrada, las v&aacute;lvulas piloteadas por aire de accionan para extender el cilindro de cierre del mole a una presi&oacute;n m&aacute;xima de 2,000 psi. Al operar la v&aacute;lvula manual para extender el cilindro de inyecci&oacute;n, se abre la reguladora a 400 psi a tanque y la reguladora de 2,000 psi a 400 psi. El fluido a alta presi&oacute;n es aguantado por la v&aacute;lvula anti retorno.</p> <p class="rtejustify"><em>Ricardo</em>&nbsp;Sol&oacute;rzano&nbsp;<em>es director en EEM</em>&nbsp;Technologies<em>, empresa que brinda soluciones en&nbsp;hidr&aacute;ulica, neum&aacute;tica y automatizaci&oacute;n a los mercados latino americanos. Para mayor informaci&oacute;n puede contactarlos al&nbsp;+1(855)462-7633,</em>&nbsp;<a href="mailto:info@eemtechnologies.com">info<em>@eemtechnologies.com</em></a><em>,</em>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.eemtechnologies.com/"><em>www.eemtechnologies.com</em></a><em>.</em></p> <p class="rtejustify">&nbsp;</p> </div> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/principios-ingenieriles-b-sicos-circuitos-de-presi-n#comments Circuits H&amp;P en tu idioma! Mon, 16 May 2016 02:37:00 +0000 38391 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Versatile Valve Rates a 10—Sections, That Is http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/versatile-valve-rates-10-sections <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The new CLS sectional mobile valve from Eaton Hydraulics, Eden Prairie, Minn. features a modular design and an envelope Eaton says is among the smallest in the mobile hydraulics industry. The valve allows end users to prioritize work functions to improve productivity, machine efficiency and safety.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/heat-exchangers/how-select-mobile-hydraulic-heat-exchanger">How to Select a Mobile Hydraulic Heat Exchanger</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-amp-motors/circuits-make-gear-pumps-more-versatile ">Circuits make gear pumps more versatile</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/HydraulicValves/Article/False/24695/TechZone-HydraulicValves">Mobile valves do double duty</a></p> </div> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/CLS100%20rendering.jpg" style="width: 349px; height: 246px; margin: 5px; float: left;" title="Off-highway equipment with multifunctional hydraulics can now take advantage of a compact load-sensing valve with versatile features like priority flow sharing and load-sense relief on each section." /></p> <p>&ldquo;The modular, highly versatile CLS Sectional Mobile Valve was designed to streamline features &ndash; adding value without increasing size or sacrificing flexibility,&rdquo; says Andreas Kling, EMEA product group manager at Eaton Hydraulics. &ldquo;With several features unique to many load-sensing valves, such as priority flow sharing and local load-sense relief on each section, the valves let equipment designers accommodate the distinctive needs of their machine.&rdquo; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The pre- and post-compensated valve allows as many as 10 working sections and comes in mid-inlet or custom manifold configurations. The valve is available in four sizes (CLS100, CLS180, CLS250 or CLS350) with maximum flow ratings of 100, 180, 250, and 350 l/min, respectively. Each valve may accommodate a working pressure inlet port of 350 bar and a maximum tank pressure port of 25 bar.&nbsp;</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/versatile-valve-rates-10-sections#comments Hydraulic Valves Fri, 13 May 2016 19:38:00 +0000 38381 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com CHAPTER 11: Slip-in Cartridge Valves (Logic Valves) .PDF Download http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/chapter-11-slip-cartridge-valves-logic-valves-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 15px; line-height: 22.2px;"><a href="http://bit.ly/1TRFsVC"><img align="left" alt="HydraForce" height="150" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/HydraForce_square_logo_PF-tag_RGB.png" style="padding: 5px;" /></a><strong>Chapter 11 is sponsored by HydraForce</strong></span><br /> <span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 15px; line-height: 22.2px;">The term&nbsp;</span><i style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 15px; line-height: 22.2px;">cartridge valves</i><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, Times, 'Times New Roman', serif; font-size: 15px; line-height: 22.2px;">&nbsp;commonly refers to pressure, directional, and flow control valves that screw into a threaded cavity. These valves are mostly rated for low flows - 40 gpm or less, although some manufacturers have units that will flow more than 100 gpm. Compact screw-in cartridges help build inexpensive circuits that are reliable and easy to maintain. Screw-in cartridges are most often part of a drilled manifold but can be purchased in individual bodies. The performance and function of screw-in cartridge valves is similar to the in-line or sub-plate-mounted valves discussed in Chapter 10.</span></p> <p><strong>Register/Login below to access this .PDF DOWNLOAD</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/08/full-wallchart.JPG" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics & Pneumatics Wall Chart</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=38371&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Other Technologies Gold Fri, 13 May 2016 13:50:00 +0000 38371 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Real-Time Fluid Monitoring on the Go http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/real-time-fluid-monitoring-go <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Any manufacturing, agricultural, or mining operation strives to eliminate unplanned equipment downtime and the repair costs associated with it. Unfortunately, not executing routine service and preventive maintenance procedures still occurs. The result, then, is hydraulic systems operating with contaminated fluid and the subsequent reliability problems, erratic operation, and premature component failures that inevitably occur.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/air-compressors/monitor-air-quality-ensure-system-efficiency ">Monitor Air Quality to Ensure System Efficiency</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/pneumatic-control-info-go">Pneumatic Control Info on the Go</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/motion-industries-launches-industrial-solutions-website">Motion Industries Launches Industrial Solutions Website</a></p> </div> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/Old_excavator_1.jpg" style="margin: 5px; font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; width: 231px; height: 173px; float: left;" title="1. Operators of a South American mining company wanted to reduce maintenance costs and downtime in a fleet of large fleet of hydraulic shovels, excavators, and rock crushers. They accomplished their goals by incorporating the Hy-Trax Telematic communications module with remote-controlled sampling system from Schroeder Industries." /></p> <p>Even if an organization has a preventive maintenance program in place, lapses can still occur. A solution, then, would be to monitor fluid contamination in real time and signal operators when it approaches dangerous level.</p> <p>That&rsquo;s just what a South American mining company did. The mining company has a fleet of hydraulic shovels, excavators, and rock crushers that undergoes scheduled downtime to reduce unscheduled malfunctions from contamination. However, scheduling the downtime for preventive maintenance is like walking a tightrope: too frequent costs money than necessary, but too seldom increases the likelihood of equipment failure.</p> <p><strong>Automation Provides the Solution</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/HYTRAX_0.jpg" style="width: 350px; height: 350px; margin: 5px; float: left;" title="2. Schroeder’s Hy-Trax sampling system routes hydraulic fluid from a reservoir or low-pressure line through a variable-speed pump-motor drive that controls flow for accurate detection of fluid contamination under variable conditions." />Instead, the mining company began using a real-time particle counting system that signals when fluid contamination approaches a critical level. This eliminates the cost of replacing filters prematurely but also lets technicians change filters before a machine suffers a failure.</p> <p>The system adopted by the mining company is the Hy-Trax Telematic communications module with remote-controlled sampling system from Schroeder Industries, Leetsdale, Pa. The system monitors cleanliness of fluid in hydraulic reservoirs, then transmits results to maintenance department headquarters. This lets the mining company&#39;s equipment technicians schedule maintenance based on actual fluid cleanliness levels instead of hours of operation. As a result, filters are now changed only when necessary and without disrupting mining operations, but before contamination poses any serious threat to machine reliability.</p> <p>Schroeder&rsquo;s Hy-Trax fluid sampling system is at the heart of the patent-pending, on-board particle counting system. It uses telematics to remotely monitor cleanliness of the hydraulic fluid and communicates the unit location through a GSM cellular network with data displayed on a web-based dashboard.&nbsp; Real-time data collection and processing allows tracking, trending, and predict ing downtime, which, ultimately, increases productivity. With multiple options offered, the telematics module automatically controls the speed and pressure of the unit&rsquo;s variable-speed pump-motor drive for accurate sensor readings in variable conditions.</p> <p>Users can set particle count and water saturation limits to activate an alarm if prescribed limits are reached. When set limits are exceeded, the unit will send a text message to users, notifying them of excessive contamination. Particle counts and water saturation levels are clearly displayed graphically in real time. Furthermore, a table and gauges let users track and trend (days, months, and years) data to move from reactionary-based maintenance to predictive.</p> <p><em>For more information on Schroeder&rsquo;s Hy-Trax Telematic communications module with remote-controlled sampling system, call (724) 318-1100, or visit <a href="http://www.schroederindustries.com" target="_blank">www.schroederindustries.com</a>.</em></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/real-time-fluid-monitoring-go#comments Agricultural Controls & Instrumentation Thu, 12 May 2016 21:27:00 +0000 38361 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Extreme Pressures Require Extreme Safety http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fluid-power-basics/extreme-pressures-require-extreme-safety <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Working on hydraulic equipment can be dangerous, especially if you are not well-learned in the technology. A load suddenly and unexpectedly moving can cause serious injury or worse. The hydraulic fluid itself also poses serious potential dangers. Fluid in a working hydraulic system is often hot enough to cause serious burns from pipework or the fluid itself.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/effect-temperature-static-hydraulic-pressure">The Effect of Temperature On Static Hydraulic Pressure</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-components/forklift-scale-leverages-hydraulic-pressure-sensor-weigh-loads">Forklift Scale Leverages Hydraulic-Pressure Sensor to Weigh Loads</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/pneumatic-valves/certified-valves-ensure-safety-event-fault">Certified Valves Ensure Safety In the Event of a Fault</a></p> </div> <p>However, even greater potential danger is posed by pressurized fluid. Even at moderate pressure, a jet of fluid shooting from an opening in a hydraulic system can easily penetrate the skin. Problem is, injuries of this type initially may not appear serious because the fluid entry site can be very small. The danger lies with the injury that has occurred below the skin. Even if immediate treatment is performed, fluid injection injuries can cause tissue damage, infection, toxicity reaction, amputation, and even death.</p> <p>And this is just with hydraulic systems at moderate pressure. The potential dangers become more pronounced with high- and ultra-high-pressure (in excess of 10,000 psi) hydraulics. Kenneth Kjellberg, Divisions Manager, High-Pressure &amp; Engineering at <a href="http://www.cejn.us" target="_blank">CEJN</a> AB, Sk&ouml;vde, Sweden:</p> <p><em>Success in using ultra-high-pressure (UHP) hydraulics in applications such as rescue tools, bolt tensioning, and hydraulic torque tools is highly dependent on a flexible hose and quick-coupling technology. Imagine a situation where a ship&rsquo;s mechanic needs to tighten a bolt on a large ship engine in the confined space of an engine room and you can immediately see the need for and importance of a fast and reliable connection method. To install an application with six to eight tensioners and then have to fit hard piping between them would be quite a time-consuming process requiring several hours of bending, cutting, threading steel tubes.