Hydraulics & Pneumatics - Hydraulics & Pneumatics is the leading international technical resource for fluid power http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/rss.xml en Troubleshooting Challenge: Lumberyard Stacker Cylinder Drops http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-lumberyard-stacker-cylinder-drops <div class="node-body article-body"><p>A lumber company had an older yard stacker machine that they wanted to put back into service. It had been out of service and parked due to a problem with its boom sometimes dropping. The boom lift cylinder would drop when the operator also rotated the forks at the same time to align the 4&times;8 and 4&times;12 sheets of plywood and plasterboard when placing them on top of other stacks.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/troubleshooting-challenge-elephant-house-doors-open-their-own">Troubleshooting Challenge: Elephant House Doors Open on Their Own</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-pump-keeps-losing-its-prime">Troubleshooting Challenge: Pump Keeps Losing Its Prime</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-speed-control-causing-unwanted-jolt-and-pressure-spike">Troubleshooting Challenge: Speed Control Causing Unwanted Jolt and Pressure Spike</a></p> </div> <p>I looked at the problem and noticed the operators would lift and rotate at the same time when the problem happened. If they only ran one function, the problem would not occur. All the other trucks worked well running both at the same time and expedited the unloading of the supply trucks. I told them they could use the truck but not to rotate while they were lifting. This sounds well and good, but the operators were accustomed to using the other trucks, so the operators sometimes ran lift and rotation at the same time out of habit. As a result, the problem still occurred.</p> <p>The circuit shown seems to be how the hydraulic system was designed. Any idea about how to solve the problem?</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/May-Troubleshooting.png" style="width: 623px; height: 1048px;" /></p> <p><strong>Find the Solution</strong></p> <p>Think you know the answer to this month&rsquo;s problem?</p> <p>Submit your solution by emailing Mindy Timmer at <a href="mailto:timmer@cfc-solar.com">timmer@cfc-solar.com</a>. All correct solutions submitted by June 1, 2015, will be entered into a random drawing for a $50 gift card. The winner will be notified, and his or her name will be printed in a future issue. Only one gift card will be awarded to any participant within a calendar year.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Solution to Last Month&rsquo;s Problem:</strong></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/maintenance/troubleshooting-challenge-elephant-house-doors-open-their-own" target="_blank"><strong>Elephant House Door Open on Their Own</strong></a></p> <p>The gate problem grew out of expansions to the elephant housing facility. Several gates were being used at the same time, and because the tubing was elevated, air entering the system during hydraulic filter element changes caused pressure spikes in the tank line. The pressure spike would show up in several cylinder ports because the A and B lines were directly drained to tank in the neutral position.</p> <p>Because all the valves were D03 sub-plate mounted design, technicians felt the easiest solution was to install tank line check valve modules under all the directional valves.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/troubleshooting-challenge-lumberyard-stacker-cylinder-drops#comments Forestry & Lumber Cylinders & Actuators Tue, 19 May 2015 14:09:00 +0000 32631 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Bauma 2016 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/bauma-2016 <div class="node-body event-body"></div> <h3 class="location-locations-header">Location</h3> <div class="location-locations-wrapper"> <div class="location vcard"> <div class="adr"> <span class="fn">Messegelände</span> <span class="locality">Muenchen</span> <span class="postal-code">81823 </span> <div class="country-name">Germany</div> </div> <div class="map-link"> <div class="location map-link">See map: <a href="http://maps.google.com?q=%2C+81823+%2C+Muenchen%2C+de">Google Maps</a></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field-desc"> <p>Bauma 2016, the 31st edition of the world&rsquo;s leading trade fair for construction machinery, building material machines, mining machines, construction vehicles and construction equipment, will take place&nbsp; April&nbsp;11 to 17, 2016 in Munich, Germany. The last bauma, held in 2013, broke all previous records, attracted 3,421 exhibitors from 57 countries, 535,065 visitors from more than 200 countries, and encompassed 575,000 m<sup>2</sup> of exhibition space.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/bauma.png" style="width: 200px; height: 293px; float: left; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" />Always striving to maintain its status as the best place to glimpse the future of the industry, bauma now has a new subtitle: &quot;31st Edition of the World&rsquo;s Leading Trade Fair for Construction Machinery, Building Material Machines, Mining Machines, Construction Vehicles and Construction Equipment.&quot; Bauma also has a new claim: &quot;The heartbeat of our industry,&quot; which emphasizes the role of bauma as a key industry platform and a pacemaker for innovations because exhibitors time their development cycles to coincide with this showcase. Bauma 2016 will also be sporting a new key visual. The familiar yellow B has been kept and expanded to visualize the four sections at bauma: All Around Construction Sites; &quot;Mining, Extraction, and Processing of Raw Materials; &quot;Production of Building Materials&quot;; and &quot;Component and Service Suppliers.&quot;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/bauma-2016#comments Tue, 19 May 2015 12:59:00 +0000 32621 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>Bauma is the world&#39;s largest trade fair for the building industry. The trade fair, which was established in 1954, presents a comprehensive international product range in the area of construction machinery, construction equipment and vehicles and mining machines. Bauma is a hub for international business and an important venue for gathering information and establishing contacts, where building and construction experts from all over the world can inform themselves about state-of-the-art technology.</p> How To Connect A Forced Air Heat Exchanger http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-connect-forced-air-heat-exchanger <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>When positioning a forced air heat exchanger, it should be situated so that it is at least half the fan diameter clear of any obstructions on both sides of the core. I recommend connecting the exchanger so that oil flows from bottom to top, or if the tanks are on the sides, from lower connection (inlet) to upper connection (outlet). The reason for this is to purge all air from the unit quickly and fill it completely for maximum efficiency.<br /> <br /> The other connection issue for forced air heat exchangers, which requires attention during initial installation, relates to whether it is single or double pass. These days, many exchanger cores are designed so that during manufacture, they can be configured as either single or double pass. This means they have at least 3 ports - two ports in one tank and one port in the other (see exhibit 1). A single pass exchanger is converted to double pass by the insertion of a fully welded baffle in the middle of one of the tanks at the factory. This makes the oil flow down one half of the exchanger core, and then back up the other half.</p> <p><img alt="2 pass cooler arrangement" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/2-PassCooler.png" style="width: 400px; height: 350px; margin-left: 20px; margin-right: 20px;" /></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Exhibit 1. Heat exchanger configuration.</p> <p>Considering the diagram in exhibit 1, if the exchanger is single pass (no baffle in the top tank), I would connect the exchanger so that port C is the inlet and either port A or port B (but preferably port B) is the outlet. BUT, if the exchanger is double pass, the correct connection is port A inlet, port B outlet (or vice versa).<br /> <br /> Note that if the unit is double pass and the technician doing the initial installation is not on the ball, he&#39;ll likely connect the unit in such a way that port C is used. Doing so means that only half the exchanger is effective. That is, if connection is made using ports B and C, only the right-hand side of the cooler is effective. If connection is made using ports A and C, only the left-hand half of the cooler is effective.</p> <p>Believe it or not, I&#39;ve seen this happen more than once. But it&#39;s not hard to detect this mistake - because of the large temperature variation between the two sides of the exchanger. And to discover six other mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-connect-forced-air-heat-exchanger#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 19 May 2015 00:38:00 +0000 32611 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Has the Next Generation Arrived? http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/has-next-generation-arrived <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/alan_0.jpg" style="width: 130px; height: 150px; float: left;" title="Alan Hitchcox, Editor in Chief" />When I joined <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics</em> nearly 30 years ago, I was the kid who would have to learn about electronic controls used with fluid power systems. Like many of those in the fluid power industry, I find physical concepts much easier to grasp than electrical. Back in college, learning that ac circuit analysis involves using square roots of negative numbers made it easy to decide to stick with the physical realm of technology.</p> <p>Still, you can&rsquo;t bury your head in the sand, so I took continuing-education courses through the years to learn more about electronic control in small doses. I also served a few years on NFPA&rsquo;s electronics technical committee, which proved extremely beneficial because so many people in the fluid power industry are willing to help each other.</p> <p>Aside from a big jump from analog to digital control, electronics in fluid power has gone through evolutionary changes. Technological advancements have made components smaller, faster, and more versatile. However, components with Bluetooth and similar wireless communication have only recently been introduced to the fluid power market. Just last year we reported on a pressure a sensor with Bluetooth capability, and just last month we described a hydraulic pressure-control cartridge valve with Bluetooth for monitoring and controlling the valve. Three or four products within a little less than a year is a modest start, but it makes you wonder if we&rsquo;re on the verge of an electronic control revolution.</p> <p>If so, we should see dozens of Bluetooth-capable fluid power products by the end of next year. Then again, some new technology may arise that quickly renders Bluetooth obsolete. Only time will tell.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/has-next-generation-arrived#comments Controls & Instrumentation Mon, 18 May 2015 21:17:00 +0000 32601 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Piston Seals Do Their Job http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/seals/piston-seals-do-their-job <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Hallite-T714_article.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 446px;" /></p> <p>Series 714 double-acting piston seals feature reinforced, heat-stabilized, thermoplastic sealing faces, equipped with a step-cut joint to allow easy passage over ports. A concentrated, tangent contact patch lies beneath the sealing face for dynamic sealing ability. The series is designed to prevent piston-to-bore contact in high-pressure applications with large extrusion gaps, and are well-suited for double-acting telescopic cylinders. The profiled nitrile-rubber energizer material can also be changed for different media and temperatures.</p> <p><a href="http://www.hallite.com" target="_blank">Hallite Seals Americas Inc.</a>, (248) 668-5200</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/seals/piston-seals-do-their-job#comments Seals Mon, 18 May 2015 20:48:00 +0000 32591 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com LVDTs Have High Accuracy, Resist Radiation http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-components/lvdts-have-high-accuracy-resist-radiation <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/LA-21-A-LVDT_article.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 443px;" /></p> <p>The LA-21-A series of ac&nbsp; linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) features five full ranges from 3 in. to 15 in., and are offered in housings that are 0.805-in. diameter. The housings are made out of zinc-plated steel, contributing to the LVDT&rsquo;s resistance to mild radiation. It is environmentally sealed to IP68, with a core enclosed in an extension rod with a 3/8-in. diameter. A 5/16-24 unified fine or M8 X 1.25 male thread is featured for easy attachment. Its 4-in. axial leads are stripped and tinned. With a full-scale-output linear error of less than &plusmn;0.3%, and operating temperature between -40 and 120&deg;C, the LA-21-A series is suited to applications including stamping or drawing press-die openings, processing valve controls, and providing feedback on roller gaps in steel or aluminum mills.</p> <p><a href="http://www.alliancesensors.com" target="_blank">Alliance Sensor Group</a>, (856) 727-0250</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-components/lvdts-have-high-accuracy-resist-radiation#comments Other Components Mon, 18 May 2015 19:56:00 +0000 32581 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulic Hoses Suit Low-Temp Apps http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hose-tubing/hydraulic-hoses-suit-low-temp-apps <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/PFLT364-Low-Temp-Hose.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 98px;" /></p> <p>The Piranhaflex Series PFLT364 Low Temp 100R7 Hydraulic Hose is suited for medium-pressure hydraulic lines, and has an extended service life in cold storage applications. The hoses feature three layers: a seamless copolyester inner tube, braided fiber reinforcement for high tensile stress, and a black copolyester pin-pricked cover. Temperature range is -65˚F to 200˚F for petroleum-based hydraulic fluids. Available in 250 ft. reels with 0.250 in., 0.375 in., and 0.500 in. inner diameters, the hose meets SAE J517 and J343 Standards.</p> <p><a href="http://www.kuriyama.com" target="_blank">Kuriyama of America Inc.