</em></p> <p><em><strong>Effects of High Pressure</strong></em></p> <p><em><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/CEJN%20metal%20seal.jpg" style="width: 350px; height: 156px; border-width: 0px; border-style: solid; margin: 5px; float: left;" title="CEJN developed a metal-to-metal sealing cone system for its ultra-high-pressure quick-acting couplings that fits against a normal 120° drill cone and uses a standard drill cone and a CEJN Metal Seal (CMS) adapter to create a safe and cost-effective seal." />The reason for such extreme pressures is, of course, to make components as light and compact as possible. Because force is the product of pressure and area, doubling the pressure allows reducing the area by half while still applying the same force from a tool or other machine. This simple correlation has led UHP equipment users to demand higher and higher pressures.</em></p> <p><em>Of course, when a hydraulic system is pressurized to this extreme, it also results in extreme levels of stress in materials. To avoid any risk of injury to users, materials and heat and surface treatments must to be carefully tested to ensure the proper combination of surface hardness and toughness to withstand the required number of pressure cycles without material fatigue. </em></p> <p><em>This is especially true of quick-acting couplings, where materials must not only withstand continual pressure cycles, but also tolerate repeated connection and disconnection. Hose and quick connect technology now allows us to establish such a connection in just a couple of minutes &mdash; even at pressures to 400 MPa</em></p> <p><em>Safety is a key concern with any connection between a hose end and the coupling/nipple. The higher the pressure, the more reliable the connection must be. In the lowest pressure range of UHP hydraulics it is quite common to use NPT thread connections sealed with Teflon tape or liquid sealant. For straight threads, such as BSP, a bonded rubber metal seal ring is also common. For pressures exceeding 100 MPa, emphasis is placed on minimizing the pressurized area and avoiding the use of tape, sealants, or washers.</em></p> <p><em><strong>Safe and Effective Sealing</strong></em></p> <p><em>The proper method is to use a metal-to-metal sealing cone. Most cone systems have a male and female shape that must be manufactured using special cutting tools. In the early 1980s CEJN developed a sealing cone, which is still manufactured today, that fits against a normal 120&deg; drill cone. Using the standard drill cone and a CEJN Metal Seal (CMS) adapter creates a safe and cost-effective seal. The CMS port dimensions are free for anyone to use.</em></p> <p><em>A regular maintenance schedule is vitally important to user safety for these UHP systems. Of course, the potential for accidents increases as machines wear with age, especially if they contain some obsolete design characteristics or have not been well maintained.</em></p> <p>To help users recognize unsafe practices and work safely around high-pressure hydraulic and other fluid systems, CEJN industrial Corp. offers a free, 20-page manual titled, &ldquo;Safety Guidelines for Ultra High-Pressure Hydraulic Applications.&rdquo;&nbsp; Go to bit.ly/HP516CEJN to download a copy, or visit <a href="http://www.cejn.us" target="_blank">www.cejn.us</a> for more information.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fluid-power-basics/extreme-pressures-require-extreme-safety#comments Fluid Power Basics Thu, 12 May 2016 21:19:00 +0000 38351 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com May 2016 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulics-pneumatics/2016-05-12 <div class="node-body magazine_issue-body"></div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-mag-teasers"> <div class="field-mag-teaser"> <a href="/waste-management/thermal-analysis-garbage-truck-s-hydraulics">Thermal Analysis of a Garbage Truck’s Hydraulics</a> <a href="/controls-instrumentation/controlling-biggest-water-show-earth">Controlling the Biggest Water Show on Earth</a> <a href="/waste-management/waste-expo-2016-unveil-latest-industry-wide-innovations">Waste Expo 2016 to Unveil Latest Industry-Wide Innovations</a> </div> </fieldset> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-publication-info"><legend>Publication Info</legend> </fieldset> Thu, 12 May 2016 04:00:00 +0000 38341 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Pneumatic Control Info on the Go http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/pneumatic-control-info-go <div class="node-body article-body"><p><a href="http://www.controlair.com" target="_blank">ControlAir Inc.</a> launched a new mobile website that allows users to access product datasheets; product specifications; installation, operation, and maintenance instructions; product drawings; certificates; FAQs; and local distributor information from laptop, iPad, iOS, or Android devices.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/online-shopping-masking-products-made-easy">Online Shopping for Masking Products Made Easy</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/new-flint-hydraulics-website-provides-easy-navigation-users">New Flint Hydraulics Website Provides Easy Navigation for Users</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/motion-industries-launches-industrial-solutions-website">Motion Industries Launches Industrial Solutions Website</a></p> </div> <p>&ldquo;The new responsive mobile website gives our customers an easier reading experience when viewing product specifications while out in the field,&rdquo; says Mark Levine, ControlAir&rsquo;s director of sales and marketing. &ldquo;Engineers and technicians are often on-site when repairs are needed and not in front of a computer. With our new mobile-enhanced website, anyone can view installation and maintenance instructions easily on any type platform.&rdquo;</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/mobile-device-photo_iphone_web_0.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 956px;" title="Control Air’s website will redirect to a mobile-compatible version on any mobile device." /></p> <p>ControlAir Inc. manufactures precision pneumatic and electropneumatic controls. The company&rsquo;s markets include process control, semiconductor, printing and converting presses, diagnostic and surgical medical equipment, robotics, quality control, automotive, analyzers, compressors, pumps, and paint equipment. Visit <a href="http://www.controlair.com" target="_blank">www.controlair.com</a> for a range of full product specifications with PDF files, 3D interactive catalogs, downloadable 3D and 2D CAD drawings, and a company profile.</p> <p><em>Looking for parts? Go to <a href="http://sourceesb.com/" target="_blank">SourceESB</a>.</em></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/pneumatic-control-info-go#comments Controls & Instrumentation News Wed, 11 May 2016 18:39:00 +0000 38321 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com How To Fix Water Hammer In Hydraulic Circuits http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-fix-water-hammer-hydraulic-circuits <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Water hammer is the term used to describe the effect that occurs when the velocity of the fluid moving through a pipe suddenly changes. Sudden change in fluid velocity causes a pressure wave to propagate within the pipe. Under certain conditions, this pressure wave can create a banging noise, similar to that you would expect to hear when beating a pipe with a hammer. Hence the phrase. Not surprisingly, common symptoms of this problem are high noise levels, vibration and broken pipes.<br /> <br /> When a moving column of fluid hits a solid boundary - when a directional control valve closes suddenly for example, its velocity drops to zero and the fluid column deforms, within the rigid cross-sectional area of the pipe, to absorb the (kinetic) energy associated with its motion - similar to a car hitting a concrete wall. However unlike a car, the fluid is almost incompressible so the deformation is small and a store of energy accumulates in the fluid - similar to compression of a spring. The magnitude of the pressure rise that results from the subsequent release of this stored energy can be expressed mathematically as follows:<br /> <br /> Pr = P + u p c<br /> <br /> Where: P is initial pressure, u and p are initial fluid velocity and density respectively and c is the speed of sound through the fluid.<br /> <br /> Accumulators and other damping devices are sometimes installed in an effort to deal with the symptoms this problem. However, the significance of the pressure rise equation shown above is that fluid velocity is the only variable that can be altered to address the root cause. Put simply, reducing the velocity of the fluid column that hits the solid boundary, reduces the magnitude of the subsequent pressure rise. Returning to the traffic crash analogy - the slower the car is traveling when it hits the wall, the less damage is caused.<br /> <br /> In hydraulics, the easiest way to do this - on paper at least, is to increase the diameter of the pipe. This reduces fluid velocity for a given flow rate. The other alternative is to control deceleration of the fluid column by choking valve switching time to the point where the pump&#39;s pressure compensator and/or system relief valve reacts fast enough to reduce flow rate through the pipe and therefore velocity of the fluid.<br /> <br /> Failure to address water hammer can result in damage to system components, making it a costly mistake. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-fix-water-hammer-hydraulic-circuits#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 10 May 2016 00:35:00 +0000 38301 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Knowledge Center Hub Offers Educational Media on Sealing Tech http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/seals/knowledge-center-hub-offers-educational-media-sealing-tech <div class="node-body article-body"><p><a href="http://www.knowledgecenter.trelleborg.com" target="_blank">Trelleborg Sealing Solutions&rsquo;</a> online Knowledge Center now has a new information hub that showcases the best practices for sealing technology. The Center provides standard technology documentation to design engineers working in fluid-power and chemical-processing industries, automotive designs, and the oil and gas industries.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/learning-resources/ifps-offers-safety-posters-workers-educators">IFPS Offers Safety Posters for Workers, Educators</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/new-spin-hydraulics-education">A New &ldquo;Spin&rdquo; on Hydraulics Education</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/your-hydraulics-education-upfront-now-or-repair-shop-later">YOUR Hydraulics Education: Upfront Now OR At The Repair Shop Later?</a></p> </div> <p>From technical articles to sealing advice tidbits, visitors can opt to download extended articles and whitepapers. In addition, an &ldquo;Ask the Expert&rdquo; section lets design engineers send questions to Trelleborg&rsquo;s technical team.</p> <p><img alt="Trelleborg" height="291" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/Trelleborg-Res-Center_0.gif" style="margin: 5px; float: right;" title="Trelleborg’s Knowledge Center is accessible across mobile and desktop platforms. " width="361" />David Brown, global director for oil and gas at Trelleborg Sealing Solutions, says, &ldquo;The Knowledge Center is about providing solutions for tomorrow&rsquo;s engineering. This isn&rsquo;t about us showcasing our products; far from it, the Knowledge Center is non-promotional; it is a resource tool for engineers working in highly technical fields related to sealing.&rdquo;</p> <p><em>Looking for parts? Go to&nbsp;<a href="http://www.SourceESB.com" target="_blank">SourceESB</a>.</em></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/seals/knowledge-center-hub-offers-educational-media-sealing-tech#comments Seals Mon, 09 May 2016 15:50:00 +0000 38281 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com My Kind of Opinion Polls http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/my-kind-opinion-polls <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>As the heat of summer approaches, the heat will also be turned up on the impending presidential elections and the candidates. The media will hang on every word spoken by candidates, hoping they will slip up and say something they shouldn&rsquo;t. There will also be lots of polls, and you can bet the media will have much to say, no matter which side a candidate falls on.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/salarysurvey">2015 Engineering Salary Survey: Compensation Is Just the Beginning</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/did-you-see-whole-story">Did You See the Whole Story?</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/study-summarizes-challenges-and-best-practices-b2b-marketing">Study Summarizes Challenges and Best Practices of B2B Marketing</a></p> </div> <p>We conduct polls for <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics</em>, which we call reader surveys. Some are conducted for marketing purposes, where we ask readers which ads they remember seeing, what their habits are for using the internet, and questions about their work. Another asks readers what brand names come to mind when they think of specific components, like hydraulic hose, pneumatic cylinders, valves, or electronic controls.</p> <p>The poll that hits close to home for me is our Readers&rsquo; Editorial Survey. And unlike political polls, it doesn&rsquo;t vary much from one to another. In every survey I&rsquo;ve seen, our &ldquo;Ideas &amp; Applications&rdquo; section grabs the most reader interest&mdash;more than 90% say they usually or always read it. Readership of technical articles varies widely, depending on the topic. Surprisingly, seals consistently scores high marks. I guess this means that no matter how good seals become, designers are always looking for something a little better.