</a>, (847) 755-0360</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hose-tubing/hydraulic-hoses-suit-low-temp-apps#comments Hose & Tubing Mon, 18 May 2015 19:17:00 +0000 32571 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Pressure Regulators Come in Two Versions http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/pressure-regulators-come-two-versions <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Clippard%20MAR-1%20Regulators.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 425px;" /></p> <p>The MAR-1 Series of miniature pressure regulators are available in relieving or non-relieving versions. Relieving regulators compensate for changes in downstream conditions to maintain constant pressure outputs, while outputs from non-relieving regulators are affected by changing downstream pressures.&nbsp; Both versions are simple, robust, cost-effective, and can handle flows to 5 scfm. Models are available with multiple adjustment options.</p> <p><a href="http://www.clippard.com" target="_blank">Clippard Instrument Laboratory Inc.</a>, (513) 521-4261</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/pressure-regulators-come-two-versions#comments Controls & Instrumentation Fri, 15 May 2015 20:50:00 +0000 32561 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Matthew Schell Appointed President of Differential Pressure Plus Inc. http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/matthew-schell-appointed-president-differential-pressure-plus-inc <div class="field-byline"> Staff </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/DiffPressPlus-MSchell.jpg" style="width: 175px; height: 225px; float: left;" />Matthew Schell is taking over for Joe Gordon as President at <a href="http://www.differentialpressure.com" target="_blank">Differential Pressure Plus</a>, a manufacturing company of indicators and gauges for filtration systems and liquid level monitoring. Schell previously served as V.P. Sales and Marketing, and holds degrees in both Mechanical Engineering and Product Innovation under the da Vinci Program at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU).</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/matthew-schell-appointed-president-differential-pressure-plus-inc#comments Hydraulic Filters Fri, 15 May 2015 20:11:00 +0000 32551 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Paul Cooke Appointed President and CEO of Bosch Rexroth U.S. http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/paul-cooke-appointed-president-and-ceo-bosch-rexroth-us <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Rexroth-CookeBracht.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 353px;" /></p> <p>Effective July 1, 2015, Paul Cooke <em>(photo, left)</em> will take over as Regional President Americas, and President and CEO of <a href="http://www.boschrexroth-us.com" target="_blank">Bosch Rexroth Corporation U.S.</a>, global supplier of drive and control technology<em>. </em>Current President Berend Bracht <em>(photo, right) </em>will pass the baton onto Cooke after serving in the position for approximately nine years. &ldquo;We thank Mr. Bracht for his high level of commitment in the many years of service to Bosch Rexroth. We wish him all the best for the future,&rdquo; said Dr. Karl Tragl, Chairman of the Executive Board of Bosch Rexroth.</p> <p>Since joining Bosch Rexroth in 1982, Cooke has served in positions of senior leadership in the United Kingdom and Germany. He will leave his current position as Lohr, Germany Senior Vice President Sales and Industry Sector Management for Machinery and Engineering.</p> <p>Cooke brings 30 years of experience with industrial technology and general management to the new position. He holds a bachelor&rsquo;s degree with honors in mechanical engineering from The University of Newcastle, Tyne, England.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/paul-cooke-appointed-president-and-ceo-bosch-rexroth-us#comments Controls & Instrumentation Fri, 15 May 2015 19:52:00 +0000 32541 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Smart Actuation of Pumps and Valves http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/smart-actuation-pumps-and-valves <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Lead-Titelbild.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 406px;" title="Larger machines with hydraulic work functions typically have relied on pilot pressure to assist in the control of valves working at high pressure and flow. " /></p> <p>The trend in today&rsquo;s mobile hydraulic system design is to use electrohydraulic proportional valves to transmit only enough engine power to drive the specific loads for a job. Because it is not practical to control valves sized for flow rates of 50 l/min (13 gpm) or more directly by proportional solenoids, pilot stages come into play. The pilot stage taps into a machine&rsquo;s main hydraulic system for pressurized fluid to provide the force needed to control position of spools in large valves.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/smart-actuation-pumps-and-valves-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Pilot stages typically require an oil pressure of 20 to 30 bar (about 300 to 400), which must be maintained at all times as long as the machine is operating&mdash;even if the operating hydraulics are not in use. Moreover, pressure fluctuations in the system, contamination in the oil, and high viscosity of oil at low temperatures can have a direct negative effect on the operation of the pilot stage and, therefore, the hydraulic system&rsquo;s controllability and efficiency.</p> <p>In some instances, the need for a pilot circuit arises when some valve blocks consist of both mechanical valves and solenoid valves. For example, simple tractors may use mechanical valves as well as an electrically actuated load lift valve. This mixing of valve types can introduce incompatibility issues, as mechanical valves generally do not have ports for a pilot circuit.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/smart-compact-actuator-mobile-hydraulic-valves">Smart, Compact Actuator for Mobile Hydraulic Valves</a></p> <p><a href=" http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/internet-uncertainty">The Internet of Uncertainty</a></p> <p><a href=" http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/bluetooth-comes-cartridge-valves">Bluetooth Comes to Cartridge Valves</a></p> </div> <p>The question then becomes how to operate large hydraulic valves (flow to 120 lpm at pressure to 250 bar) without having a pilot circuit. Furthermore, the operator must also account for pressure fluctuations caused by load and environmental conditions, such as temperature. A solution for many applications could be the S42 smart actuator, from Sonceboz Corp., Sonceboz-Sombeval, Switzerland.</p> <p><strong>An alternative valve actuator</strong></p> <p>The S42 is a mechatronic actuator using a hybrid stepper motor with integral electronics that can be operated via a CAN bus. It delivers sufficient force to actuate the main spool of the hydraulic valve directly, thereby eliminating the need for a pilot stage. So the smart actuator makes the hydraulic system more efficient by not relieving the pump from having to provide pilot pressure at all times. And because the S42&rsquo;s operation is purely electrical, accuracy and repeatability are independent of conditions affecting the hydraulic oil. Incorporating the S42 smart valve into a mechanical valve block is also simple because no extension of the system, such as pass-through holes for pilot pressure flows, is needed.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Lead-insetS42_0.jpg" style="width: 300px; height: 297px; float: left;" title="Rather than go the pilot pressure route, a new valve actuator uses software and a precise hybrid stepper-motor drive to control valves directly. " /></p> <p>The smart actuator has been used in mobile hydraulic valves from Bucher Hydraulics for more than a year and are in work trucks manufactured by Daimler Unimog and agricultural equipment from Holmer Maschinenbau GmbH. Similar systems from Sonceboz based on hybrid stepper motors have been used since 1996 on valves for mobile hydraulics. Probably the best-known applications are hydraulic valves for front-end loaders on John Deere tractors. The experience gained from application with more than 1.4 million motors in the field led to the design, development, and refinement of the S42 Smart Actuator. The result is the latest generation of hydraulic valve actuators, which offer improved availability, greater functionality, and added machine operator comfort.</p> <p><strong>A closer look </strong></p> <p>The mechanical design of the Smart Actuator consists of a hybrid stepper motor suitable for operating in a high-vibration environment, a 2-stage gearbox that converts the rotary movement of the motor via a toothed rack into linear movement, the valve spool, and electronics for controlling the motor and providing an interface. The entire unit is contained within a sealed aluminum die-cast housing to tolerate high-vibration environments typically encountered in off-highway applications.</p> <p>The use of a hybrid stepper motor means that positioning is precise and highly repeatable. Opening points are achieved within a linear resolution of 7 &micro;m and do not exhibit overshoot characteristics found in conventional proportional solenoids. The 12-V version achieves a positioning response of 80 mm/sec whereas the 24-V version moves at up to 100mm/sec. This means that with acceleration ramps, responses as actuator can move from 0 to 7 mm in 110 ms or or less. What&rsquo;s more, there is no time lag when a reverse movement is command.</p> <p>The unit is compact, measuring only 108 &times; 95 &times; 41.2 mm (4.25 &times; 3.74 &times; 1.62 in.). A 4-pin plug connector is protection-rated to IP-6K9K and mechanically protected by the housing. Two versions (12 and 24 V) of electronic circuit boards are available, each with the relevant protective components against power supply inversion, overvoltage, and power spikes. A CAN bus interface to the J1939 protocol is available as standard. Other protocols or analog interfaces could be implemented with no change to the physical shell.</p> <p><strong><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_IdeasAndApps_F1.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 376px;" title="This simplified chart shows the field-oriented control of the S42’s hybrid stepper motor drive." /></strong></p> <p>A powerful microcontroller manages stepper motor controls and signal processing. The vector control is clocked at 20 kHz to provide precise positioning through classic stepping and partial stepping operations. Furthermore the intrinsic stepper motor characteristics ensure precise positioning, high drive, and holding torque coupled with a moderate restoring force (detent torque). Intelligent sensorless evaluation of the various motor data, such as the back EMF, ensures secure and precise valve control. If the valve slide should stall, the actuator can no longer operate correctly and reports the fault to the microcontroller.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_IdeasAndApps_F2.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 431px;" title="The S42’s stall detection algorithm senses losses if the actuator or valve becomes jammed by monitoring phase currents with the control loop, thereby eliminating the need for position feedback sensors." /></p> <p>Two temperature sensors mounted at different locations provide real-time diagnostics through feedback to the control system. Actuator behavior adjusted for temperature can be saved in order to compensate for different valve characteristics at low temperatures. This operates the valve reliably and precisely at temperatures down to &ndash;40&deg; C, despite the much higher viscosity of the hydraulic oil at such temperatures.</p> <p>The software provides the flexibility to adjust valve parameters to a specific application. For example, the valve&rsquo;s performance curve can be linearized or progressively reproduced in the actuator, eliminating the need to mechanically configure valve characteristics. This means hydraulic component manufacturers need not produce different variations of the same valve and end users do not need to account for multiple spare parts.</p> <p>To ensure that the actuator achieves the required position, the electronics evaluate voltage and current signals from the actuator, thereby avoiding the need for a position feedback transducer. If the voltage and current readings indicate no movement of the stepper motor due to any cause, the fault is detected and reported to the controller.</p> <p>Another benefit of the close interaction between software and hardware is represented by dead-band detection and the ability to save the slide coverage variation for each valve in the EEPROM on the actuator. This provides precise hydraulic valve control because error otherwise caused by mechanical production tolerances and mechanical play from wear can be compensated throughout the entire working life of the valve and the machine.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_IdeasAndApps_F3.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 396px;" title="Deadband detection allows software to compensate for an individual valve’s dead zone and can even accout for future wear. This eliminates having to manually adjust and readjust the valve. " /></p> <p>To accomplish this, every time the S42 smart actuator is powered on, the amount of play at the zero position of the valve slide is sampled up to the spring force on each side. The valve slide provides cover from this point until oil flow begins. This can be determined for each valve, for example on a test bench. The information is stored, then remains constant for the life of the valve.</p> <p>Taken together, this results in a virtually complete linear curve while also ensuring that the control characteristics are identical and constant from valve to valve. These characteristics remain constant over time and reduce production costs because of relaxed tolerances for the slider cover without jeopardizing accuracy of valve control.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/smart-actuation-pumps-and-valves-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Applications for the S42 smart actuator are expected to grow well beyond those mentioned above. For example, one trend that can be foreseen is the growing requirement for SIL conformity.</p> <p>For more information, contact the U.S. office of Sonceboz Corp., Ann Arbor, Mich., at (734) 622-0330 or visit <a href="http://www.sonceboz.com" target="_blank">www.sonceboz.com</a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/smart-actuation-pumps-and-valves#comments Cylinders & Actuators Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Hydraulic Valves Fri, 15 May 2015 19:02:00 +0000 32511 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Like Magnets on Steroids http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/magnets-steroids <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The filtration technology developed by <a href="http://www.magnom.com" target="_blank">Magnom</a> removes sub-micron and larger-sized contaminants from hydraulic fluid using a combination of magnets and specially formed steel plates to collect particles. Housed around central magnets, the steel plates transmit magnetic fields that attract ferrous and other magnetically sensitive particles into collection zones between the plates.