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/survey_web.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 339px;" /></p> <p>The surveys also show trends. One of our perennial questions asks if the content of <em>H&amp;P</em> is too technical, not technical enough, or just right. I suppose the best distribution we could hope for would be 80% just right, 10% too technical, and 10% not technical enough. However, the trend has been shifting toward more readers stating our content is not technical enough. No surprise here&mdash;as a staff becomes smaller, it can&rsquo;t produce at the same level as before.</p> <p>But my favorite part of the survey is the last question, where we ask readers to submit comments in their own words. Our last survey had more than 19 pages of comments, and most comments were quite positive. Many remarked on how many years they have subscribed to <em>H&amp;P</em>, how important it is to them, that it&rsquo;s the only trade publication they read every month, and that they read every issue from cover to cover.</p> <p>With results like this, I&rsquo;d like to conduct our survey every month. But don&rsquo;t worry, that will never happen.</p> <p><em>Looking for parts? Go to <a href="http://sourceesb.com/" target="_blank">SourceESB</a>.</em></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/my-kind-opinion-polls#comments Community The Hitch Post Mon, 09 May 2016 14:05:00 +0000 38291 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Troubleshooting Challenge: Hoses Pull Away from Fittings http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hose-tubing/troubleshooting-challenge-hoses-pull-away-fittings <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/hoses-pull-away-fittings-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Technicians at a paper mill were puzzled by hydraulic hoses pulling loose from their end fittings. Before this problem began, the workers had replaced a screw-in safety relief valve with an incorrect valve&mdash;its <em>P</em> and <em>T</em> ports were reversed.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-hpu-too-noisy">Troubleshooting Challenge: HPU Is Too Noisy</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-cargo-ship-pressure-buildup-problem">Troubleshooting Challenge: Cargo Ship Pressure Buildup Problem</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-mill-removal-circuit-doesn-t-move-large-rolls">Troubleshooting Challenge: Mill Removal Circuit Doesn&rsquo;t Move for Large Rolls</a></p> </div> <p>This relief valve caused the swashplate in the hydraulic system&rsquo;s pressure-compensated piston pumps to break a couple of times within a two-month period. The cause was determined to be pressure spikes that reached 9,000 psi, even though the pump&rsquo;s compensator setting was 1,000 psi. These spikes resulted from a safety relief valve not functioning properly. The relief valve problem was discovered and corrected, but then the hose-end failures began.</p> <p><img alt="Hydraulic hoses" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/ThinkstockPhotos-WEB.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 397px;" /></p> <p>Technicians made hose assemblies for various machines of the paper line in a room equipped with the proper fittings for the hose they stocked. Workers made sure the hose was inserted into the fitting at the proper depth and that they used the proper die set for crimping the fittings onto the hose. The working pressure rating for each hose assembly was 400 to 500 psi higher than system pressure.</p> <p>As the hose failures occurred, technicians looked, again, for pressure spikes, but couldn&rsquo;t detect any.</p> <p>What was causing the hoses to pull away from their end fittings?</p> <h3>Find the Solution</h3> <p>Think you know the answer to this month&rsquo;s problem? Submit your solution by e-mailing <a href="mailto:timmer@cfc-solar.com">Mindy Timmer</a>. All correct solutions submitted by June 2, 2016, will be entered into a random drawing for a $50 gift card. The winner will be notified, and his or her name will be printed in a future issue. Only one gift card will be awarded to any participant within a calendar year.</p> <p>Congratulations to John Leyzorek, of&nbsp;Leyzorek Machine &amp; Tool Co., Marlinton, W.V., who won our April puzzler by having his name picked from those who correctly answered that problem. A $50 gift card is in the mail to him.</p> <h3><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-hpu-too-noisy" target="_blank">Solution to Last Month&rsquo;s Challenge: HPU Is Too Noisy</a></h3> <p>Local atmospheric pressure should be a consideration when shipping a hydraulic power unit (HPU) to a destination at a high elevation. For example, Denver lies more than 5,000 ft. above sea level, and its normal atmospheric pressure is about 12.1 psia. This is in contrast to the 14.7 psia often considered at sea level. This 2.60-psia difference doesn&rsquo;t seem like much, but it means less pressure is available to force oil up the pump&rsquo;s intake line. As a result, the pump must create a stronger vacuum to compensate, causing the cavitation noise to increase.</p> <p>We had to remove the pump-motor unit and remount it to the lower side of the reservoir to provide a flooded intake. This now added the weight of the oil to the atmospheric pressure pushing the oil into the pump. Consequently, the HPU&rsquo;s noise decreased to only 82 dB<sub>A</sub> while operating in Cincinnati.</p> <p><em>Looking for parts? Go to&nbsp;<a href="http://www.SourceESB.com" target="_blank">SourceESB</a>.</em></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/hoses-pull-away-fittings-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hose-tubing/troubleshooting-challenge-hoses-pull-away-fittings#comments Hose & Tubing Fri, 06 May 2016 15:12:00 +0000 38261 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hoses Pull Away from Fittings (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/hoses-pull-away-fittings-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>Technicians at a paper mill were puzzled by hydraulic hoses pulling loose from their end fittings. Before this problem began, the workers had replaced...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/08/full-wallchart.JPG" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics & Pneumatics Wall Chart</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=38271&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Gold Fri, 06 May 2016 14:39:00 +0000 38271 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Waste Expo 2016 to Unveil Latest Industry-Wide Innovations http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/waste-management/waste-expo-2016-unveil-latest-industry-wide-innovations <div class="field-deck"> In the ongoing push for a greener society, the Waste Expo, which descends on Las Vegas in June, becomes a must-attend event. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/waste-expo-2016-unveil-latest-industry-wide-innovations-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high-resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Waste-EXPOlogo.jpg" style="width: 250px; height: 284px; float: left;" />This year, more than 13,000 professionals in the waste industry are expected to attend the <a href="http://WasteExpo.com" target="_blank">Waste Expo</a>, which offers up an array of ideas and solutions on ways to streamline businesses while minimizing all forms of waste. The show will take place once again at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, with special events starting June 6 and exhibits on display from June 7-9. The show provides opportunities to find potential partners, offer and explore services, pick the brains of thought leaders, and become acquainted with C-level executives in any industry.</p> <p>Because most processes and applications implemented in industry produce waste, the Waste Expo will attract an extensive breadth of manufacturers, etc. Of the anticipated 600 exhibitors, more than 40 will be directly tied to hydraulic and pneumatic components and systems for industries ranging from construction and offshore technology to transportation and food production. Some of the fluid-power companies expected to be on hand are provided in the Exhibitors List below.</p> <p>The show partners with the National Waste &amp; Recycling Association (NWRA) and Dr. Stuart Buckner, former Director of the U.S. Composting Council, to provide a five-star-rated, interactive conference with meaningful topics and events. The panel includes expert speakers from a range of different industries.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/wasteexpo-unveils-latest-waste-removal-trends">WasteExpo Unveils Latest Waste-Removal Trends</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/wasteexpo-2014-waste-not-want-not">WasteExpo 2014: Waste not, want not</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/waste-management/thermal-analysis-garbage-truck-s-hydraulics">Thermal Analysis of a Garbage Truck&rsquo;s Hydraulics</a></p> </div> <p>A waste, recycling, and organics hall, which will feature hundreds of products and solutions, provides opportunities to network with potential partners,</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/leadimage.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 397px;" title="Approximately 600 exhibitors, including more than 40 in the fluid power arena, will be on hand at next month’s Waste Expo." /></p> <p>The new Food-Recovery forum targets all producers or processors of food waste in hospitality, manufacturing, healthcare, restaurants, and other industries that generate food waste. Part of the Composting &amp; Organics Recycling program, the forum focuses on reducing food waste in the U.S. and recovering inedible food for beneficial use.</p> <p><strong>Special Events</strong></p> <p>On Tuesday and Wednesday, visitors will be able to drive the new MACK LR semi-truck model. It integrates several electrohydraulic and electropneumatic actuation and braking systems that make it easier to drive in stop-and-go traffic and facilitate side-loading for trash collectors. Visitors are invited to experience its maneuverability and ergonomic design, including the new MACK mDRIVE HD automated transmission. Learn more about the truck&rsquo;s power train, suspensions, and parts at <a href="http://www.macktrucks.com" target="_blank">www.macktrucks.com</a>.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/secondImage.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 466px;" title="The Waste Expo offers networking opportunities among experts across various industries regarding solutions for waste and recycling." /></p> <p>On Thursday, visitors are invited to attend the recycling and sustainability tour at the Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino. The first part of the tour includes an exhibit of the world&rsquo;s second largest solar array, responsible for supplying up to 26% of the convention center&rsquo;s power needs and reducing CO<sub>2</sub> emissions by up to 6,300 metric tons per year. The second part of the tour includes a rundown of the resort&rsquo;s waste stream. Attendees can learn how waste from hotel rooms, casinos, kitchens, and conventions are sorted and processed for reuse, recycling, and landfill. The event only holds 500 people, so interested parties are encouraged to register as soon as possible. Round-trip transportation from the convention center to the resort is provided.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Exhibitor-List.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 1126px;" /></p> <p>For more information about the Waste Expo, or to register, go to <a href="http://WasteExpo.com" target="_blank">WasteExpo.com</a>.</p> <p><em>Looking for parts? Go to <a href="http://sourceesb.com/" target="_blank">SourceESB</a>.</em></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/waste-management/waste-expo-2016-unveil-latest-industry-wide-innovations#comments Waste Management Events Fri, 06 May 2016 13:36:00 +0000 38241 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Rewards of Purchasing Reman Units http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/rewards-purchasing-reman-units <div class="field-deck"> Sponsored by Fluidyne </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/FluiDyne-Logo-199x70.gif" style="width: 150px; height: 53px; float: right;" />When you choose a Remanufactured product with FluiDyne Fluid Power you are getting a unit that performs to the same specifications as new, costs less, has an 18 month warranty and is helping the environment all at the same time.&nbsp;</p> <p><br /> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write('\ <iframe style="height: 750px; width: 100%; border:0;” frameBorder="0" scrolling="no"\ src="http://pages.hydraulicspneumatics.com/HP_Digital_Fluidyne-RewardsRemanUnits_WP_JR_042916?partnerref=' + getParameterByName("partnerref") + "&elq=" + getParameterByName("elq2") + "&code=" + getParameterByName("code") + "&PK=" + getParameterByName("PK") + "&PR=" + getParameterByName("PR") + '"></iframe>'); function getParameterByName(name) { var match = RegExp('[?&]' + name + '=([^&]*)').exec(window.location.search); if (match == null) return ""; return match && decodeURIComponent(match[1].replace(/\+/g, ' ')); } </script></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/rewards-purchasing-reman-units#comments White Papers Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Thu, 05 May 2016 18:33:00 +0000 38101 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Controlling the Biggest Water Show on Earth http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/controlling-biggest-water-show-earth <div class="field-deck"> When heavy loads and precise motion control with pinpoint repeatability are needed, electrohydraulics is a frequent choice—even when operations occur under water. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/controlling-biggest-water-show-earth-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Taking in Franco Dragone&rsquo;s <em>The House of Dancing Water</em> production in Macau, China&rsquo;s City of Dreams, is breathtaking. Sophisticated staging is actually composed of eight different lift sections. The stage <em>(Fig. 1)</em> sits atop a forest of hydraulic cylinders <em>(Fig. 2)</em> that lift and lower the sections up to&nbsp; 27 ft. in the world&rsquo;s largest indoor swimming pool. At times the lifts are raised to form a dry stage and at other times, they independently recede to produce a water pool for swimmers, only to emerge again carrying large props such as a pagoda structure <em>(Fig. 3)</em> and a 26-ton ship <em>(Fig. 4)</em>.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/entertainment/hydraulics-set-stage-biggest-water-show-earth">Hydraulics Set the Stage at the Biggest Water Show on Earth</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/IndZone/Entertainment/Article/False/87632/IndZone-Entertainment">Spider-Man musical relies on the power of hydraulics to control and lift stages and platforms</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/Cylinders/Article/False/9467/TechZone-Cylinders?page=3">Hydraulics joins the Cirque</a></p> </div> <p>The cylinders are controlled by a bank of 11 RMC150 electrohydraulic motion controllers <em>(Fig. 5)</em> manufactured by <a href="http://sourceesb.com/manufacturers/search?q=Delta%20Computer%20Systems" target="_blank">Delta Computer Systems</a>. Four hydraulic cylinders (mounted symmetrically underneath) actuate each main platform section&mdash;for a grand total of 32 motion axes controlling the main platform sections. Another 18 axes operate three performers&rsquo; entry and exit ramps (each ramp, called a vomitorium, has six axes of control for lift, extension, and tilt). All main platform cylinders are controlled by remote valve manifolds located in the basement of the theater beneath the pool, and the cylinders are mounted to the pool floor inside submerged concrete caissons.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 1" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/Delta-Fig-1_.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: left; width: 331px; height: 248px;" title="1. The stage used in The House of Dancing Water production is composed of 12 sections that can be raised and lowered independently for a wide range of effects." />Because the theater is constructed with separate water-holding and dry enclosures, the hydraulic valves and cylinders are located a distance apart, with a large amount of hydraulic oil (on average 70 gal) in each cylinder and in the plumbing between the cylinder and its valve. To keep the platform sections level and avoid deforming the structural frames, motion of each cylinder operating a lift must be tightly synchronized with each other. This requirement is made even more challenging by the compressibility of the volume of hydraulic oil between each valve and cylinder.</p> <p>To provide the hydraulic components for this large and complex application, <a href="http://www.comoso.com" target="_blank">Controlled Motion Solutions (Comoso)</a>, Santa Ana, Calif., was hired by the general contractor, Handling Specialty of Grimsby, Ontario, Canada. Comoso&rsquo;s system engineering manager, Matt Schoenbachler, headed up the design of the overall hydraulic system and all associated hardware. The team worked with Parker-Hannifin to design custom double-acting cylinders to control the platforms.&nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 2" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/Delta-Fig-2.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: right; width: 240px; height: 321px;" title="2. Here is a view of the hydraulic cylinders in the empty pool under the stage. The LMDT rods are visible next to the cylinder rods." />Each cylinder has an 8-in. bore with a 7-in. rod and a 324.8-in. (27 ft.) stroke. The cylinders are fed by Parker servo-quality proportional valves. To provide a measure of its position, each cylinder is instrumented with a 27-ft. long magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer from MTS Sensors. Hydraulic fluid to operate the system is pumped from a 3,500-gal reservoir by 21 Parker PV variable-displacement piston pumps and T7 fixed-displacement vane pumps. In total, the pumps can deliver up to 1,671 gpm of pressurized fluid. The pumps are driven by seven electric motors that can transmit up to 2,100 hp.</p> <h3>Accounting for Compliance</h3> <p>As mentioned earlier, synchronizing the motion of the multiple cylinders operating each stage panel provided challenges to the designers. &ldquo;Because of the compressibility (compliance) of the large volumes of hydraulic oil contained in the plumbing and cylinder assembly itself, we understood that a simple PID control algorithm would be difficult to tune in this application, and only a Delta Computer Systems controller would have a chance of providing favorable results,&rdquo; says Schoenbachler. Even with control loop gains set to low values, starts and stops could still cause the system to oscillate.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The team&rsquo;s software developer tuned the system in consultation with Delta Computer Systems engineer Dennis Ritola. The team solved the problem by augmenting a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm in the motion controller with an additional control equation factor in order to avoid the oscillations. &ldquo;We avoided the oscillation problem by adding a second derivative gain term to the control equation to compensate for the springiness of the system,&rdquo; says Ritola.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 3" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/Delta-Fig-3.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: left; width: 360px; height: 239px;" title="3. A pagoda is one of the large scenery items that can be lifted out of the water on the central stage panel." />Introducing the second-derivative gain element requires that position feedback information be converted to measured accelerations. However, doing so can &ldquo;create&rdquo; significant high-frequency noise in the measurements and the resulting control output. &ldquo;In this case, to cancel the output noise effects, we recommended adding a low-pass filter to the control output that drives the valves,&rdquo; explains Ritola. &ldquo;This eliminated the output noise and allowed the control axes to be properly tuned.&rdquo; When the process was finished, the stage platforms moved and positioned smoothly with no oscillations.&nbsp;</p> <h3>Solving Another Challenge</h3> <p>In addition to compensating for the capacitive effects of the long hydraulic lines, the controllers must compensate for dynamic changes in the loads on the cylinders as a lift floor breaks the surface of the water in order to keep the motion of the lifts smooth. The challenge is dealing with the buoyancy of the platforms. As a platform moves up out of the water, its effective load increases because it is no longer counteracted by the buoyancy from the water. The system design specification dictates that the extensions of the cylinders operating any lift never differ by more than 5 mm dynamically, while moving at a rate of 4 in./sec.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 4" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/Delta-Fig-4.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: right; width: 293px; height: 195px;" title="4. The pool needed to be 26 ft. deep in order to provide enough clearance for this ship structure to appear magically from below the water level." />To coordinate the motion of the multiple axes operating each panel, the controls engineering team set up the motion controllers to use a special synchronization function that allows some or all of the axes that the motion controllers to be configured as slave axes, under the control of a master axis or a master input coming from an outside control source. In the Dancing Water system, the motion of each lift cylinder is tightly controlled by an RMC as a slave axis following commands from a master PLC.&nbsp;</p> <h3>Feedback of Linear Position</h3> <p>The motion controllers receive cylinder position feedback from the magnetostrictive linear displacement transducers (LDTs) that are mounted inverted alongside the cylinder bodies, with the controls on the rod side and the sensing probe extending down toward the cap of the cylinder.&nbsp;This orientation allows easier removal and repair or replacement than if they were mounted inside the cylinders.&nbsp;A stainless-steel rod and magnet carrier is attached to the cylinder&rsquo;s rod clevis that carries the magnet up and down the sensing element of the probe pressure tube. The LDTs, each situated in a watertight housing, interface to the RMCs in the dry area under the pool via synchronous serial interface using waterproof cabling, seal glands, and connectors.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 5" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/DeltaFig5LinearTransducers.gif" style="margin: 5px; float: left; width: 420px; height: 308px;" title="5. The Dancing Waters application uses 11 RMC150 motion controllers with Ethernet communications to the PLC. " />Another interesting aspect of the magnetostrictive LDTs was pointed out by Mike Wardle of MTS Sensors Division. He said the maximum length for the standard rigid sensor, in general, is 300 in. (25 ft.). So the 27-ft. requirement for this application demanded an alternative. Wardle said the standard maximum length for a flexible sensor is 10 m&mdash;32.8 ft. This meant a standard flexible sensor could be used and held rigid inside the watertight enclosure. Additionally, these flexible sensors are easily coiled, packaged, and shipped more cost effectively.</p> <p>The flexibility and smooth motion enabled by the motion controllers far exceeded the expectations of the show&rsquo;s production staff. &ldquo;Initially, the staff was hoping to be able to position the stages in some simple configurations, but they learned that through the precision and programmability of the hydraulic controls more special effects were possible,&rdquo; says Comoso&rsquo;s Schoenbachler. &ldquo;We believe that our system gave Franco Dragone the capability to produce more dynamic moves in making an even more spectacular show.&rdquo; And as an indicator of the robustness of the hydraulic system, The House of Dancing Water show has been delighting audiences for more than five years.</p> <p>Take a behind-the-scenes look at the staging:</p> <p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="315" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/uO1PqsjRfhY" width="560"></iframe></p> <p><em>Looking for parts? Go to&nbsp;<a href="http://www.SourceESB.com" target="_blank">SourceESB</a>.</em></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/controlling-biggest-water-show-earth-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/controlling-biggest-water-show-earth#comments Controls & Instrumentation Thu, 05 May 2016 15:35:00 +0000 38201 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Controlling the Biggest Water Show on Earth (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/controlling-biggest-water-show-earth-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>Taking in Franco Dragone&rsquo;s <em>The House of Dancing Water</em> production in Macau, China&rsquo;s City of Dreams, is breathtaking. Sophisticated staging is actually composed of eight different lift sections. The stage sits atop a forest of hydraulic cylinders...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> </div> Thu, 05 May 2016 14:58:00 +0000 38231 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Thermal Analysis of a Garbage Truck’s Hydraulics http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/waste-management/thermal-analysis-garbage-truck-s-hydraulics <div class="field-byline"> Peter Weller, P.E. </div> <div class="field-deck"> What happens when a hydraulic system operates with fluid temperature that exceeds the normally recommended maximum of 180° F? A model was developed to study thermodynamic behavior of a hydraulic system in a garbage truck that can also be applied to hydraulic systems on other work trucks. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/thermal-analysis-garbage-truck-s-hydraulics-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high-resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>A characteristic sometimes overlooked with hydraulic systems on industrial trucks, such as garbage trucks, is what happens when&nbsp; they operate at high fluid temperature.&nbsp; High fluid temperature can degrade the fluid, cause premature failure of components, rob system performance, and even pose safety hazards to personnel.&nbsp;</p> <p>A finite-difference model for a typical garbage-truck hydraulic system was derived to predict these temperatures. Actual weather data for a sea-level southwestern American city in mid-summer were used as input parameters for the model to represent actual worst-case conditions. This model considered pressure losses in the hydraulic system from viscous effects and friction during operation. These losses increase internal energy of the fluid, resulting in higher fluid temperature. The model also incorporates calculation of heat transfer to and from the hydraulic system. The system receives solar radiation and expels heat by convection to the ambient air.