</p> <p>The plates are arranged as positive-negative pairs, and because opposite charges attract, positively charged particles are drawn into negatively charged collection zones formed between pairs of plates. Likewise, negatively charged particles are drawn into positively charged collection zones. Ferrous particles tend to hold a positive or negative charge, so they will be attracted either to a negative or positive collection zone.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Waste-Image-Sidebar.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 345px;" title="With blue lines representing fluid flow, magnetic fields (red lines) pull particles into areas between steel plates. These areas trap the particles, and because they lie beyond the fluid flow path, the particles are not dislodged by pressure pulsations and flow surges inherent to most hydraulic systems." /></p> <p>Furthermore, flow pulses and surges&mdash;inherent to most hydraulic systems&mdash;do not dislodge the particles from the collection zones because trapped particles are not in the main stream of fluid flow. Furthermore, magnetic fields (opposite charges) hold particles within the collection zones. For the particles to exit the collection zones, they would have to overcome the magnetic force of a pair of like-charged plates. In essence, then, the particles are held in place by the attraction of opposite charges and the repulsive force of like charges.</p> <p>The hard, small particles of ferrous metals typically found in hydraulic systems are too small to be trapped by even the finest media-type filters. Plus, these particles typically have sharp edges and are dense, so they can tear the media when they pass through the filter, shortening media life. Removing these contaminants extends the life of components within the system and improves reliability.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/magnets-steroids-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Unlike media filters, Magnom cores do not create an increasingly high pressure drop as more contamination collects. This is because particles collect in areas away from flow paths. This means pressure drop is not a factor when applying Magnom components. The cores are sized so that the flow area around all the steel plates equals or exceeds the flow area of inlet and outlet ports.</p> <p>Magnom cores should not be used to replace conventional, media-type filters. Instead, they improve system filtration and extend the life of media filters <em>(see &quot;<a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/strength-numbers" target="_blank">Strength in Numbers</a>&quot; to read about its application in Caterpillar bulldozers)</em>. They do this by trapping particles that would otherwise collect in filter elements, and they remove the hardest, most damaging particles from the flow stream.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/magnets-steroids#comments Hydraulic Filters Fri, 15 May 2015 18:20:00 +0000 32481 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com IFPE 2017 & ConExpo/ConAgg http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/ifpe-2017-conexpoconagg <div class="node-body event-body"></div> <h3 class="location-locations-header">Location</h3> <div class="location-locations-wrapper"> <div class="location vcard"> <div class="adr"> <span class="fn">Las Vegas Convention </span> <div class="street-address"> 3150 Paradise Rd. </div> <span class="locality">Las Vegas</span>, <span class="region">NV</span> <span class="postal-code">89109</span> <div class="country-name">United States</div> <span class="geo"><abbr class="latitude" title="36.132541">36° 7' 57.1476" N</abbr>, <abbr class="longitude" title="-115.155330">115° 9' 19.188" W</abbr></span> </div> <div class="map-link"> <div class="location map-link">See map: <a href="http://maps.google.com?q=36.132541+-115.155330+%283150+Paradise+Rd.%2C+Las+Vegas%2C+NV%2C+89109%2C+us%29">Google Maps</a></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field-desc"> <p>IFPE is the leading international exposition and technical conference dedicated to the integration of fluid power with other technologies for power transmission and motion control. No other event in North America brings this many sectors of the fluid power, power transmission and motion control industries together in one place.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/ifpe-2017-conexpoconagg#comments 36.132541 -115.155330 Fri, 15 May 2015 17:50:00 +0000 32521 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>Every three years the fluid-power community convenes in Las Vegas for the IFPE show, conference and related events. IFPE 2017 &mdash; International Exposition for Power Transmission is set to be the largest yet. The exposition and technical conference highlights fluid power, power transmission, and motion control&nbsp; and will be held March 7 to 11, 2017 at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas. There isn&rsquo;t another show in North America that brings together so many sectors of the fluid power industry.</p> <p>Education is a key component of IFPE and this year there&rsquo;s a lot on offer. More than 100 educational sessions will be held at the IFPE Technical Conference, with topics ranging from new technologies, best practices, and the latest in research and development.</p> <p>IFPE 2017 will be filled with educational opportunities. These education events provided crucial information on new fluid power, power transmission and motion control technologies to engineers and others involved in the design and manufacturing process.</p> Fluid Power Innovation and Research Conference (FPIRC) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fluid-power-innovation-and-research-conference-fpirc <div class="node-body event-body"></div> <h3 class="location-locations-header">Location</h3> <div class="location-locations-wrapper"> <div class="location vcard"> <div class="adr"> <span class="fn">Radisson Blu Aqua Hotel Chicago</span> <div class="street-address"> 221 North Columbus Dr. </div> <span class="locality">Chicago</span>, <span class="region">IL</span> <span class="postal-code">60601</span> <div class="country-name">United States</div> <span class="geo"><abbr class="latitude" title="41.886537">41° 53' 11.5332" N</abbr>, <abbr class="longitude" title="-87.620167">87° 37' 12.6012" W</abbr></span> </div> <div class="map-link"> <div class="location map-link">See map: <a href="http://maps.google.com?q=41.886537+-87.620167+%28221+North+Columbus+Dr.%2C+Chicago%2C+IL%2C+60601%2C+us%29">Google Maps</a></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field-desc"> <p>FPIRC is the premier conference for fluid power industry and academic research in North America. It connects industry to university resources and talent through technical sessions, networking opportunities, laboratory tours, and panel discussions on the technologies and workforce skills needed to continue growing the fluid power industry.&nbsp;The conference&nbsp; is being held in conjunction with the&nbsp;<strong><a href="http://www.asmeconferences.org/FPMC2015/" target="_blank">Bath/ASME Symposium on Fluid Power</a></strong>, October 11-14 in Bath, England.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fluid-power-innovation-and-research-conference-fpirc#comments 41.886537 -87.620167 Fri, 15 May 2015 17:09:00 +0000 32471 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Strength in Numbers http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/strength-numbers <div class="field-byline"> Marty Worth, Whayne Supply Co. </div> <div class="field-deck"> Four years of field use and analysis of vehicle maintenance histories reveal that the addition of high-strength magnets to hydraulic filtration systems can reduce service expenses up to 80%. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/strength-numbers-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>As a Caterpillar equipment dealer, we know that reducing maintenance costs and increasing uptime of our rental equipment are essential to the success of our business. Of course, this mission is never-ending, and we wouldn&rsquo;t last very long if we ever decided we&rsquo;ve done all we can.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Waste-Image-1.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 397px;" title="A Caterpillar D-8 dozer is shown working at a landfill, a demanding application used for testing an unconventional magnetic filter component in equipment’s hydraulic system." /></p> <p>More than four years ago we began testing the concept that removing the sub-micronic shards of ferrous metal typically found in hydraulic and lubrication systems would extend the life of critical components and reduce machine maintenance costs and downtime. We also felt that removing these damaging contaminants would improve equipment productivity beyond the already high levels expected of these machines.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Waste-Image-2.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 446px;" title="This Magnom magnetic core is shown with particles collected from a machine’s hydraulic system. Most individual particles are sub-micron in size, so they could only be seen through a powerful microscope." /></p> <p>Initial results from the field indicated that high-strength magnet technology from Magnom Inc., Warwick, England, holds promise of dramatically reducing premature failure of critical components. In particular, we used Magnom CP20 in-line magnetic filter elements in the high-pressure hydraulic line of fan drives on Caterpillar D-11 dozers.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/fine-filtration-foils-hydraulic-system-failures">Fine Filtration Foils Hydraulic-System Failures</a></p> <p><a href=" http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/right-way-do-offline-filtration-hydraulic-systems">The RIGHT Way To Do Offline Filtration On Hydraulic Systems</a></p> <p><a href=" http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/3-big-problems-caused-hot-running-hydraulics">3 BIG Problems Caused By Hot-Running Hydraulics</a></p> </div> <p>We found the fan-drive circuits operated four times longer than drives without the Magnom filters. The results were less frequent component replacement, lower maintenance-labor costs, and less downtime of the machines. As a result, many of our customers now incorporate Magnom magnetic filters in their machines <em>(for more details about the technology behind the filters, see &quot;<a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/magnets-steroids" target="_blank">Like Magnets on Steroids</a>&quot;)</em>.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Waste-Image-3.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 446px;" title="Magnom in-line magnetic filters are shown installed on the hydraulic fan drive circuit of a Caterpillar D-11 dozer. The motor’s supply line is at right, and the return line is at left." /></p> <p>Results from the tests quickly led to a cross-section of our customers to incorporate the Magnom filters into their machines. These Dozer operators have a keen sense to keep all their equipment operating efficiently, which led to the use of Magnom filters in a wide variety of equipment.</p> <p>Today, with three to four years of maintenance cost data for the hydraulic systems from a study group of Cat Dozers, the Whayne Technology Division is able to quantify a significant reduction in hydraulic system maintenance expenses. Efficiently removing the very small particles of hard metal with Magnom filters has now been confirmed as a cost-effective way to reduce maintenance expenses by greatly reducing the instances of unscheduled system repairs or servicing.</p> <p><strong>Summary of tests</strong></p> <p>A group of D-6 and D-8 Cat dozers, used extensively in landfills, was selected for study. Magnom filters were added to the existing filter systems on some of the machines, while others&mdash;the control group&mdash;used only standard filters. The wide variation of loads, uneven terrain, dirty environment, and range of ambient temperatures make landfills a demanding application for this equipment. The annual maintenance costs for each machine&rsquo;s hydraulic system was collected for a three-year period and analyzed.</p> <p>All machines in the study group operated approximately 2,000 hr/yr and were provided with a standard schedule of preventive maintenance procedures, such as fluid analysis, spin-on filter change-outs, etc. Hydraulic system savings will vary based on hours of operation, operating environment, level of maintenance, and operator skill.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/strength-numbers-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Results showed the average annual hydraulic system maintenance and repair costs for equipment fitted with Magnom magnetic filters was 79.3% lower than the same costs for those machines in the control group.&nbsp; We also confirmed that the machines using the Magnom filters encountered less downtime from unscheduled repairs.&nbsp; The increased productivity of those machines was an added benefit on top of significantly reduced repair expenses.</p> <p><em>Martin Worth is Sales Manager at Whayne Technology Div. of Whayne Supply Co., Louisville, Ky., <a href="http://www.whayne.com" target="_blank">www.whayne.com</a>. For more information on Magnom magnetic filters, visit <a href="http://www.magnom.com/" target="_blank">www.magnom.com</a>, or call their U.S. office in Chicago at (312) 724-5839.</em></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/strength-numbers#comments Hydraulic Filters Rail, Truck & Bus Fri, 15 May 2015 16:26:00 +0000 32451 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Pack EXPO 2015 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/pack-expo-2015 <div class="node-body event-body"></div> <h3 class="location-locations-header">Location</h3> <div class="location-locations-wrapper"> <div class="location vcard"> <div class="adr"> <span class="fn">Las Vegas Convention Center </span> <div class="street-address"> 3150 Paradise Rd. </div> <span class="locality">Las Vegas</span>, <span class="region">NV</span> <span class="postal-code"> 89109</span> <div class="country-name">United States</div> <span class="geo"><abbr class="latitude" title="36.132541">36° 7' 57.1476" N</abbr>, <abbr class="longitude" title="-115.155330">115° 9' 19.188" W</abbr></span> </div> <div class="map-link"> <div class="location map-link">See map: <a href="http://maps.google.com?q=36.132541+-115.155330+%283150+Paradise+Rd.%2C+Las+Vegas%2C+NV%2C++89109%2C+us%29">Google Maps</a></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field-desc"> <p><span style="color: rgb(68, 68, 68); font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 16px; line-height: 20px;">The exhibit features&nbsp;innovations &nbsp;in the processing and packaging industry. Interactive venues include&nbsp;industry-specific lounges, resource centers and an&nbsp;Innovation Stage, where educational sessions are presented throughout the day.