&nbsp;</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-fluids/hydraulic-fluids-meet-tighter-requirements-marine-vessels">Hydraulic Fluids Meet Tighter Requirements for Marine Vessels</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-cool-hot-hydraulic-system">How To Cool A Hot Hydraulic System</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/multi-domain-modeling-and-simulation-intended-fluid-power">Multi-Domain Modeling and Simulation Intended for Fluid Power</a></p> </div> <p>The model predicts fluid temperatures of up to 300&deg; F during normal operation of each truck on a day when the ambient air temperature reaches 115&deg;F. The 300&deg;F temperature produced by a garbage truck under such conditions significantly exceeds the maximum recommendation of 180&deg;F for hydraulic fluid. The conservative model also tends to underestimate pressure loss and thermal parameters that predict fluid temperatures. <em>Actual fluid temperatures for the given meteorological parameters will be higher than those in the model output.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><strong>Building the Algorithm</strong></p> <p>The algorithm in the model was based on the first law of thermodynamics, which states that the heat transferred to a system equals the sum of the increase in internal energy of the system and the work done by the system. If we consider hydraulic fluid to be incompressible, its specific heat is well documented.&nbsp; The product of the fluid&rsquo;s specific heat and the increase in its temperature yields the increased internal energy of an incompressible fluid. Therefore, we can calculate fluid temperature if we know the initial fluid temperature and the temperature change, which is determined by evaluating the heat transferred to or from the system and the work done by or on the system.&nbsp;</p> <p>Heat transfer evaluated by the model includes solar radiation into the hydraulic system and convection of heat from the system to the ambient air.&nbsp; Solar radiation data were obtained from a state meteorological database for a day when the ambient temperature reached almost 115&deg;F.&nbsp; These data give the amount of solar energy incident on a horizontal surface by hour of the day. We estimated that the hydraulic system absorbs 80% of incident radiation, based on documented emissivities of similar materials.&nbsp;</p> <p>Both free convection and forced convection were evaluated as mechanisms for transferring heat from the hydraulic system to the air. Free convection is a process in which molecules of a fluid (ambient air in this analysis) in contact with a warmer body absorb heat, become buoyant, and are displaced by molecules with less internal energy.&nbsp; For the sake of simplicity, we assumed that no temperature gradient exists between the hydraulic fluid and the ambient air and that the wall temperature matches that of the hydraulic fluid.&nbsp;</p> <p>In reality, the walls of hydraulic reservoirs, hoses, and other components tend to absorb heat from the fluid. Therefore, wall temperatures are actually lower than the fluid&rsquo;s, creating an insulating effect. The heat transfer rate varies directly with the difference between the wall temperature and the temperature of the air, so the actual heat transfer rate from the fluid to the ambient air by free convection will be less than that estimated by the conservative model.</p> <p><strong>More on Convection</strong></p> <p>Forced convection occurs when a fluid (ambient air) is directed at some non-zero velocity against a warm surface.&nbsp; Heat is transferred by a combination of buoyant effects and momentum as energy from the warm surface by conduction to molecules of air. These molecules are then replaced by other molecules lower in internal energy. Wind promotes forced convection. Meteorological data for a sea-level southwestern U.S. city were inspected, and it was found that the maximum wind speed for many days stayed less than 8 mph during the hours of operation for the packer trucks.&nbsp;</p> <p>In keeping with a conservative approach, we assumed that the wind blew directly across the hydraulic system and reservoir in the direction most beneficial for cooling the system. Furthermore, the outer wall of the reservoir is partially exposed to ambient air as the truck is driven. An average effective wind speed of 12.5 mph (relative to the reservoir) was calculated, based on the estimated truck speed and portion of the day during which the truck was moving. Forced convection of heat from this surface was calculated based on the higher effective wind speed. Because the rate of heat transfer varies directly with wind speed, these choices for wind speed values are conservative.&nbsp; As in the free convection analysis, wall temperatures were equated with hydraulic fluid temperature.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Finite-difference-table.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 377px;" /></p> <p>Pure conduction of heat from the hydraulic system and reservoir to another solid body was not considered a significant mechanism for cooling because the contact areas are small and because other nearby bodies are also heat sources (the truck engine and exhaust).&nbsp; Conduction between solid bodies is proportional to the contact area and the temperature difference. Radiation and convection of heat from the road surface to the hydraulic system and reservoir also were not considered because of the difficulty in describing these mechanisms mathematically and because assuming them to be negligible is conservative.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Components of the Hydraulic System</strong></p> <p>The hydraulic pump in these trucks is driven through a power takeoff (PTO). The difference between the input power from the PTO and the work performed by the hydraulic cylinders becomes pressure losses as the hydraulic fluid flows through the circuits. Empirical data relating pressure loss to fluid flow rate for different types of hose and tube are available in the literature.</p> <p>Hose sizes were taken from the specifications for an actual side-load compactor truck, and pressure losses were obtained from these data. Pressure losses for pipe and standard fittings (elbows, tees, sudden expansions, sudden contractions) are related to fluid velocity, density, and viscosity and are proportional to empirical factors reported in literature. The sizes of pipe and fittings were obtained from drawings, and losses were tabulated after calculations were made using this information.&nbsp;</p> <p>Pressure losses through filters, hydraulic control valves valves were obtained from the actual manufacturers&rsquo;&nbsp; technical catalogs for each model. Properties of a typical hydraulic fluid recommended for use in such climates (Texaco Rando HD46) were obtained from literature published by Texaco for that fluid. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Setting up the Analysis</strong></p> <p>Perfect data cannot be obtained for any analysis.&nbsp; In cases in which directly applicable data for refuse truck specifications, drawings were not available, or calculation of input parameters or data was not straightforward, we made assumptions that could be reasonably supported. When no reasonable assumption could be made, data that would lead to higher predicted fluid temperatures were not used, in order that the analysis remain conservative.&nbsp;</p> <p>We assumed that the packer trucks operate on a 10-hour daily shift. The actual time each truck is collecting (and, therefore, operating the hydraulic system&rsquo;s boom and pack circuits) is approximately six hours per day. The pack circuit is continuously operating while the truck is collecting, then is turned off when the truck is driven to and from a landfill, transfer station, or fleet garage.&nbsp;</p> <p>The boom operates intermittently while the truck is loading cans at a house. It is then inactive when the truck is driven between houses. Based on discussion with waste management personnel, it was determined that each truck collects solid waste from 1,200 to 1,300 houses per day. Using these parameters, duty cycles were evaluated for the boom and pack circuits and were applied by the model to the calculation of pressure losses because no pressure losses occur when the hydraulic system is not actuated. However, heat transfer occurs continuously.&nbsp;</p> <p>For much of the time, the pack circuit is actuated, but the boom circuit is not.&nbsp; During these times, the model calculates no losses for the boom circuit.&nbsp; However, hydraulic fluid is still flowing through the control valve for the boom circuit and back to the reservoir, although no fluid flows through the work port on the control valve. In reality, though, some pressure loss from this flow still occurs when only the pack circuit is actuated. Omitting this loss tends to underestimate fluid temperatures and is conservative.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Examining the Results</strong></p> <p>The finite difference model was run for three cycle times: 8, 10, and 14 seconds. Actual cycle times usually range from 10 to 14 seconds. The <em>table</em> above shows detailed results for the 8-sec cycle, whereas the <em>graph</em> below summarizes fluid temperatures during the day for a 10-sec cycle. The analyses account for the normal activities of the truck and operators during a typical shift,&nbsp; including driving to pickup sites and back to the collection yard, collecting refuse in residential neighborhoods, break times, lunch time, and refuse dumping.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/FluidTemp-TimeDay.png" style="width: 596px; height: 373px;" title="This graph plots hydraulic fluid temperature for a 10-sec cycle time. Similar trends resulted with 8- and 14-sec cycle times." /></p> <p>This scenario of activities is proposed as typical based on our experience for daily collection operations. It undoubtedly varies from day to day and from truck to truck.&nbsp; We don&rsquo;t expect these variations would alter the conclusions for this analysis. Solar radiation as energy incident on a horizontal surface per unit time was obtained for a southwestern U.S. city for the subject day and is shown on the table.</p> <p>The time increments shown generally conform to the operational activities for the truck, except in the early hours, where time increments were reduced to promote accuracy in exercising the model. During this early period, the thermal dynamics of the system are changing rapidly because the hydraulic system is starting to transfer energy to the fluid, and more data points are needed.</p> <p>The columns labeled <em>Pack loss</em> and <em>Boom loss</em> represent the energy put into the fluid by the&nbsp; pressure drops in the pack-eject and boom circuits, respectively. The columns labeled <em>Q-HS</em> and <em>Q-Res</em> are the total rates of heat transfer from the hydraulic system (excluding the reservoir) and the reservoir, respectively, for all heat transfer mechanisms&mdash;solar radiation, free convection, and forced convection.</p> <p>The last two columns show the change in fluid temperature from the last time period and the fluid temperature for the indicated time period, respectively.&nbsp; The model calculates the change in temperature due to the energy input to the fluid, less the heat energy transferred from the fluid, during the prior time period and adds the temperature difference to the fluid temperature for the last time period to obtain the value shown.</p> <p>The table shows that the temperature of the modeled fluid exceeds 180&deg;F early in the day. Operator breaks and down time at the dump/transfer station promotes cooling because convection removes heat from the hydraulic system and no pressure losses are produced.&nbsp; However, internal energy is generated at such a high rate from pressure losses in the system during operation that the fluid remains at excessive temperatures for almost the entire day because the heat transfer rate from the fluid is insufficient for cooling it.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Effect of Heat on Seals</strong></p> <p>Standard seal materials for normal industrial applications have maximum allowable temperatures to 250 or 300&deg; F, depending on the actual compound. For most of these, temperatures from 250 to 300&deg; F are allowable for only brief periods. For Buna-S, the temperature range goes to 225&deg;F. (Higher-cost Viton seals can sometimes be specified for hydraulic components, but the maximum temperature for Viton is only 250&deg;F.)&nbsp;</p> <p>This analysis indicates that fluid temperatures higher than 300&deg; F can be expected on hot days in such climates. This means that seals in the hydraulic components should be expected to soften during operation of the packer trucks.&nbsp; As the seals soften, they will tend to extrude into the space between the parts they are sealing and, eventually, break.&nbsp; Hydraulic fluid would begin leaking when the seal extrudes, and possibly catastrophic leaks would likely occur when a seal breaks.</p> <p>However, the deleterious effects of high temperature degrade more than just seals. It also degrades the hydraulic fluid. Data for Texaco Rando HD 46 were used as a typical fluid for use in such hydraulic systems. Texaco&rsquo;s literature for this fluid shows properties up to a maximum temperature of 180&deg;F. Literature for similar fluids of the same grade indicate operating ranges for No. 46 grade fluid of 32&deg; to 160&deg;F.</p> <p><a href="http://sourceesb.com/manufacturers/search?q=parker+hannifin" target="_blank">Parker Hannifin Corp.</a> recommends a maximum reservoir fluid temperature of 145&deg;F. Higher temperatures can produce oxidation products (varnish), which can clog orifices, corrode metal surfaces, form sludge, and cause rapid wear of metal parts.</p> <p><em>Peter J. Weller, P.E., is a consulting mechanical engineer providing engineering and design services to industry and expert testimony services. For more information, visit <a href="http://www.peterjweller.com" target="_blank">www.peterjweller.com</a>. </em></p> <p><em>Looking for parts? Go to <a href="http://sourceesb.com/" target="_blank">SourceESB</a>.</em></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/waste-management/thermal-analysis-garbage-truck-s-hydraulics#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Rail, Truck & Bus Waste Management Thu, 05 May 2016 13:22:00 +0000 38211 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Give Automation a Lift with Vacuum Systems http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/vacuum-technology/give-automation-lift-vacuum-systems <div class="field-deck"> When choosing a method of power for picking, holding, and automation applications, it would be a mistake not to consider vacuum. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/give-automation-lift-vacuum-systems-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>As compressed air does, vacuum puts the atmosphere to work. In a compressed air system, increased air pressure creates the work force. In a vacuum system, air pressure is reduced to a level lower than atmospheric pressure; then the higher pressure in the surrounding atmosphere creates the work force.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/vacuum-technology/getting-out-pickle-vacuum-technology">Getting Out of a Pickle with Vacuum Technology</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/vacuum-technology/vacuum-systems-intelligent-factory">Vacuum Systems for the Intelligent Factory</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-simple-and-efficient">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Simple and Efficient</a></p> </div> <p>Pressure is reduced by evacuating a portion of the air from a closed volume. Doing so produces a pressure differential. In a sense, the volume available to molecules has increased. And the laws of physics state that when volume increases, pressure decreases.</p> <p>In an industrial vacuum system, the closed container can be a work device, valve, or actuator. A vacuum pump removes air from the system to create a pressure differential.</p> <h3>Mechanical Vacuum Pumps&nbsp;</h3> <p>The two different types of vacuum pumps are commonly used for automation (pick-and-place applications): positive-displacement mechanical pumps and compressed air-powered vacuum generators (also known as Venturi pumps or ejector pumps).</p> <p>A mechanical vacuum pump may be thought of as a compressor that operates with its intake below atmospheric pressure and the discharge at atmospheric pressure. Compressors and vacuum pumps have identical pumping mechanisms. The vacuum pump is simply piped to withdraw air from a closed container and exhaust to atmosphere, which is just the opposite of what a compressor does.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 1" height="290" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/Gast-vacuum-pump.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: right;" title="This two-cylinder, piston-type vacuum pump is mounted to a tank to reduce the cycling rate of the pump holding vacuum in reserve. (Courtesy of Gast Mfg.)" width="340" />Mechanical vacuum pumps draw a relatively constant volume of air despite any variation in the vacuum level and can pull a relatively high vacuum. The principle types of mechanical pumps include: reciprocating and rocking piston, rotary vane, diaphragm, lobed rotor, and rotary screw designs.</p> <p>Although compressors and vacuum pumps have many similarities, two significant differences between compression and vacuum pumping actions must be considered in system design. The maximum change in pressure produced by a vacuum pump is limited; it can never be higher than atmospheric pressure. Plus, as vacuum level increases, the volume of air passing through the pump drops continuously. Therefore, the pump itself finally must absorb virtually all heat generated.</p> <p>This means temperature is an important consideration when selecting a mechanical vacuum pump because high external or internal heat can greatly affect pump performance and service life. Internal pump temperature is important because as vacuum level increases, less air is present to carry away the heat generated, so the pump must absorb more of the heat.</p> <h3>Vacuum Generators</h3> <p>Vacuum generators are powered by pressurized gas, usually compressed air. The compressed air flows into the ejector pump and expands in one or more ejector nozzles. When expanding the stored energy (pressure and heat), it is then converted into kinetic energy. The speed of the compressed air jet increases rapidly, while the pressure and the temperature decrease, attracting more air and thereby creating a vacuum on the suction side.</p> <p>Two types of vacuum generators are generally used for pick-and-place applications: single, and multi-stage generators. Single-stage unit pumps are compact and emit no heat, but are noisy, provide either high-flow/low-vacuum or low-flow/high-vacuum performance, and consume considerable compressed-air energy in their operation.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 2" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/Parker-CHF-two-stage.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 300px; margin: 5px; float: left;" title="This two-stage vacuum generator offers several performance advantages over its less-expensive, single-stage counterpart. (Courtesy of Parker Hannifin Pneumatic Div.)" />Multi-stage generators are much quieter, emit little or no heat, and operate more efficiently than single-stage units. However, multi-stage units cost more than their single-stage counterparts and are not as compact.</p> <h3>Choosing a Vacuum Pump&nbsp;</h3> <p>You must consider the vacuum level, vacuum flow, and the ratio between them (pump characteristics) when choosing the correct pump type for a specific application. The <em>effect factor</em> aids in the selection of vacuum pumps. The effect&nbsp; factor is the product of flow (suctioned air quantity) and vacuum level.</p> <p>The effect factor of several pumps is shown in the illustration. Vacuum level is on the horizontal scale and effect factor on the vertical scale. The plots indicate which type of pump is the most effective at a certain vacuum level. The maximum <em>suction effect</em> is achieved at the highest value of the effect factor. If power consumption is constant, the highest efficiency is reached at the same point.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 3" height="347" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/VacuumEffectGRAPH.gif" style="margin: 5px; float: right;" title="This graph indicates which pump type is the most effective at specific vacuum level." width="420" />A vacuum generator has constant power consumption at a constant feed pressure, whereas the power consumption varies with the load for mechanical pumps. For sealed systems, the capacity of the pump is determined by how fast the system can be evacuated to a certain vacuum level. This capacity is called the <em>evacuation time</em> of the pump and is normally specified in standard cubic feet per minute (scfm). This value is multiplied by the volume of the system in order to obtain the evacuation time to achieve the desired vacuum level.</p> <p>The case is different with non-sealed systems such as lifting a work piece having a porous surface. To maintain the desired vacuum level, the pump must have the capacity to pump away the air leaking in. By establishing the leakage flow, it is possible, by reading the pump data, to find the right pump for a specific application.</p> <p>If the leakage occurs through a known aperture, the flow can be established. When the leakage occurs through a porous material or in an unknown way, the flow can be established by a test with a vacuum pump. The pump is connected to the system and the obtained vacuum level is read.</p> <h3>Vacuum Cups&nbsp;<strong> </strong></h3> <p>Vacuum (suction) cups can lift, move, and hold objects from just a few ounces to several hundred pounds. A vacuum cup adheres to a surface because the surrounding atmospheric pressure is higher than the pressure between the vacuum cup and work piece surface. The cup is connected to a vacuum pump through hose or tubing to create the low pressure. The lower the pressure (higher the vacuum), the greater the force on the suction cup.</p> <p>The required lifting force is the critical consideration when sizing a suction cup. To determine the right size, use the simple equation for force: <em>F</em>&nbsp; = <em>P</em> &times; <em>A</em>.</p> <p>Because the weight of the object being handled is often known, and the diameter (area) of the suction cup is required, a simplified equation for rough estimates can be used. Consideration should also be given to the safety factor (often two) and the number of suction cups.</p> <p>D&nbsp; = 1.64 (m &times;&nbsp; n)<sup>1/2</sup> <strong>/ </strong>(U &times; s)<sup>1/2</sup> &nbsp;</p> <p>where D = diameter of suction cup, in.</p> <p>m = mass, lb,</p> <p>n = safety factor, and</p> <p>U = vacuum, in. Hg, and</p> <p>s = number of suction cups.</p> <p>High levels of vacuum for vacuum cups should be avoided. A deep vacuum means that the pump must work more, and wear on the suction cup increases accordingly. For example, increasing the vacuum level from 18 in. Hg to 27 in. Hg, the force increases by 1.5. However, 10 times as much energy is needed to achieve this 50% increase in lifting force. Therefore, using a lower vacuum level with a larger surface area is generally preferable to using smaller cups at higher vacuum.</p> <h3><img alt="Fig. 4" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/05/Schmalz.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 200px; margin: 5px; float: left;" title="Vacuum cups come in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, configurations, and materials of construction, some designed for specific applications. Here, the vacuum circuit is designed for handling semi-porous corrugated cardboard, and the vacuum pad is made of a wear-resistant material with a structure that provides stability in accommodating lateral loads. (Courtesy of Schmalz Inc.)" />Types of Vacuum Cups&nbsp;<strong> </strong></h3> <p>A variety of suction cup types is available that covers virtually all applications. The following are types of cups with brief descriptions:</p> <p><strong>Universal suction cup</strong>&mdash;a simple design for handling objects with a flat or slightly curved surface.</p> <p><strong>Suction cup with short bellows</strong>&mdash;suitable when level adjustment is required. Several short bellows in one lifting device can handle objects with height differences and varying shapes. The bellows also provides a slight lifting movement that can be used to separate thin items. However, it is poorly suited to vertical lifting.</p> <p><strong>Suction cup with long bellows</strong>&mdash;the same applications as for short bellows, but the long bellows can cope with greater differences in levels and provides a longer lifting movement. It is not suitable for deep vacuum and can be equipped with reinforcement rings of polyamide to give extra stability</p> <p><strong>Deep suction cup</strong>&mdash;used for curved and irregular surfaces. It can even lift around corners and edges and generally is not suitable for use on flat surfaces. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Flat suction cup with cleats</strong>&mdash;suitable for flat objects such as cardboard, sheet metal, and porous materials. The cleats stop the object from being deformed from being sucked into the cup. This cup also provides good stability because it produces very little movement.</p> <p><strong>Flat suction cup with valve</strong>&mdash;when several cups are connected together in a single system, the system can be disrupted if a suction cup leaks or misses the object to be lifted. To avoid this, each suction cup can be provided with a valve that opens only when the suction cup is pressed against the object. This feature increases safety and reduces air consumption &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Suction cup with cellular rubber sealing</strong>&mdash;suitable for uneven and rough surfaces, such as blocks of stone or concrete and channeled plate. They are available in different shapes and sizes&mdash;round, oval, square, long, and narrow&mdash;depending on the object to be handled.</p> <p><strong>Suction cup with minimum movement</strong>&mdash;particularly suited for thin materials such as paper and plastic film. Inside the sealing strip, the suction cup has an adjustable brace that can be set so that the object is lifted completely flat without risk of deformation. Minimal movement makes these cups suitable for applications requiring accurate positioning.</p> <p>The material of a suction cup is chosen according to its application with regard to standards of oil resistance, temperature range, durability, and other factors. The most typical materials are silicone, nitrile, and chloroprene. Nitrile provides good durability, plastics have good oil resistance, silicone exhibits resistance to very high and low temperatures, and chloroprene offers high durability but poor oil resistance. Special grades are also available that can meet most requirements.