</span></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/pack-expo-2015#comments 36.132541 -115.155330 Fri, 15 May 2015 15:29:00 +0000 32441 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com 2015 Industry & Economic Outlook Conference http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/2015-industry-economic-outlook-conference <div class="node-body event-body"></div> <h3 class="location-locations-header">Location</h3> <div class="location-locations-wrapper"> <div class="location vcard"> <div class="adr"> <span class="fn">The Westin Chicago North Shore</span> <div class="street-address"> 601 N. Milwaukee Avenue </div> <span class="locality">Wheeling</span>, <span class="region">IL</span> <span class="postal-code">60090</span> <div class="country-name">United States</div> <span class="geo"><abbr class="latitude" title="42.150531">42° 9' 1.9116" N</abbr>, <abbr class="longitude" title="-87.911581">87° 54' 41.6916" W</abbr></span> </div> <div class="map-link"> <div class="location map-link">See map: <a href="http://maps.google.com?q=42.150531+-87.911581+%28601+N.+Milwaukee+Avenue%2C+Wheeling%2C+IL%2C+60090%2C+us%29">Google Maps</a></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field-desc"> <p>All fluid power enthusiasts, members and non-members of&nbsp;the NFPA&nbsp;alike,&nbsp;are invited to attend the&nbsp;2015 Industry &amp; Economic Outlook Conference (IEOC). Industry leaders will be there to speak about&nbsp;economics, market forecasts,&nbsp;technology breakthroughs,and emerging trends.&nbsp;</p> <p>On another note,&nbsp;the&nbsp;<a href="http://nfpahub.com/events/conferences/the-ieoc/suite-deal/" target="_blank">&ldquo;Suite Deal&rdquo;</a>&nbsp;Drawing offers a chance to win an&nbsp;upgraded suite&nbsp;to those who&nbsp;register and book&nbsp;hotel&nbsp;reservations&nbsp;at the Westin&nbsp;by&nbsp;June 17th.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/2015-industry-economic-outlook-conference#comments 42.150531 -87.911581 Thu, 14 May 2015 21:01:00 +0000 32401 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Making Air-Tight Connections http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fittings-couplings/making-air-tight-connections <div class="field-deck"> Today’s pneumatic fittings are designed to attach quickly, operate leak-free, and work for years. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/making-air-tight-connections-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Pneumatic connectors may be underappreciated in the world of air-circuit design, but they&rsquo;re nonetheless indispensable for efficient and leak-free performance. Here&rsquo;s a look at some innovative connectors that offer attributes such as durability, corrosion resistance, high flow capacity, light weight, low cost, and ease-of-assembly.</p> <p><strong>Stainless-steel pneumatic fittings</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-1_AutomationDir.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 425px;" /></p> <p>The NITRA line of pneumatic products now includes 316 stainless-steel fittings that stand up to harsh chemicals and washdowns, and can withstand pressures up to 290 psi and temperatures to 390&deg;. The push-to-connect male fittings, in NPT inch and BSPT sizes, feature 303 stainless-steel gripping collets with internal Viton O-ring.</p> <p>The fittings can be used with polyurethane, nylon, and PTFE tubing in sizes from 5/32 to 1/2 in. and 4 to 10 mm. Available fittings include straight unions, straight reducers, and male straight and bulkhead fittings. Other pneumatic connectors in the NITRA line include push-to-connect thermoplastic fittings, threaded brass fittings, quick-disconnect air couplings, and swivel air fittings.</p> <p><strong>AutomationDirect</strong><em>, (800) 633-0405, <a href="http://www.automationdirect.com" target="_blank">www.automationdirect.com</a></em></p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-filters/special-fittings-help-keep-samples-clean">Special Fittings Help Keep Samples Clean</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/FittingsCouplin/Article/False/87470/TechZone-FittingsCouplin">Pneumatic Function Fittings Perform Needed Control and Safety Operations</a></p> <p><a href=" http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hose-amp-tubing/new-look-pneumatic-connections">A New Look at Pneumatic Connections</a></p> </div> <p><strong>Pneumatic push-in fittings</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-2_Aventics.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 316px;" /></p> <p>Series QR1 fittings have a lightweight, polymer design suitable for all of the company&rsquo;s pneumatic products, such as valves and cylinders. The push-to-connect-style fittings have an oval release ring with an enlarged surface area for quick, easy release of pneumatic tubing. Other features include standard nickel-plated brass threads, inch or metric (ISO G) versions, Teflon thread sealant standard on NPT versions, and a stainless-steel internal locking ring.</p> <p>The comprehensive line of QR1 fittings consist of the Mini design for plastic tubing ODs of 1/8 to 1/4 in. and 3 to 6 mm; and the Standard design for tubing ODs of 5/32 to 1/2 in. and 4 to 16 mm. Styles include straights, elbows, tees, Ys, Xs, manifolds, bulkheads, plugs, reducers, unions, and caps. Products such as check, ball, and flow-control valves are also included in the range of function fittings.</p> <p><strong>Aventics</strong>, (859) 254-8031, <a href="http://www.aventics.com/us" target="_blank"><em>www.aventics.com/us</em></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Push-to-connect pneumatic fittings</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-3_Beswick.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 335px;" /></p> <p>PTC push-to-connect fittings provide quick and simple tubing connection and disconnection. All components, including the release collar, are stainless steel, suiting them for use in corrosive environments and applications requiring &ldquo;clean&rdquo; materials.</p> <p>A captured O-ring face seal ensures leak-tight operation. Buna-N O-ring seals are standard; fluorocarbon, silicone, and EPDM are optional. Configurations include 10-32 threaded straights, adjustable-position elbows and tees, as well as &ldquo;tube to tube&rdquo; straight unions, elbows, and tees for 1/4- and 1/8-in.-OD tubing.</p> <p>The fittings can be used with a variety of tubing materials, such as polyurethane, polyethylene, and copper. For corrosion resistance and high temperatures, the 1/4-in.-OD PTC fittings also work with stainless-steel tubing.</p> <p><strong>Beswick Engineering</strong>, (603) 433-1188, <a href="http://www.beswick.com/products/products.php?cid=55" target="_blank"><em>www.beswick.com</em></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Protective coating</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-4_Brennan.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 557px;" /></p> <p>Brennan Black rust-resistant coating for tube fittings and adapters reportedly provides excellent protection in highly corrosive applications. It&rsquo;s designed to protect equipment and ensure longevity in harsh environments, thus reducing downtime and replacement costs. While the industry norm for corrosion protection of fittings is 72 hr, and the company&#39;s standard CR3-plated products provide more than 110 hr of corrosion protection, Brennan Black coating applied over plating provides more than 1,700 hr of corrosion protection.</p> <p>It&rsquo;s made of a proprietary blend of fluoropolymers, engineered plastics, and selective corrosion inhibitors, and the coating is available for all the company&rsquo;s steel fittings and adapters. In addition to excellent corrosion resistance, other features include high resistance to wear, abrasion, and chipping. Working temperature range is &ndash;420 to 500&deg;F.</p> <p><strong>Brennan Industries</strong>, (888) 331-1523, <a href="http://www.brennaninc.com" target="_blank"><em>www.brennaninc.com</em></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Brass fittings</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-5_Fairview.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 578px;" /></p> <p>Brass push-to-connect fittings, which offer quick assembly and full-flow design, will find use in polyethylene, nylon, and polyurethane tubing. Styles include bulkhead unions, tube-to-pipe connectors, 90&deg; elbows, and tees in a variety of versions. Depending on the part, sizes can range from 1/8- to 1/2-in. tube and 1/16- to 1/2-in. pipe. Pressure ratings range from 250 to 350 psi.</p> <p><strong>Fairview Fittings</strong>, (800) 688-4088<em>, <a href="http://www.fairviewfittings.com" target="_blank">www.fairviewfittings.com</a></em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Transportation-grade fittings</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-6_Camozzi.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 427px;" /></p> <p>Transportation-grade fittings are high-quality, industrial push-in fittings. The line includes inch series D6000 fittings and extreme-duty (&ndash;50&deg;C) metric series 9000 C-Truck fittings. Both series are specifically designed for maximum reliability in pneumatic systems on industrial and commercial vehicles in the harshest environments. Applications include a wide range of mobile vehicles, including on-road trucks, trailers, and buses; off-road agriculture, earth-moving, and military equipment; and railway vehicles.</p> <p>Fractional-sized fittings conform to DOT 571.106 and SAE J2494 performance standards, and come in 5/32- to 1/2-in. tube diameters.&nbsp; Metric-sized fittings conform to DIN 74324:1996, DIN EN ISO 9227:2006, and DIN EN 60068-2-6:1996. and are available in 4-&nbsp; to 18-mm tube diameters.</p> <p><strong>Camozzi Pneumatics</strong>, (972)-998-9440, <a href="http://www.camozzi-usa.com" target="_blank"><em>www.camozzi-usa.com</em></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Rugged metal fittings</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-7_CMatic.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 949px;" /></p> <p>The PN Series is a line of compact, push-in, full-metal fittings suited for heavy-duty pneumatic applications. A stainless-steel gripper and O-ring inside the fitting ensure secure and reliable tubing connections. To connect, users simply push the tubing into the fitting until it bottoms; the stainless-steel teeth grip the tubing and hold it captive.</p> <p>Compatible tubing types include polyamide, polyethylene, and polyurethane. Working temperature is from &ndash;4 to 160&deg;F. Working pressure depends on the tubing, but doesn&rsquo;t exceed 261 psi. Vacuum rating is to 28-in. Hg. The fittings come in a range of styles, including male and female straights, elbows, swivel elbows, tees and swivel tees, reducers, unions, and Y fittings.</p> <p>Sizes vary by style. For example, the PN 11 taper straight male includes 16 variations for tube sizes from 1/8 to 1.2 in. OD. The fittings are delivered read-to-use with PTFE pre-applied to all threads. They can be disassembled and reconnected several times without the durable PTFE coating peeling off.</p> <p><strong>C.Matic</strong>, +39 0362 805246, <a href="http://www.cmatic.it" target="_blank"><em>www.cmatic.it</em></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Quick-connect fittings</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-8_Clippard.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 412px;" /></p> <p>The Minimatic J-Series quick connects consist of two component parts that are joined to form the complete connector. The valve body contains a two-way, spring-loaded poppet valve that&rsquo;s typically connected to the main air supply. When the poppet isn&rsquo;t depressed, this valve shuts off the air supply. The cap contains a valve depressor that, when assembled to the valve body, depresses the poppet. This permits airflow from the main supply to the pneumatic circuit or downstream equipment. The line includes many styles and connectors with flows rated at 14 scfm @ 100 psig.</p> <p><strong>Clippard Instrument Laboratory</strong>, (513) 521-4261,<a href="http://www.clippard.com"><em> </em></a><a href="http://www.clippard.com" target="_blank"><em>www.clippard.com</em></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Pneumatic test connectors</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-9_FasTest.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 408px;" /></p> <p>The FE and FI Series of automated quick connections are designed for volume production testing with uniform seal movement.&nbsp; The connectors cover a full range of English and metric male and female ports, as well as NPT/BSPP/BSPT threads.&nbsp; New offerings include standard 1- and 2-in. shaft extensions for remote or offset ports.&nbsp;Among the sealing material options are neoprene for low-abrasion testing, urethane for high pressure and lubricant resistance, and FDA-approved materials for medical-device testing.</p> <p><strong>FasTest</strong>, (800) 444-2373, <a href="http://www.fastestinc.com" target="_blank"><em>www.fastestinc.com</em></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Clean-design fitting</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-10_Festo.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 487px;" /></p> <p>The NPCK clean-design fittings are suited for use in food-handling and splash zones in the food industry, as well as for process-automation and the pharmaceutical-industry applications. Targeted for use in cleaning-intensive areas, the NPCK fulfills all Clean Design requirements and is FDA-compliant.</p> <p>The NPCK&rsquo;s connector and nut are made of high-grade stainless steel, and the sealing ring is PEEK. This lets the connector handle a wide range of cleaning agents and resist corrosion and high temperatures. In addition, the special union-nut design prevents dirty edges and the build-up of microorganisms or other contamination. Operating pressures range from &ndash;0.95 to 12 bar, and operating temperatures range from &ndash;20 to 120&deg;C. Sizes include M5, G1/8, G1/4, and G3/8.</p> <p><strong>Festo</strong>, (631) 435-0800, <a href="http://www.festo.com/us" target="_blank"><em>www.festo.com/us</em></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Leak-free plug</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-11_Heinrichs.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 225px;" /></p> <p>Pressurized air is clean and suited for a wide range of industrial tasks, but it can be expensive. Even the smallest system leak is costly. To help solve that problem, the HN P screw plug was designed for systems that must be leakproof.</p> <p>The compact design includes a steel body coated for corrosion resistance, with an integrated O-ring that provides tight sealing. Pressure rating is to 232 psi. The plug&rsquo;s dimensions meet ISO 16030, and the NBR Shore 70 O-ring is rated for temperatures from &ndash;4 to 248&deg;F. Other body and seal materials are available on request.