</p> <h3>Fittings, Hose, and Tubing</h3> <p>Fittings often are considered a commodity, but leak-free performance and size are especially important with vacuum applications. The simplest vacuum cup has a plastic fitting so the cup can easily be changed. The fitting is adequate for handling lighter objects that do not give rise to bending stress in the suction cup. However, these fittings are not suitable for applications with high temperatures or oils.</p> <p>Often a vacuum hose diameter that is too small is chosen in an effort to reduce the volume to be evacuated. The strategy is that less volume to be evacuated equates to quicker evacuation time. What is not taken into consideration in this case is the restriction or limitation of flow that often results. In a typical vacuum application with the right size pump, using &frac14; -in. ID hose can make the application slower than using &frac12; -in. ID hose.</p> <p>A second factor to consider is the type of hose or tubing being used. It is best to use a product that is vacuum rated. Thin polyurethane tubing should not be used because heat&mdash;even room temperature&mdash;can cause it to collapse under vacuum, restricting flow. If the application permits the use of tubing, it should be sized so that the vacuum reading is zero when the cups or system is open to atmosphere.</p> <p>By restricting the vacuum flow through the hose, the entire system is limited. One of the most common problems in system design is improper sizing of the vacuum hose, tubing, or the manifold to which the hose is connected. Unfortunately, the pump is blamed in most cases for system failure, and a larger or different-type pump is installed, resulting in increased costs and energy consumption with no significant improvement in performance.</p> <p><em>Looking for parts? Go to&nbsp;<a href="http://www.SourceESB.com" target="_blank">SourceESB</a>.</em></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/give-automation-lift-vacuum-systems-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/vacuum-technology/give-automation-lift-vacuum-systems#comments Vacuum Technology Wed, 04 May 2016 19:04:00 +0000 38141 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Part 2—Adding a Variable to Positive Displacement http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-2-adding-variable-positive-displacement <div class="field-deck"> Vane pumps are like the gear pumps described in last month’s issue in their capacity to produce positive displacement, but they go one step further with variable-displacement capability. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-2-adding-variable-positive-displacement-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high-resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/MotionControl-2.png" style="width: 596px; height: 563px;" title="2. The stationary body parts consist of the ports that carry fluid into and out of the pump, and provide a sealed housing to capture internal leakage." /></p> <p>The vane pump is a positive-displacement pumping mechanism with an assembly that starts with a body containing the plumbing ports for connecting the inlet and outlet to the hydraulic system. A simplified cutaway diagram is shown in <em>Figure 2</em>. Four internal kidney-shaped ports are arranged in inner and outer configurations.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-simple-and-efficient">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Simple and Efficient</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-hydraulic-power-conversion-part-4">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Hydraulic Power Conversion, Part 4</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-hydraulic-power-conversion-part-3">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Hydraulic Power Conversion, Part 3</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-hydraulic-power-conversion-part-2">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Hydraulic Power Conversion, Part 2</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-hydraulic-power-conversion-part-1">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Hydraulic Power Conversion, Part 1</a></p> </div> <p>The two outer ports, which transfer the majority of fluid from the inlet to the outlet, are necessarily the larger pair. The inner ports carry the respective pressures of the outlet and inlet ports to the undersides of the sliding vanes and contribute a small amount of pumping action. Their main purpose is to apply some pressure on the underside of vanes to force them into the cam ring, thereby forming a seal between the inlet and outlet ports. Internal flow paths are machined or cast into the body so that all of the yellow areas have essentially the same pressure, whereas all aqua areas are at the inlet pressure.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/MotionControl-3.png" style="width: 596px; height: 795px;" title="3. Inserting a vane into each rotor slot builds the rotating group of a vane pump." /></p> <p>The vane pump&rsquo;s moving parts consist of a slotted rotor into which rectangular vanes are inserted, one vane for each of the slots <em>(Fig. 3)</em>. Clearances between the vanes and slots are such that a compromise is made between having the vanes freely sliding within the slots and forming a fairly high impedance (low internal leakage) path between the high- and low-pressure sides. The pump design in Figure 3 has 12 vanes, but any even or odd number of vanes can be used.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/MotionControl-4.png" style="width: 596px; height: 745px;" title="4. The vane pump’s rotor has all vanes in position so that the rotating group can be inserted into the cam ring." /></p> <p><em>Figure 4</em> shows all of the vanes inserted into the rotor and the rotor assembly inserted into its cam ring. The sliding fit between the rotor slots and the vanes ensures that the vanes can move outward from centrifugal force to make positive contact with the inner periphery of the cam ring. The cam ring constrains the outward (radial) motion of the vanes while the eccentricity between it and the rotor&rsquo;s center of rotation controls the pump&rsquo;s displacement.</p> <p><em>Figure 5</em> shows the full rotor assembly nested inside its cam ring. The ring is drawn at its most extreme upward position, which produces the maximum amount of eccentricity between the rotor&rsquo;s spin center and the cam-ring center and results in maximum pump displacement.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/MotionControl-5.png" style="width: 596px; height: 704px;" title="5. When the rotor assembly is nested inside the cam ring, the ring constrains the outward vane motion while the relative up and down sliding of the ring controls the pump displacement." /></p> <p><strong>The Moving Parts</strong></p> <p>The vane pump has three groups of moving parts in the vane pump. First, the rotor spins about the shaft center line. Second, the cam ring moves up and down to control the displacement. Third, the vanes undergo both sliding and rotating motion. Note that the cam ring does not rotate; it can only move up and down. The assembly consisting of the rotating group and the cam ring are now ready to be installed into the pump body, getting a step closer to a functioning pump.</p> <p>Pumping action can be visualized with the aid of the body and rotating group, partially depicted in <em>Figure 6</em>. It all takes place in the volumes bounded by the rotor, the cam ring, and a pair of consecutive vanes. With the rotor spinning as indicated, look at the pair of vanes near bottom dead center, where the rotor is almost touching the cam ring. The volume trapped in the chamber between the vanes is nearly zero.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Fig-6_web.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 685px;" title="6. The rotating group and cam ring are inserted into the pump body, and again, the eccentricity of the shaft and cam ring are apparent. The pumping chambers (the circular trapezoids bounded by the rotor, cam ring, and consecutive vanes) absorb the inlet fluid and expel the outlet fluid." /></p> <p>However, realizing that rotational motion is taking place, the volume will increase as the rotor drags the vanes along with it. The increased trapped volume reduces pressure within the expanding chamber, causing atmospheric pressure within the reservoir to push fluid into the chambers.</p> <p>Eventually, the small chamber rotates to the top position, which has the greatest trapped volume and is filled with its maximum gulp of fluid. After crossing over top dead center, the filled chamber comes into hydraulic communication with the high-pressure outlet port. Thus, the large trapped volume undergoes an extremely rapid increase in pressure.</p> <p>At that same time, the vane shown at the 12 o&rsquo;clock position forms a seal to separate the high- and low-pressure ports. Thereafter, further rotation causes the volume to decrease in the chamber, and the rotor-to-vane coordinated motion, relative to the stationary cam ring, pushes the high-pressure fluid through its kidney port (yellow) and out to the hydraulic system.</p> <p>The kidney ports are arranged so that all of the chambers on the left half of the rotor are at high pressure, while those on the left half are at low inlet pressure. With counter-clockwise rotation, as indicated in Figure 6, the right-hand external port is the pump inlet while the left-side port is the outlet.</p> <p><strong>Dealing with Leakage</strong></p> <p>Sealing between the high- and low-pressure sides is imperfect&mdash;and important. Internal leakage can make its way from the high-pressure side to the low-pressure side via several paths: An imperfect seal exists at the vane tip, as does clearance at the sides of the vanes, requiring a close fit in the axial direction between the rotor, vanes, and the stationary parts. Some small amount of leakage makes its way between and around the vanes and their slots through the clearance that&rsquo;s needed between the ends of the rotor body and the stationary mating parts.</p> <p>Much of this internal leakage finds its way into the pump body (commonly referred to as the case), shown in pale green in Figure 6. In that pump body, it must leak back into the low-pressure port to be recirculated into the pumping chambers. Thus, the pump body can reach internal pressures that approach the supply pressure.</p> <p>Containing the pressurized fluid in the body requires the use of a high-pressure dynamic shaft seal. In many pump designs, a third hydraulic port is created that carries the internal leakage back to the reservoir. This greatly reduces the internal pressure and lowers the demands on the shaft seal. Modern sealing technology can eliminate external leakage from hydraulic machines if the system is properly maintained.</p> <p><strong>Taking a Position</strong></p> <p>The pumping elements in Figure 6 are shown in the maximum displacement position. The cam ring has been positioned in its maximum up position, resulting in the maximum eccentricity between the center of rotor rotation and the center of the cam ring.</p> <p>If the rotor and cam ring are perfectly concentric, the displacement will be zero. If the cam ring is dropped below the concentric point, the inlet and outlet ports will be reversed, and so will the output flow without changing the direction of shaft rotation. Such pumps are variable displacement, and said to be capable of <em>over-center operation</em>, meaning the displacement can take on either positive or negative values.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/MotionControl-7.png" style="width: 596px; height: 763px;" title="7. Stroking pistons plus external access through hydraulic ports allow the cam ring and displacement to be varied." /></p> <p>Now, though, the need arises for some external means of changing the cam-ring position so that pump output can be changed at will, or changed automatically using feedback. The stroking pistons shown in <em>Figure 7</em> provide that capability.</p> <p>External ports allow hydraulic access to the pistons, usually with an electrohydraulic servo or proportional valve. Electrohydraulic stroking is done by closing the loop on the cam-ring position with a position transducer, most often with a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), not shown in Figure 7. Cam-ring guides (dark green) prevent its right-left movement.</p> <p>Pressure compensation in the variable-displacement pump is easily achieved via hydraulic methods. Pressure compensation equips the pump with internal feedback that automatically reduces displacement if a threshold pressure is exceeded.</p> <p>In fact, pressure-compensation pumps can be safely deadheaded; that is, the output port can be totally blocked without damaging the pump. One way to achieve pressure compensation of the vane pump is shown in <em>Figure 8</em>.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/MotionControl-8.png" style="width: 596px; height: 763px;" title="8. Pressure compensation can be achieved by connecting the stroking piston port to the outlet pressure and replacing the lower stroking piston with an adjustable bias spring. " /></p> <p>Here, the lower stroking piston has been replaced by a bias spring with a pre-compression adjusting screw. The upper stroking piston&rsquo;s hydraulic port is connected to the outlet pressure so that the piston &ldquo;senses&rdquo; the outlet pressure. The bias-spring pre-compression causes an upward force on the cam ring, forcing the cam ring into the position shown when the outlet pressure is low. Under this operating condition, the pump operates like a fixed-displacement pump at max displacement and max output flow.</p> <p>As the load pressure builds, the stroking piston exerts an increasing force on the top of the cam ring. At some point, the stroking piston force exceeds the pre-compression force of the spring, which automatically decreases the displacement. Blocked port pressure and deadhead pressure mean the same thing, i.e., the pressure at the outlet port under the condition of zero output flow. It is analogous to the Thevenin voltage of an electrical generator or other voltage source.</p> <p>The preceding figures on vane pumps are not necessarily depicting actual construction practice of such machines. Instead, they show the principles of operation. For example, pressure-compensated vane pumps do not use physical stroking pistons. A less-costly method is to rotate the kidney ports slightly in the direction shaft of rotation, counter-clockwise. A tremendous force acts on the inside of the cam ring at high pressures, upwards of tens of thousands of pounds in large pumps at high pressures.</p> <p>By rotating the kidneys ever so slightly, a component of force emerges in the down direction. That force is used to act against the bias spring and force the cam ring downward in the face of high outlet pressures. Therefore, no stroking piston is needed. And eliminating the stroking piston can significantly reduce the size of the pump body. Many other practical construction details exceed the scope of this brief look at electric and hydraulic analogies and principles of operation.</p> <p><em>Looking for parts? Go to <a href="http://sourceesb.com/" target="_blank">SourceESB</a>.</em></p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-part-2-adding-variable-positive-displacement#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Wed, 04 May 2016 19:03:00 +0000 38181 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Low-Speed, High-Torque Motor has Wealth of Features http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/low-speed-high-torque-motor-has-wealth-features <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/Concrete%20mixer.jpg" style="width: 261px; height: 230px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="1. Applications requiring heavy loads to be accelerated from rest, such as this portable concrete mixer, stand to benefit from Fluidyne Fluid Power’s new 500 Series low-speed, high-torque motors." />​Geroler-type hydraulic motors have a great reputation for delivering low-speed, high-torque power. Their compact design also makes them the first or only choice when space is tight &mdash; especially because they drive loads directly without needing a speed-reducing gearbox.</p> <p>However, some designs of geroler motors exhibit internal leakage that prevents them from starting loads effectively from rest. The internal leakage allows fluid to bypass pressure chambers and some of it flow through the motor&rsquo;s case drain. The result of this bypass is reduced starting torque.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/hydraulic-motor-dry-starts-and-how-avoid-them ">Hydraulic Motor &#39;Dry Starts&#39; And How To Avoid Them</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-post-hole-hammer-undergoes-pump-failures">Troubleshooting Challenge: Post-Hole Hammer Undergoes Pump Failures</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/unusual-hydraulic-pump-problem">An Unusual Hydraulic Pump Problem</a></p> </div> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/500%20Series%202.jpg" style="width: 229px; height: 193px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="2. Fluidyne's heavy duty 500-Series motors target low-speed, high-pressure applications. " />​Fluidyne Fluid Power, Fraser, Mich., resolves this issue with its new heavy duty 500-Series Motors. The 500-Series motors are available in 11 nominal displacements from 125 to 750 in.<sup>3</sup>/rev. (7.20 to 45.45 cc/rev.). The motors&rsquo; valve-in-rotor design efficiently distributes oil and reduces overall motor length. A pressure-compensated balance plate improves volumetric efficiency at low flow and high pressures. They feature bi-directional rotation and a high-pressure Viton shaft seal that eliminates the need for a case drain.</p> <p>Joan Armstrong, engineering manager at Fluidyne, explains, &ldquo;These motors are especially suited for low-speed, high-pressure applications with smooth rotation throughout speed transitions. The hydrostatic balance pressure plate flexes to allow for proper lubrication and high operating efficiency. Plus, the combination of shafts, mounts, and displacements let you configure these motors to almost any application&nbsp;requirements.&rdquo;</p> <p>For more information on the 500 Series motors and other products, call (586) 296-7200, or visit <a href="http://www.fluidynefp.com" target="_blank">www.fluidynefp.com</a>.</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/low-speed-high-torque-motor-has-wealth-features#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Wed, 04 May 2016 18:47:00 +0000 38171 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Give Automation a Lift with Vacuum Systems (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/give-automation-lift-vacuum-systems-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>As compressed air does, vacuum puts the atmosphere to work. In a compressed air system, increased air pressure creates...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/08/full-wallchart.JPG" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics & Pneumatics Wall Chart</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=38151&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Gold Wed, 04 May 2016 18:24:00 +0000 38151 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Los Varios Roles de los Acumuladores en un Sistema http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/los-varios-roles-de-los-acumuladores-en-un-sistema <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Los Acumuladores Hidr&aacute;ulicos almacenan energ&iacute;a mediante la compresi&oacute;n de un gas, generalmente nitr&oacute;geno. &Eacute;ste gas a alta presi&oacute;n entonces desplaza el fluido hidr&aacute;ulico a trav&eacute;s del p&oacute;rtico del acumulador cada vez que la presi&oacute;n del sistema cae por debajo de la del gas comprimido en la vejiga (diferencial). El almacenaje de energ&iacute;a potencial y la naturaleza de amortiguaci&oacute;n de un&nbsp;gas comprimido tambi&eacute;n convierten a los acumuladores en fuente &uacute;til para reducir comportamientos din&aacute;micos no&nbsp;deseados&nbsp;en un sistema hidr&aacute;ulico.</p> <p>Entre las funciones que puede cumplir un acumulador hidr&aacute;ulico en un sistema se encuentran:</p> <p><strong>Absorci&oacute;n de Pulsaciones</strong> - muchas bombas entregan caudal con pulsaciones. La bomba de pistones, com&uacute;nmente usada por su capacidad de presi&oacute;n, puede generar pulsaciones que son perjudiciales para un sistema a&nbsp;alta presi&oacute;n. Un acumulador correctamente&nbsp;ubicado en el sistema amortiguar&aacute; sustancialmente las mismas.</p> <p><strong>Amortiguaci&oacute;n de Shock o Golpe</strong>&nbsp;- si el cilindro o cualquier otro actuador de un sistema hidr&aacute;ulico se detiene repentinamente, el cambio brusco puede crear una onda de presi&oacute;n que viaja a trav&eacute;s del sistema. &Eacute;sta onda puede desarrollar picos de presi&oacute;n mucho mayores que la presi&oacute;n de trabajo del sistema. La amortiguaci&oacute;n del gas de un acumulador, correctamente ubicado en el circuito, minimizar&aacute; este shock.</p> <p><strong>Suplemento de Caudal</strong> - un acumulador puede asistir a la bomba hidr&aacute;ulica en entregar caudal al sistema. La bomba entrega caudal al acumulador, que bajo resistencia permite que se genere la presi&oacute;n requerida para cargarlo. Esta energ&iacute;a es almacenada y entregada cuando picos de potencia lo hacen necesario, lo que&nbsp;nos permite seleccionar una bomba mucho m&aacute;s peque&ntilde;a, resultando en ahorros en costo y potencia instalada.</p> <p><strong>Compensaci&oacute;n&nbsp;de Presi&oacute;n</strong> - cambios en los niveles de presi&oacute;n ocurren en un sistema hidr&aacute;ulico cuando el fluido es sujeto a cambios de&nbsp;temperatura. De igual manera, la presi&oacute;n puede caer&nbsp;como consecuencia de p&eacute;rdidas. El acumulador hidr&aacute;ulico compensa esos cambios de presi&oacute;n, ya sea entregando o recibiendo cantidades relativamente peque&ntilde;as de fluido hidr&aacute;ulico. De igual manera, si la fuente de poder falla o se detiene, el acumulador actuar&iacute;a como una fuente auxiliar de potencia, manteniendo la presi&oacute;n en el sistema.</p> <p><strong>Potencia &#39;Stand By&#39;</strong> - un acumulador puede retener gas presurizado indefinidamente y descargar la energ&iacute;a cuando se requiera. &Eacute;sto hace que los acumuladores resulten muy &uacute;tiles como una fuente de potencia latente cuando la misma se pierde desde el accionamiento principal (motor el&eacute;ctrico o di&eacute;sel). Por ejemplo, el acumulador puede actuar como una bater&iacute;a hidr&aacute;ulica para accionar el arrancador hidr&aacute;ulico de un motor.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/los-varios-roles-de-los-acumuladores-en-un-sistema#comments Accumulators H&amp;P en tu idioma! Tue, 03 May 2016 19:13:00 +0000 38131 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Compact Hybrid Actuation System Targets Renewable-Energy Designs http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/compact-hybrid-actuation-system-targets-renewable-energy-designs <div class="node-body blog-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/HAS%20on%20the%20bakc%20of%20a%20solar%20panel.PNG" style="margin: 3px; font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; width: 300px; height: 205px; float: left;" title="1. HAS features a compact design for easy installation on solar-tracking solar panels. Its hybrid design enables various stroke lengths for controlled motion, and resilience against mechanical stresses." /></p> <p>With an eye toward the renewable-energy sector, <a href="http://www.parker.com/portal/site/PARKER/menuitem.4a7ba99b3c73ae7cc39acea5427ad1ca/?vgnextoid=ab4b0f93307c7310VgnVCM10000023cc1dacRCRD&amp;vgnextchannel=26395672481c7310VgnVCM10000023cc1dacRCRD&amp;vgnextfmt=EN&amp;vgnextcat=Hydraulics+Group&amp;relatorId=ca9b0f93307c7310VgnVCM10000023cc1dac____" target="_blank">Parker Hannifin Corp.</a> unveiled a hybrid actuation system (HAS) comprised of hydraulic and electromechanical actuators for precise control and holding power. The streamlined HAS&rsquo;s hydraulic system consists of a double-acting cylinder, pump, and manifold with fluid-exchange ports (all serviceable onsite).</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/SystemInstrumen/Article/False/87212/TechZone-SystemInstrumen">Motion controller renews old machine</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/waste-management/parker-deliver-more-hydraulic-hybrid-refuse-truck-systems ">Parker to deliver more hydraulic hybrid refuse truck systems</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/fundamentals-hydraulic-motors">Fundamentals of Hydraulic Motors</a></p> </div> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/anatomy.PNG" style="font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; margin: 3px; width: 595px; height: 400px;" title="2. HAS combines hydraulic-cylinder actuation with an electric motor. " />Transfer tubes and rods are constructed out of stainless steel for corrosion protection. The system has a longer service life because internal wear items are permanently lubricated by the hydraulic fluid; it does not require external hydraulic hoses or power units. A locking mechanism, achieved via static hydraulic fluid, holds strong against mechanical stresses like wind and other impacts to further enhance the electromechanical actuation system.</p> <p>An electric motor eliminates leak paths into or out of the package. The motor, which has a low amp draw with a 50% duty cycle, integrates both ac and dc voltage supplies. Two-wire operation makes it especially easy to set up, service onsite, or relocate.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2016/04/intellinder_3_0.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 137px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="3. The Intellinder sensor and display can be installed along with the HAS to provide cylinder-position feedback. " />The hybrid actuator can be designed into the pitch system to move photovoltaic panels or other parts with fewer actuators and controls. In addition, the Intellinder internal sensor and user interface can be added to the actuator for continuous, end-of-stroke, and go-switch cylinder feedback.</p> <p>According to the company, the HAS features power density up to three times that of comparable electromechanical actuators. It can move over a megawatt from a single point, suiting it for large or small systems.</p> <p>The completely enclosed body of the HAS features stainless-steel construction for resilience against rain, acidity, variations in weather, and harsh environments. It has been successfully tested in solar-tracking solar panels, wind turbines, and hydroelectric dams.&nbsp;</p> </div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/compact-hybrid-actuation-system-targets-renewable-energy-designs#comments News Fluid Power Talk Tue, 03 May 2016 18:32:00 +0000 38121 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com