</p> <p>Thread sizes range from M3 to M7 and G1/8 to G1 (Class A). The low-cost HN P plugs provide reliable sealing, and are well-suited for limited-space installations.</p> <p><strong>Heinrichs USA</strong>, (859) 371-4999, <a href="http://www.heinrichs-usa.com" target="_blank"><em>www.heinrichs-usa.com</em></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Panel-mount adapter plate</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Image-12_Numatics.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 546px;" /></p> <p>With the <a href="http://www.numatics.com/501Panel" target="_blank">501 Series panel-mount adapter plate</a>, OEMs and end users can connect the <a href="http://www.numatics.com/501Panel" target="_blank">company&rsquo;s compatible pneumatic valve manifold</a> directly to a panel in the wall or floor of a cabinet. The <a href="http://www.numatics.com/501Panel" target="_blank">adapter</a> plate saves space and simplifies panel layout and construction by eliminating the need for complex tubing routing and bulkhead fittings, as well as reducing custom machining and drilling. The design minimizes leaks; cuts assembly costs and cabinet size; and simplifies maintenance and troubleshooting.</p> <p>The 501 Series has a unique shut-off configuration that permits easy isolation (hot swapping) and replacement of valves without disrupting operations. It comes in three sizes&mdash;for 8, 12, and 16 valves&mdash;and is available in stainless steel and anodized aluminum.</p> <p>The panel-mount adapter plate suits applications that install directional control valves in a cabinet due to environmental or space constraints. Applications include food and beverage, pharmaceutical, and packaging machinery, plus general machine automation.</p> <p><strong>Numatics</strong>, (888) 686-2842, <a href="http://www.numatics.com" target="_blank"><em>www.numatics.com</em></a></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/making-air-tight-connections-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fittings-couplings/making-air-tight-connections#comments Fittings & Couplings Thu, 14 May 2015 20:37:00 +0000 32411 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com WasteExpo Unveils Latest Waste-Removal Trends http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/wasteexpo-unveils-latest-waste-removal-trends <div class="field-deck"> Exhibitors and industry experts will discuss evolving green technology to improve overall efficiency. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Hundreds of manufacturers, industry leaders, and business owners looking for solutions to process or recycle waste will attend WasteExpo 2015, which takes place June 1 to 4. It provides updates on evolving green and efficient technologies, and demonstrates methods for improving the economy, productivity, and environmental impact of your business.</p> <p><img alt="" height="78" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/waste-logo.jpg" style="margin: 5px; float: right;" width="247" />Industry and waste-reduction experts are scheduled to appear in hundreds of educational presentations, exhibition stands, and networking opportunities. Topics include safe waste disposal, waste-to-energy technologies, and technological innovations in the waste and recycling industry.</p> <p><img alt="" height="559" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/WasteExptable-2.gif" style="margin: 5px; float: left;" width="275" />Presentations also explore ways to improve the well-being of employees in the manufacturing industry by saving time, money, and resources. Other presentations will cover landfill technologies, environmentally conscious practices, effective hauling, and inexpensive methods for organic composting. Exhibits open June 2 at the Las Vegas Convention Center.</p> <p>Experts from The National Waste &amp; Recycling Association will be present to answer questions and address misconceptions about topics such as recycling and resource recovery. In addition, the WasteExpo Investor Summit features advice from senior management in industrial and energy-waste companies, including Advanced Disposal Services, Casella Waste Systems Inc., Covanta Holding Corp., Newalta Corp., Progressive Waste Solutions Ltd., Republic Services Inc., Waste Connections Inc., and Waste Management Inc. The educational agenda can be seen <a href="http://www.wasteexpo.com/we15/CUSTOM/uploads/WE15_Education_Grid.pdf" target="_blank">here</a>.</p> <p>Fluid power companies will also be on hand exhibiting products that provide safe and efficient power and control for operating refuse trucks, compactors, shredders, balers, vehicles, and other equipment used in the waste-reduction industry.</p> <p>For more information and to register for the event, go to the <a href="http://www.wasteexpo.com/we15/public/Mainhall.aspx?ID=1056902" target="_blank">WasteExpo website</a>.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/wasteexpo-unveils-latest-waste-removal-trends-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/wasteexpo-unveils-latest-waste-removal-trends#comments Other Technologies Waste Management Thu, 14 May 2015 20:11:00 +0000 32291 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com WasteExpo Unveils Latest Waste-Removal Trends (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/wasteexpo-unveils-latest-waste-removal-trends-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>Hundreds of manufacturers, industry leaders, and business owners looking for solutions to process or recycle waste will attend WasteExpo 2015, which takes place June 1 to 4. It provides updates on evolving green and efficient technologies...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/HP-Calculate-w-Air.jpg" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics&#39; Measure with Air </em>wallcharts.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=32371&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> Gold Thu, 14 May 2015 20:06:00 +0000 32371 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Power Sources, Part 2 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-power-sources-part-2 <div class="field-deck"> The analogous nature of hydraulic systems and their electrical counterparts can be compared and contrasted by examining motors and power conversion. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The sequence described in last issue&rsquo;s &ldquo;<a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-power-sources-part-1" target="_blank">Power Sources, Part 1</a>&rdquo; has one switch opening at the same instant the other one closes. But what would be the consequence of re-synchronizing the individual opening and closing actions so that both coils are energized at the same time?</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/hydraulic-electric-analogies-power-sources-part-2-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Figure 7 is a composite drawing of the same two-phase, two-pole synchronous motor introduced last month. It shows the consequences of energizing the phases individually, as well as simultaneously. The effect is that the electromagnetic field&rsquo;s central axis is a composite of both individual pole sets. The effective field is no longer aligned with a single stator phase; instead, it&rsquo;s positioned rotationally in between at about 45&deg;. Therefore, the rotor&rsquo;s permanent magnet aligns itself with the composite field rather than with a pole piece.&nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_MotionControl_F7-top.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 587px;" /><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_MotionControl_F7-bottom.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 572px;" title="7. When the control system allows both phases to be energized simultaneously and individually, intermediate angular positions are possible through proper synchronization of switch operations and current direction (battery polarity)." /></p> <p>The remainder of the individual figures shows how the rotor can be induced to &ldquo;march along&rdquo; with the composite field over time. Note, however, that the regular advancement of the rotor requires that the two switches, S1 and S2, be properly sequenced when opening and closing, and the batteries must have their polarity switched at the correct moments.</p> <p>When both coils (phases) are allowed to be energized simultaneously and individually, as well as &nbsp;energized in the proper sequence, the rotor can be made to take on intermediate angular positions, not just increments of 90&deg;. In Figure 7, the switches alternately open and close, and switch and battery polarity sequences are carried out, at eight different time intervals. The rotor can now take on positions measured in increments of 45&deg;. Here, the batteries are switched in polarity in a slightly different sequence from the switches.&nbsp; The polarity is fixed for four intervals, and then reversed. The two batteries switch at different times, though, which is referred to as being &ldquo;out of phase&rdquo; with one another. As with the switches, it&rsquo;s important to synchronize the battery polarities to get the rotor to advance in the manner depicted.</p> <p>This observation raises the question &ldquo;what would be required to have even smaller increments of travel?&rdquo; The answer is to allow the battery voltages to vary in controlled increments of magnitude and polarity. As a result, angular increments can be as small as desired.&nbsp; It should be obvious that the electrical supplies cannot be batteries; in practical application, they will be variable power supplies that are controllable electronically. When amplitudes are controlled by some sensible algorithm, the rotor can be caused to rotate in &ldquo;microsteps,&rdquo; or in other words, arbitrarily tiny.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_MotionControl_F8.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 353px;" title="8. With the proper electronic controller, the synchronous motor becomes a programmable stepper motor, whose rotor will advance by a known increment with each incoming command pulse." /></p> <p>This machine is actually a <em>stepper motor</em>. A stepper motor receives a train of pulses, with each pulse representing a single step of the rotor and shaft. For instance, if the motor and its controller are set up with a resolution of 1&deg; per input pulse, the first pulse would increment the shaft one degree from its current position <em>(Fig. 8)</em>. Completing one shaft (rotor) revolution thus requires 360 input pulses. Provisions must exist to reverse the direction of incrementation so that the motor can &ldquo;back up&rdquo; as well as go forward.&nbsp; It merely requires generating the proper sequence of voltage polarities on the two stator windings.</p> <p><strong>Motor Observations</strong></p> <p>When viewing the construction details, ac motors are simpler than dc motors. Complications arise regarding the sequence of energizing the stator.&nbsp; One of the subtle points often missed in studying this motor is that the stator windings create an electromagnetic field with a composite (effective) axis that shifts rotationally during the sequence.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-power-sources-part-1">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Power Sources, Part 1</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/reservoirs-accessories/hydraulic-electric-analogies-reservoirs-and-grounds">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Reservoirs and Grounds</a></p> <p><a href="hydraulicspneumatics.com/accumulators/hydraulic-electric-analogies-capacitors-and-accumulators-part-3">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Capacitors and Accumulators, Part 3</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/accumulators/hydraulic-electric-analogies-capacitors-and-accumulators-part-2">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Capacitors and Accumulators, Part 2</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/accumulators/hydraulic-electric-analogies-capacitors-and-accumulators-part-1">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Capacitors and Accumulators, Part 1</a></p> </div> <p>In Figure 7a, the effective stator magnetic axis is vertical, thus &ldquo;grabbing&rdquo; the rotor permanent magnet and aligning it as shown. In the Figure 7b sequence, the central effective axis has shifted 45&deg; clockwise. The motor works because the stator field is rotating.</p> <p>It raises another question, though: &ldquo;What happens if the stator windings are excited by a more typical ac source, say sinusoidal waves generated by the electric power company?&rdquo; In fact, this is how the motor is made to function as a conventional ac-powered synchronous motor. The vertical coils are powered with a cosine wave, and the horizontal coils are powered with a sine wave (both are sinusoidal; they&rsquo;re merely the same waves, but shifted in phase). This stator excitation method causes the stator magnetic field to rotate at a uniform rotational speed, called the synchronous speed, which has a uniform amplitude no matter where the field may be aligned at any given moment.</p> <p><strong>The Rotating&nbsp; Stator&nbsp; Field</strong></p> <p>Figure 9 illustrates the rotating field and rotor synchronization idea. The rotating field is the basic concept surrounding ac-powered motors, and the main reason why their construction is simpler than dc motors.&nbsp; The field rotates at its synchronous speed (described in the equation provided later in the article).&nbsp; The magnetic rotor, naturally, locks onto the rotating field and spins along with it <em>(Figs. 9a and 9b)</em>.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_MotionControl_F9.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 590px;" title="9. In this two-phase, two-pole, ac-powered motor, the two stator windings produce a magnetic field that rotates synchronously with the frequency of the ac supply voltage. Following that is the magnetized rotor synchronized with the rotating field, but lagging by a “lag angle” when load torque is applied. (For simplicity, windings and external circuits were omitted.)" /></p> <p>Figure 9c illustrates the effects of adding external load to the motor output shaft.&nbsp; The rotor of the synchronous motor must spin at the same rate rotational speed of the stator field.&nbsp; The application of external load torque, then, does not reduce speed in the conventional sense.&nbsp; Any speed reduction is only momentary&mdash;applying external torque causes the rotor to slow, but as the rotor position begins to lag behind the stator-field rotation, the force of attraction between the rotor and the stator fields causes the motor to develop more torque to meet the load demand.&nbsp;</p> <p>At some point, the magnetically induced torque equals the load torque, and the motor again locks onto the rotating stator field. Subsequently, the rotor again spins at synchronous speed, albeit by a lagging in angle. Speed measurement under loaded conditions will point out this fact.&nbsp; The rotor under load, however, will lag by an amount called the rotor lag angle.</p> <p>Increased load torque does not slow down the synchronous motor.&nbsp; The maximum torque developed by the motor occurs when the lag angle reaches 90&deg;. When that occurs, the rotor drops out of synchronism and stalls. The result is a sudden increase in stator currents and potential destruction of the motor due to overheating.</p> <p>The motor in the figures is a two-pole machine. The rotating stator field&rsquo;s synchronous speed is determined by:</p> <p><em>N<sub>S</sub></em> = (120 / <em>N<sub>P</sub></em>) <em>f<sub>L</sub></em></p> <p>where:</p> <p>&bull; <em>N<sub>S</sub></em> is the rotating field&rsquo;s synchronous speed, in rpm</p> <p>&bull; 120 is necessary to convert minutes to seconds when all magnets have two poles (120 = 2 &times; 60)</p> <p>&bull; <em>N<sub>P</sub></em> is the number of poles in the motor (always an even number)</p> <p>&bull; <em>&nbsp;f<sub>L</sub></em> is the line frequency (the frequency of the ac supply voltage in hertz)</p> <p>Thus, the synchronous speed of the motor under discussion is 3,600 rpm using 60-Hz ac power. The same motor in Europe or Asia, where line frequency is 50 Hz, would have a synchronous speed of 3,000 rpm. Most ac rotating machines used in both home and industrial applications are four-pole designs, translating to synchronous speeds of 1,800 rpm. Induction motors, which always undergo slip, operate below the synchronous speed (e.g., 1,725 rpm at full load).</p> <p>Note that our motor has four stator-pole faces because it&rsquo;s a two-phase machine. Each phase has its own magnetic field, and every magnet requires two magnetic poles. However, the number of phases should not be confused with the number of apparent poles for purposes of the previous equation.</p> <p>Our motor is still a two-pole machine, and its synchronous speed is 3,600 rpm in North America. It has two phases&mdash;two separate coils (one for each phase) that are displaced around the rotor in 90&deg; increments and respectively excited by cosine and sine waves. The two phases enable rotation of the stator field. The sine and cosine waves, which have identical shapes, are merely shifted in time, or phase.</p> <p>Most industrial ac motors are three-phase, though, with stator windings spaced around the motor&rsquo;s periphery in 120&deg; increments. The three excitation voltages include a sine wave for the first phase, a second voltage that&rsquo;s shifted in time phase by 120&deg;, and a third stator winding shifted by 240&deg;. The two shifted waves have no special names, but all three are sinusoidal. The result is a stator field that rotates at a speed given by the previous equation. Two-phase motors are popular in the aerospace industry, but not so much in the industrial sector.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/hydraulic-electric-analogies-power-sources-part-2-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Stepper motors have found their way into countless applications.&nbsp; One common usage involves the positioning drives of printers that have traveling print heads. The print heads can be accurately positioned without the need for closed-loop servomechanisms or feedback transducers.&nbsp; The motor is merely moved from its home position to the desired position by feeding it a specific number of pulses. These applications require that the print head, or other movable member, be returned to a home position periodically to prevent loss of its reference.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-power-sources-part-2#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Thu, 14 May 2015 19:45:00 +0000 32381 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Compressed Air Vehicle Appears on “Shark Tank” TV Show http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/compressed-air-vehicle-appears-shark-tank-tv-show <div class="field-deck"> The AIRpod has been fighting its way to the market for the past couple of decades. Its recent appearance on Shark Tank sparks curiosity about its progress. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The AIRpod vehicle runs completely on compressed air. Guy N&egrave;gre and his son, Cyril, of Motor Development International (MDI) have been licensing their compressed-air automobile to investors around the world for further development, testing, and eventual dispersion to new markets. Following the testing and stage-two prototyping of the AIRpod by TATA motors in India, <a href="http://zeropollutionmotors.us/" target="_blank">Zero Pollution Motors</a> (ZPM) hopes to bring the AIRpod to the U.S., kicking off in Hawaii.</p> <p>This month, celebrity Paul Boone and CEO Ethan Tucker of ZPM appeared on the television show <a href="http://abc.go.com/shows/shark-tank" target="_blank"><em>Shark Tank</em></a> to pitch the small, ecofriendly vehicle to the &ldquo;Sharks.&rdquo; Boone and Tucker requested $5 million to begin setting up &ldquo;micro&rdquo;manufacturing-and-repair plants across Hawaii. In return, they offered a 50% share in the company. Robert Herjavec was the Shark that bit, offering the $5 million, but <em>only </em>if ZPI negotiates with the N&egrave;gres for markets across the entire United States.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="/blog/air-car-i-dont-think-so" target="_blank">An Air Car? I don&#39;t Think so!</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/car-literally-runs-air">A Car that Literally Runs on Air</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/stirring-pot-about-air-powered-cars">Stirring the Pot about Air-Powered Cars</a></p> </div> <p>Achieving 100 miles per refill and reaching speeds of 50 miles per hour, the AIRpod will target local, urban commuters. Though the engine has low efficiency relative to other zero-emission cars, the air tank only takes two minutes to refill at local-station air compressors. If refilled at home with the in-built air compressor, the car refills in four hours and requires an electric source. It costs a mere three dollars to refill. The car, priced at $10,000, is expected to be sold at the numerous local micro stations that also provide repair, maintenance, and refill stations.</p> <p>However, those in anticipation for an air-powered vehicle should probably not hold their breath. The cars are still experiencing difficulty in cold-weather areas due to the compressed-air system. &nbsp;Furthermore, as Shark Lori Greiner points out, the car has yet to be crash-tested, indicating that the AIRpod still has a ways to go before you see them in the street.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Shark Tank</em> viewers should stay tuned to see the follow-up on the AIRpod. Episode 27 of season 6 left us hanging as to whether ZPM would get the rights from MDI to distribute air-car manufacturing plants around the country. It should also be interesting to see how this renewable-fuel pod does in comparison to other zero-emission cars and eco-conscious hybrids in the future.&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/compressed-air-vehicle-appears-shark-tank-tv-show#comments Air Compressors News Thu, 14 May 2015 15:46:00 +0000 32361 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulics Becomes Art http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/hydraulics-becomes-art <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>I&#39;ve never been to Rotterdam, Netherlands, and I probably never will. But if, like me, you&#39;re a hydraulics person, the spotlights at Schouwburgplein<b> </b>are a must see in Rotterdam.</p> <p>Never heard of Schouwburgplein?<a href="/community/are-cylinders-becoming-cool-architectural-elements"> Click here</a> to read an editorial I wrote several years ago describing an artsy exhibit that relies on hydraulics.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hitch-post">The Hitch Post</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/hydraulics-becomes-art#comments Community The Hitch Post Thu, 14 May 2015 03:02:00 +0000 32351 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Digital Panel Meters Accept a Wide Range of Inputs http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/digital-panel-meters-accept-wide-range-inputs <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Platinum series digital panel meters feature 24-bit analog-to-digital converters that can measure 20 samples per second. The nine-segment LED display has a wide viewing angle and displays full-scale positive and negative readings in red, green, or amber. The meters produce accurate readings for nine types of thermocouples, as well as readings for resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermistors, and analog DC voltages and currents. They are compatible with firmware and support USB communications. Optional Ethernet, RS232/RS485 with Modbus&nbsp;serial communications, and alarm relays are also available. It accepts power supplies between 90 and 120 V ac.</p> <p><a href="http://www.omega.com/pptst/DPPT_SERIES.html">Omega</a>, <a href="http://www.omega.com/">www.omega.com</a>, (203) 359-1660</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/digital-panel-meters-accept-wide-range-inputs#comments Products Controls & Instrumentation Wed, 13 May 2015 19:14:00 +0000 32331 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Today’s Versatile Transducers Step Up Performance http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/today-s-versatile-transducers-step-performance <div class="field-byline"> Jack Moermond, Balluff Inc. </div> <div class="field-deck"> Mechanical pressure gauges and switches still have their place in fluid power, but with more features and greater accuracy and life, transducers are being specified in a wide variety of applications. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>We all know the roles of mechanical pressure gauges and switches. They either give us a visual indication of hydraulic pressure, or open or close a switch when reaching a certain threshold pressure. Electronic pressure transducers do the same, but more effectively and with a single component instead of two or three. Furthermore, an electronic pressure transducer provides more output variations, longer life, and greater accuracy.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/today-s-versatile-transducers-step-performance-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>A transducer converts a physical parameter into an electrical signal or vice versa. The sensing element at the heart of a transducer sensor is, in fact, a type of transducer. Different technologies are used to convert pressure into an electrical signal. Most pressure transducers rely on the physical deformation of some kind of diaphragm to create a change in an electrical output signal. The transduction from physical deformation to electrical signal is often produced by strain gauges, which exhibit a change in electrical resistance proportional to physical deformation.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-components/spikes-put-pressure-transducers">Spikes Put Pressure On Transducers</a></p> <p><a href=" http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/FPE/Sensors/Article/False/6439/FPE-Sensors">Fundamentals of Pressure Transducers</a></p> <p><a href=" http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/linear-position-sensors-target-port-mounted-applications">Linear Position Sensors Target Port-Mounted Applications</a></p> </div> <p>A type of strain gauge commonly found in pressure sensors uses piezoresistive technology, which is based on changes in the electrical resistance of a deforming silicon semiconductor.&nbsp; A stainless-steel housing protects the silicon chip; fluid pressure is indirectly transferred to the diaphragm through a liquid medium, usually silicon oil <em>(Fig. 1)</em>. In this technology, temperature-related effects must be considered due to the transfer fluid&rsquo;s properties.&nbsp; This type of measurement is typically applied in systems with high dynamic pressures.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F1.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 245px;" title="1. Pressure sensors often incorporate piezoresistive sensors. Here, a liquid (typically silicon oil) indirectly transfers fluid pressure to a diaphragm." /></p> <p>Thin-film technology uses a sensing element mated to a stainless-steel carrier <em>(Fig. 2)</em>. Resistors and other circuitry are placed on the diaphragm, and measurement is based on output from strain gauges. The advantage of stainless-steel thin film is its ability to withstand the high peak and burst pressures often encountered in hydraulic systems.&nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F2.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 325px;" title="2. With thin-film technology, a sensing element mates to a stainless-steel carrier that’s able to withstand a hydraulic system’s high peak and burst pressures." /><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F3_0.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 215px;" title="3. Resistors and other circuitry may be placed on a diaphragm using a thick-film process. A ceramic, rather than stainless-steel, carrier is used in this case." /></p> <p>Thick-film technology also uses strain gauges, but in this case there&rsquo;s a ceramic carrier <em>(Fig. 3)</em>. The resistors and other associated circuitry are placed on a diaphragm using a thick-film process.&nbsp; Ceramic cells offer long-term stability and good corrosion resistance.&nbsp;</p> <p>In capacitive measuring cells, one electrode is fitted to an elastic membrane while the other is on the fixed support or housing surface located on the opposite side <em>(Fig. 4)</em>.&nbsp; This forms a variable capacitor, which means that one electrode follows the movement of the membrane. As the pressure increases or decreases, the distance between the electrodes changes, causing a change in capacitance that&rsquo;s detected by electronic circuits.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F4.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 212px;" title="4. The electrode configuration in capacitive measuring cells forms a variable capacitor that can detect changes in capacitance due to rising or falling pressure." /></p> <p><strong>Transducer output</strong></p> <p>Today&rsquo;s electronic pressure sensors incorporate output switching functionality as well as visual display of the current pressure. Because these devices are electronic, many output characteristics are available as opposed to the simple on-off functionality of the classic mechanical pressure switch. These include multiple discrete outputs from one sensor with programmable functionality.</p> <p>In many cases, a sensor will provide a single discrete setpoint output and a continuous analog output proportional to the pressure value. The discrete output can provide an alarm function, whereas the analog output delivers a continuous output signal.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F5_0.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 239px;" title="5. When programming discrete outputs, the most important consideration is the pressure span between the on and off setpoints (hysteresis) (a). Turn-on and turn-off (reset) pressures occur at SP1 and rP1, respectively (b)." /></p> <p>Discrete outputs can be programmed for the application at hand.&nbsp; The most important is the pressure span between the on and off setpoints, sometimes referred to as hysteresis <em>(Figs. 5a and 5b)</em>. The turn-on pressure occurs at SP1 and turn-off (reset) occurs at rP1.&nbsp; The advantage of digital technology is that these programmed values can be very close together for tight pressure control, as long as they are located within the sensor&#39;s normal measuring range. Hysteresis keeps the switching outputs stable even if the system pressure fluctuates around the setpoint.</p> <p><strong>Operating pressure range</strong></p> <p>Several system operating parameters must be considered when selecting a pressure transducer.&nbsp; First is the system&rsquo;s nominal operating pressure. For the best combination of reliability and sensing resolution, a pressure transducer should have a nominal operating pressure between 50 to 60% of its maximum pressure rating.</p> <p>However, pressure ripple, cyclical pressure changes inherent to the pump&rsquo;s design, can cause problems with the transducer&rsquo;s mechanics as well as the logic of the electrical controls. Even though a pump maintains a reliable average output pressure, pump ripple results from peak low and high pressures of the pump&rsquo;s output.&nbsp;</p> <p>Electronic transducers offered today can delay the switching output, which is beneficial if the system exhibits pump pressure ripple. Providing a certain amount of output delay can help alleviate unnecessary output switching due to false pressure changes from the pump. Delays can be programmed up to 50 seconds or more, but usually are much shorter to compensate for pressure ripple.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F6_0.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 286px;" title="6. Valves that suddenly open or close can cause overload pressure. Another causal agent is pump cavitation." /></p> <p>Overload pressure is another common issue with hydraulic systems <em>(Fig. 6)</em>. Overload pressure results from valves suddenly opening or closing, or by pump cavitation.&nbsp; These pressures may exceed the transducer&rsquo;s specified range without causing permanent damage or any change in accuracy. If they approach burst pressure, though, they can cause permanent damage to the sensing accuracy or even mechanical damage to the sensor.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Pressure spikes</strong></p> <p>Pressure spikes are sudden increases in pressure that can exceed 10 times the maximum of the measured pressure range <em>(Fig. 7)</em>. The duration of these pressure peaks is typically very short&mdash;only milliseconds&mdash;and may be caused by valve switching, cavitation, or sudden load changes (such as running a hydraulic cylinder at speed into a hard stop).&nbsp; Any of several methods, such as accumulators or surge tanks, protect the overall system from these peaks.&nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F7_0.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 214px;" title="7. Sudden increases in pressure, known as pressure spikes, may last only milliseconds, but can exceed 10 times the maximum measured pressure range." /></p> <p>If transducer damage from pressure spikes is a concern, then a pressure snubber can be installed inline with the pressure sensor.&nbsp; A snubber is a fitting installed between the fluid connection and the transducer. It has a mesh filter that allows fluid to pass through, though not in large volumes in order to protect the sensor.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Accuracy and temperature</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F8_0.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 488px;" title="8. With transducers, accuracy refers to how the device’s actual pressure-response curve deviates from an ideal curve." /></p> <p>The term accuracy generally refers to how a transducer&rsquo;s actual pressure-response curve deviates from an ideal pressure-response curve <em>(Fig. 8)</em>. Usually it consists of the combined effects of nonlinearity, hysteresis, and repeatability expressed as a percentage of deviation from ideal values. Typically, these values are applied over an instrument&rsquo;s full-scale output (FSO) <em>(Fig. 9)</em>. They&rsquo;re based on either an ideal straight line or an adapted straight line, commonly given as best fit straight line (BFSL). Accuracy often is specified as a percentage, for example &plusmn;0.5% FSO BFSL.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F9_0.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 364px;" title="9. Transducer accuracy involves the combined effects of nonlinearity, hysteresis, and repeatability expressed as a percentage of deviation from ideal values that are applied over an instrument’s full-scale output (FSO)." /></p> <p>Temperatures extremes can cause transducer output to change. <em>Temperature drift</em> is a shift of the switching point caused by a change in ambient temperature. Methods vary from one manufacturer to another, making it difficult to draw direct comparisons. In some cases, only typical values are specified. In others, the value is a percentage of the FSO per 10&deg;K; for example, &le;&plusmn;0.3% FSO/10&deg;K.</p> <p>Today&rsquo;s electronic pressure transducers are expected to provide tighter control than the mechanical gauges and switches they replace. Furthermore, digital displays make even small fluctuations in pressure more noticeable. And although pressure transducers don&rsquo;t require the periodic maintenance of their mechanical counterparts, they may need recalibration after being subjected to extreme pressures or temperatures.</p> <p>Another key point is that mechanical pressure gauges and switches have a finite life. Meanwhile, though electronic transducers may also have a finite life expectancy, their lifetime is specified in hundreds of millions of cycles and will maintain a much greater accuracy over that extended lifespan.</p> <p><strong>Transducer output</strong></p> <p>Today&#39;s pressure transducer displays are multifunctional. Not only do they provide dynamic measurements, they can also be used to program or configure output. Displays options include pressure, parameters, parameter values, scaling of the device, and output status, as well as programming keys and in some cases keypad lock-out functionality to prevent unauthorized tampering. Some manufacturers require a tool to program the sensor; however, more advanced manufactures comply with VDMA standards that don&rsquo;t require a tool.</p> <p>Some applications must be able to lock out the transducer&rsquo;s programmable features. Most manufacturers require a user to hold down two buttons for a set time to lock the display. If the need arises for process changes, then the same procedure of holding down the buttons for a period of time is used to unlock the display.&nbsp; A more progressive solution uses a four-digit password to truly lock the display with a unique code.&nbsp;</p> <p>Pressure transducers that offer both discrete digital and analog outputs with a built-in display offer the ultimate in convenience, especially compared to past solutions with as many as three components.&nbsp; If the application requires only an analog feedback without display, or the display will not fit due to mounting and space limitations, then a simple pressure transmitter may be the better choice.</p> <p>Pressure transmitters typically don&#39;t incorporate a display, and usually have either a 0- to 10-V dc or 4- to 20-mA output. Their compact size suits them for space-restricted areas&mdash;the devices consist of only a fluid pressure connection and an electrical connection. The sensor is selected for the pressure requirements, and the analog output operates across that entire range. For instance, a 0- to 145-psi pressure range would output 0 to 10 V.&nbsp; Current-output versions (4 to 20 mA) are more commonly used in industrial applications because wiring lengths can be longer and, unlike voltage outputs, aren&rsquo;t affected by electrical noise.</p> <p><strong>Making a wish list</strong></p> <p>The ultimate pressure sensor would have all of the capabilities mentioned so far, as well as provide enhanced functionality and parameterization. Pressure sensors connected to factory networks through sensor-level communications protocols, such as IO-Link, can improve process flexibility and control through enhanced sensor monitoring, configuration, and error reporting back through the system controller <em>(Fig. 10)</em>. Digital transmission of analog values over low-cost, unshielded three-wire cabling ensures high signal quality over longer distances, and eliminates signal delays and distortions that can plague analog interfaces.&nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/0515_Sensors_F10-small_0.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 373px;" title="10. When connected to factory networks via sensor communications protocols like IO-Link, pressure sensors can help enhance process flexibility and control." /></p> <p>Networkable sensors reduce downtime and configuration errors with plug-and-play functionality. Maximum system flexibility can be achieved during operation, thanks to quick and remote modification of parameters through the control system rather than at the physical sensor itself.&nbsp; In addition, process diagnostics, data, and errors can be reported directly to the controller and displayed on man-machine interfaces.</p> <p><em>Jack Moermond is Marketing Manager, Object Detection Sensors, at Balluff Inc., Florence, Ky. For more information, call (859) 727-2200, or visit <a href="http://www.balluff.com" target="_blank">www.balluff.com</a>.</em></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/today-s-versatile-transducers-step-performance-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/today-s-versatile-transducers-step-performance#comments Controls & Instrumentation Other Components Wed, 13 May 2015 14:58:00 +0000 32311 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com How To Size A Hydraulic Oil Cooler http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-size-hydraulic-oil-cooler <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>As a means of power transmission, hydraulics has many advantages. But overall efficiency is NOT one of them. A single-reduction gearbox has an efficiency of 98 to 99 percent, double-reduction 96 to 97 percent and triple-reduction 95 percent. A chain drive in good condition has an efficiency of 97 to 98 percent.<br /> <br /> A high-performance piston pump has an efficiency of 92 percent. If this pump drives a piston motor, the overall efficiency of this hydraulic drive, is 85 percent (0.92 x 0.92 x 100 = 85) - and this is without considering losses through valves and conductors.<br /> <br /> And that&#39;s good! A gear pump or motor in good condition is 85 percent efficient. So a gear pump driving a gear motor has a best-case efficiency of 0.85 x 0.85 = 0.72. That&#39;s 72 percent - not considering losses through valves and conductors.<br /> <br /> What this tells us is, every hydraulic system with a high, continuous power input (and therefore output power) requires an oil cooler to keep oil temperature stable and within acceptable limits.<br /> <br /> So starting from the beginning, when sizing an oil cooler, the first thing to consider is the continuous input power of the system. I like to work in kilowatts, because kilowatts of input power given up as heat equates near enough to the same amount of required heat rejection in kilowatts. In other words, it&#39;s a lot simpler than working in horsepower and BTU/h.<br /> <br /> For example, if a hydraulic system has a continuous input power of 100kW and it&#39;s 80 percent efficient, then 80kW is available at the output to do useful work and 20kW is converted to heat. So the oil cooler must be capable of rejecting at least 20kW of heat to maintain an acceptable and stable oil temperature.<br /> <br /> The next thing to consider is the native efficiency of the system. This is almost impossible to calculate, but can be estimated based on the type of system and the components used.<br /> <br /> For example, as explained above, a piston pump driving a piston motor is 85 percent efficient, but a gear pump driving a gear motor is only 72 percent efficient. If both systems had a continuous input power of 100kW, then allowing for additional losses in conductors and valves, a cooler capable of rejecting around 25kW of heat would be required for the piston pump/motor system and 35kW of heat rejection for the gear pump/motor system.<br /> <br /> These percentages need to be increased if the system features an accumulator with significant storage volume, or servo or proportional valves. In fact, it&#39;s not unheard of for a proportional or servo hydraulic system to require installed cooling capacity of between 50 and 90 percent of input power! For 100kW of input power, this would mean a cooler that can reject between 50 and 90kW of heat.<br /> <br /> In the final analysis, the size of the cooler selected as a percentage of input power is usually an arbitrary number based on all the above considerations - and ideally, with a margin of safety built in. It&#39;s better for the cooler to be too big rather than too small - perhaps not from a cost perspective - but certainly for reliability. In other words, installing insufficient cooling capacity is a mistake, and usually a costly one. To discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-size-hydraulic-oil-cooler#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 12 May 2015 00:45:00 +0000 32301 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Why Water and Oil Don’t Mix—and What to Do About It http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-fluids/why-water-and-oil-don-t-mix-and-what-do-about-it <div class="field-deck"> Water can wreak havoc on a hydraulic system, making this primer on water contamination absolutely essential. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/why-water-and-oil-don-t-mix-and-what-do-about-it-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>If you&rsquo;ve worked with hydraulic equipment for any length of time, it&rsquo;s likely you&rsquo;ve come across a hydraulic system with cloudy oil. Oil becomes cloudy when it is contaminated with water above its saturation level. The saturation level is the amount of water that can dissolve in the oil&rsquo;s molecular chemistry and is typically 200 to 300 ppm at 20&deg;C (68&deg;F) for mineral hydraulic oil.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 1" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Fig.%201.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 387px;" title="This graph shows the effect of water concentration on bearing life. Bearing life is normally derived assuming lubricating oil contains 100 ppm of water. Reducing water concentration to 25 ppm increases bearing life by nearly 150%. (Source: Timken Bearing Co. in Stauff Contamination Control Program, p.10)" /></p> <p>Cloudy hydraulic oil indicates that a minimum of 200 to 300 ppm of water is present. And the higher the water concentration, the greater the reliability problem. I recently audited a hydraulic system with cloudy oil that was found to contain greater than 1% (10,000 ppm) water!</p> <p>Water in hydraulic fluid:</p> <p>* depletes some additives and reacts with others to form corrosive by-products which attack some metals,</p> <p>* reduces filterability and clogs filters,</p> <p>* increases air entrainment ability, &nbsp;</p> <p>* increases the likelihood of cavitation occurring, and</p> <p>* reduces lubricating film-strength, which leaves critical surfaces vulnerable to corrosion and wear.</p> <p>The graph plots bearing life against increasing amounts of water in the oil. As you can see, bearing life is given on the Y axis, and the amount of water in the oil on the X axis. The &ldquo;reference&rdquo; bearing life of 100% is based on that which would be achieved with a water concentration of 100 ppm (0.01%). Increasing water content beyond this level reduces bearing life&mdash;exponentially at first, then steadily down to around one-tenth at 5,000 ppm (0.5%) water.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-fluids/hydraulic-fluids-meet-tighter-requirements-marine-vessel">Hydraulic Fluids Meet Tighter Requirements for Marine Vessels</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/software-helps-develop-subsea-systems">Software Helps Develop Subsea Systems</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/go-guys-creed-whatever-it-takes">From The Go-To Guy&#39;s Creed: Whatever It Takes</a></p> </div> <p>Some references cite 1,000 ppm (0.1%) as an acceptable water concentration for hydraulic oil. But as the graph shows, this level of water in the oil reduces expected bearing life to around one third of what it would be if water concentration was controlled at 100 ppm (0.01%). Even at 500 ppm (0.05%) water, bearing life is less than half of what it would be at 100 ppm.</p> <p>If that&rsquo;s not convincing enough, water concentration of 500 ppm and above is sufficient to spawn&nbsp;micro-biological contamination (MBC), provided the following conditions also are present:</p> <p>* Food: Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous are readily supplied by the oil.</p> <p>* Oxygen: Air is typically present in hydraulic oil at 7% to 10% by volume.</p> <p>* Moderate temperatures: Pptimum bacterial growth occurs at temperatures from 24&deg;C to 49&deg;C (75&deg;F to 120&deg;F).</p> <p>* Dark, stagnant, or low flow: The hydraulic reservoir provides great breeding grounds.</p> <p>* Suspended particles: These assist with initial transportation and colonization.</p> <p>Although all the above conditions are required to sustain bacterial growth, water is the key. So in terms of preventing MBC, keeping the oil dry is vitally important.</p> <h3>Measuring and Removing Water</h3> <p>So how do you know how much water is in your hydraulic oil? The standard laboratory test for accurately quantifying the water content of mineral oils is the Karl Fischer Volumetric Reagent Method, otherwise known as the Karl Fischer test. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is sometimes mentioned as a method for measuring water concentration in oil. However, FTIR is only effective for indicating water concentrations greater than 1,000 ppm. This means if you&rsquo;re serious about monitoring and controlling water concentration at low levels, water content by Karl Fischer must be specified on your oil analysis test slate.</p> <p>Given the negative effects of water contamination on hydraulic system longevity and reliability, if the oil in your hydraulic machine does contain a high concentration of water, what are your options? In the case of systems with small oil volumes, changing the oil may be the most cost-effective solution. For systems containing larger oil volumes, water removal filters are best suited to removing small amounts of water.</p> <p>There are two types of water removal filters: coalescing and polymeric. Coalescing filters work by passing the oil through a dense, inorganic fiber mat. The fibers break the oil film, which allows non-emulsified (free) water to adhere to and be retained by the fibers, whereas the oil passes through. As water droplets accumulate in the filter mat, they coalesce into larger droplets; these drain down through the fibers into a collector, which is periodically drained.</p> <p>Polymeric filters are impregnated with chemicals (polymers) that have a strong affinity for water. They can be absorptive, where free and emulsified water in the oil becomes part of the filter&rsquo;s chemical structure, or adsorptive, where the water is retained by the element without it becoming part of its chemical structure. Absorptive filters are preferred because they retain the water permanently. Adsorptive filters, on the other hand, have a tendency to release captured water under certain conditions. Polymeric filters are available in similar configurations as particle filters. Note that neither coalescing nor polymeric filters remove dissolved water&mdash;water dissolved in the oil&rsquo;s molecular structure&mdash;below its saturation point.</p> <p>Vacuum distillation uses a combination of heat and vacuum. Water boils at 56&deg;C (133&deg;F) under a partial vacuum of 846 mbar (25 in. Hg). This enables water to be removed at a temperature that does not damage the oil or its additives.</p> <p>Headspace dehumidification is another technique for lower water concentration in hydraulic oil. It involves circulating and dehumidifying air in the reservoir&rsquo;s headspace. Water in the oil migrates to the dry air in the headspace and is eventually removed by a dehumidifier. Headspace flush is similar to headspace dehumidification; the difference is that instead of circulating the air in the reservoir headspace through a dehumidifier in a closed-loop circuit, a small (4-5 cfm) flow of very dry compressed air (-40&deg;C dew point) is flushed through the headspace in an open circuit. Here, again, water migrates out of the oil and into the dry air passing through the reservoir headspace.</p> <p>Another variation of the headspace flush involves installing a hygroscopic breather on the reservoir (one should already be there if you&rsquo;re serious about controlling water contamination) and connecting a vacuum pump to the headspace. This requires a spare port in the top of the reservoir, ideally as far away from the breather as possible. The beauty of this variation is its simplicity&mdash;it doesn&rsquo;t require a source of clean, dry compressed air.</p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/why-water-and-oil-don-t-mix-and-what-do-about-it-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <h2>Exclusion is Cheaper than Removal</h2> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/why-water-and-oil-don-t-mix-and-what-do-about-it-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Like all other forms of contamination, preventing water ingression is cheaper than removing it from the oil. A major point of water ingression is through the reservoir headspace. Too many hydraulic reservoirs are fitted with breather caps that are not effective in preventing moisture (and particles) from entering the reservoir as the oil volume changes through thermal expansion and contraction, or the actuation of cylinders.</p> <p><img alt="Fig. 2" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Fig.%202_0.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 359px;" title="Three sample bottles contain hydraulic fluid with various concentrations of water. The sample at left contains virtually no water. The sample in the middle contains emulsified water, giving it a milky appearance. The sample at right contains fee water, which can be seen at the bottom on the bottle. " /></p> <p>Replacing these inferior breathers with a hygroscopic breather will eliminate the ingression of moisture and particles through the reservoir&#39;s vent. These breathers typically combine a woven-polyester media that filters particles as small as 3 &micro;m, with silica gel desiccant to remove water vapor from incoming air. The end result is relative humidity levels within the reservoir headspace that make condensation unlikely, and therefore reduce the ingression of water into the oil.</p> <h3>The Dryer the Better</h3> <p>The key takeaway from all of this? Keep your machine&rsquo;s hydraulic oil as dry as possible, and ideally below its saturation point. And as is the case with the other two danger contaminants, heat and particles: the lower the number, the better your hydraulic machines&rsquo; reliability will be in the long run. Although it may not be appropriate or achievable for every hydraulic machine, water concentration of 100 ppm or less is a good target to aim for.</p> <p><em>Brendan Casey is the founder of <a href="http://www.HydraulicSupermarket.com" target="_blank">HydraulicSupermarket.com</a> and the author of The Hydraulic Maintenance Handbook, Insider Secrets to Hydraulics, Preventing Hydraulic Failures, The Hydraulic Troubleshooting Handbook, Hydraulics Made Easy, Advanced Hydraulic Control and The Definitive Guide to Hydraulic Troubleshooting. A hydraulics specialist with an MBA, he has more than 25 years experience in the design, maintenance and repair of mobile and industrial hydraulic equipment.</em></p> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/why-water-and-oil-don-t-mix-and-what-do-about-it-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-fluids/why-water-and-oil-don-t-mix-and-what-do-about-it#comments Hydraulic Fluids Mon, 11 May 2015 18:40:00 +0000 32271 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Why Water and Oil Don’t Mix—and What to Do about It (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/why-water-and-oil-don-t-mix-and-what-do-about-it-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>If you&rsquo;ve worked with hydraulic equipment for any length of time, it&rsquo;s likely you&rsquo;ve come across a hydraulic system with cloudy oil. Oil becomes cloudy when it is...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/HP-Calculate-w-Air.jpg" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics&#39; Measure with Air </em>wallcharts.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=32281&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> Gold Mon, 11 May 2015 16:10:00 +0000 32281 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com International Construction & Utility Equipment Exposition http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/international-construction-utility-equipment-exposition <div class="node-body event-body"></div> <h3 class="location-locations-header">Location</h3> <div class="location-locations-wrapper"> <div class="location vcard"> <div class="adr"> <span class="fn">Kentucky Exposition Center</span> <div class="street-address"> 937 Phillips Lane </div> <span class="locality">Louisville</span>, <span class="region">KY</span> <span class="postal-code">40209-1398</span> <div class="country-name">United States</div> <span class="geo"><abbr class="latitude" title="38.195052">38° 11' 42.1872" N</abbr>, <abbr class="longitude" title="-85.738324">85° 44' 17.9664" W</abbr></span> </div> <div class="map-link"> <div class="location map-link">See map: <a href="http://maps.google.com?q=38.195052+-85.738324+%28937+Phillips+Lane%2C+Louisville%2C+KY%2C+40209-1398%2C+us%29">Google Maps</a></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field-desc"> <p>ICUEE- the Demo Expo is the exposition for hands-on demonstrations of the newest technologies, innovations, insights and trends affecting the utilities industry &ndash; ranging from electric to telecom and water/wastewater to gas.</p> <ul> <li><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/ICUEE15-smallmap.jpg" style="width: 250px; height: 247px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" />Operate the latest equipment from over 850 exhibitors in job-like conditions</li> <li>Learn from industry experts presenting education sessions on the industries&rsquo; hottest topics</li> <li>Network with over 17,000 utility and contractor professionals</li> <li>Recharge at the Fuel Stop in AREA Q - sit down, relax, and network with others. Wi-Fi and charging stations will also be available.</li> <li>Easier registration process &ndash; if you&rsquo;ve attended ICUEE in the past, you&rsquo;ll have a faster registration experience.</li> <li>Take the intra-show shuttles, golf cart taxies and the new DEMO Express around the show &ndash;&nbsp; get from the indoor exhibits to outdoor exhibits in AREAS K, L, and N in no time!</li> </ul> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/international-construction-utility-equipment-exposition#comments 38.195052 -85.738324 Wed, 06 May 2015 02:12:00 +0000 32261 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Waste Expo 2015 Heads for Las Vegas http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/waste-expo-2015-heads-las-vegas <div class="node-body event-body"></div> <h3 class="location-locations-header">Location</h3> <div class="location-locations-wrapper"> <div class="location vcard"> <div class="adr"> <span class="fn">Las Vegas Convention Center</span> <div class="street-address"> 3150 Paradise Rd. </div> <span class="locality">Las Vegas</span>, <span class="region">NV</span> <span class="postal-code">89109</span> <div class="country-name">United States</div> <span class="geo"><abbr class="latitude" title="36.132541">36° 7' 57.1476" N</abbr>, <abbr class="longitude" title="-115.155330">115° 9' 19.188" W</abbr></span> </div> <div class="map-link"> <div class="location map-link">See map: <a href="http://maps.google.com?q=36.132541+-115.155330+%283150+Paradise+Rd.%2C+Las+Vegas%2C+NV%2C+89109%2C+us%29">Google Maps</a></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field-desc"> <p>With more than 560 exhibiting companies, comprehensive conference sessions and workshops and more than 11,000 total participants, no other show comes close to the size and scope of WasteExpo. Aside from its impressive scope and stellar reputation, the most compelling thing about WasteExpo is that it connects exhibitors directly with the largest and most qualified gathering of buyers in the industry. Participation in any live event would not be complete without an integrated marketing approach surrounding the event, including Waste360 magazine (formerly Waste Age Magazine), Waste360.com and the other valuable digital and Marketing Services options within the Penton Waste Industry Group&rsquo;s arsenal.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/waste-expo-2015-heads-las-vegas#comments 36.132541 -115.155330 Wed, 06 May 2015 01:33:00 +0000 32251 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com