Hydraulics & Pneumatics - Hydraulics & Pneumatics is the leading international technical resource for fluid power http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/rss.xml en How To Avoid 'Dieseling' In Hydraulic Cylinders http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-avoid-dieseling-hydraulic-cylinders <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>I was recently engaged by a client to conduct failure analysis on a large (and expensive) hydraulic cylinder off an excavator. This hydraulic cylinder had been changed-out due to leaking rod seals after achieving only half of its expected service life.<br /> <br /> Inspection revealed that apart from the rod seals, which had failed as a result of &#39;dieseling&#39;, the other parts of the hydraulic cylinder were in serviceable condition. The &#39;diesel effect&#39; occurs in a hydraulic cylinder when air mixes with the hydraulic oil and explodes when pressurized.<br /> <br /> When a double-acting hydraulic cylinder retracts under the weight of its load, the volume of fluid being demanded by the rod side of the cylinder can exceed the volume of fluid being supplied by the pump. If this happens, a negative pressure develops in the rod side of the hydraulic cylinder. And this usually results in air being drawn into the cylinder past its rod seals. This occurs because most cylinder rod seals are designed keep high-pressure fluid in and are not designed to keep air out. The result of this is aeration - the mixing of air with the hydraulic oil.<br /> <br /> And as already explained, when a mixture of air and oil is compressed it can explode, damaging the hydraulic cylinder and burning its seals. As you have probably gathered, the term &#39;diesel effect&#39; is a reference to the combustion process in a diesel engine.<br /> <br /> Dieseling can result from not purging the cylinder&#39;s chambers of air during commissioning. But in the example described above, the cause of the air ingression was a faulty &#39;float&#39; valve. The function of a float valve on a hydraulic excavator is to allow the boom or arm to be lowered rapidly under its own weight. When activated, this valve connects the ports of the hydraulic cylinder together allowing it to retract under the weight of the boom or arm. The fluid displaced from the piston side of the cylinder is directed with priority to the rod side, before any excess volume is returned to the hydraulic reservoir. An orifice controls the speed with which the hydraulic cylinder retracts. If this valve malfunctions or is set incorrectly, a negative pressure can develop on the rod side of the hydraulic cylinder, causing air to be drawn past the rod seals, leading to failure of the cylinder.<br /> <br /> Had the faulty float valve had been identified early enough, the failure of this hydraulic cylinder and the significant expense of its repair could have been prevented. In other words, not checking the operation and adjustment of circuit protection devices at regular intervals can be a costly mistake. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-avoid-dieseling-hydraulic-cylinders#comments Hydraulics At Work Wed, 25 Nov 2015 00:58:00 +0000 35161 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Batteries for Wireless Sensors Deserve Some Thought http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/batteries-wireless-sensors-deserve-some-thought-0 <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Wireless sensors are no longer a novelty, but they haven&#39;t found widespread use in most fluid-power applications, either. Most wireless sensors are used primarily for applications where they are difficult to access&nbsp; &mdash; either because of their remote location or because the sensor is buried deep within equipment. Another big advantage of wireless devices is potentially higher reliability, because wired connectors cannot corrode, break, or work themselves loose if there are none.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/wireless-bluetooth-pressure-transducer">Wireless Bluetooth Pressure Transducer</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-fluids/check-fluid-temperature-your-smartphone ">Check Fluid Temperature&hellip;From Your Smartphone</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/hydraulic-multimeter-goes-wireless">Hydraulic Multimeter Goes Wireless</a></p> </div> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Battery.jpg" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Battery%20%281%29.jpg" style="width: 350px; height: 100px; float: right; margin: 3px;" title="Generally, industrial grade Li-ion batteries make sense where the expense of battery replacement far exceeds the cost of the battery itself. " /></a>We recently published an article on such an application, where a pressure control valve with integral pressure transmitter had to be located in the cramped engine room of a dredging boat. Wireless communication was accomplished using a mobile phone and mobile app. <strong><a href="/hydraulic-valves/bluetooth-and-smartphone-configure-hard-reach-hydraulic-valves" target="_blank">Click here</a></strong> to read the article.</p> <p>But regardless of whether the device is a sensor, transmitter, or two-way radio remote control, wireless components need batteries. Batteries are usually viewed as commodity items, so not much thought is given to their selection. But you might be surprised at the impact the choice of a battery can have. Picking the wrong one can jeopardize the reliability of the entire machine. After all, if a machine malfunctions because a short-lived battery has failed, users ultimately attribute the downtime and repair cost to the machine itself.</p> <p>Our sister publication, <strong><em><a href="http://machinedesign.com" target="_blank">Machine Design</a></em></strong>, recently published an article on considerations for specifying batteries for a wide variety of applications. It&#39;s a quick read, and you may surprised to learn how much you didn&#39;t know about batteries. <strong><a href="/batteriespower-supplies/choosing-right-battery-power-remote-wireless-device?NL=MD-04&amp;Issue=MD-04_20151119_MD-04_852&amp;sfvc4enews=42&amp;cl=article_1_b&amp;utm_rid=CPG05000003666111&amp;utm_campaign=4251&amp;utm_medium=email&amp;elq2=8287a9bbb6f64049a08b202d05497fad" target="_blank">Click here</a></strong> to read it.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hitch-post">The Hitch Post</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/batteries-wireless-sensors-deserve-some-thought-0#comments Controls & Instrumentation The Hitch Post Thu, 19 Nov 2015 14:52:00 +0000 35151 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Why High Pressure Means High Maintenance http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/why-high-pressure-means-high-maintenance <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>In most hydraulic applications there are essentially two ways to get the required power output: high flow at (relatively) low pressure; and low flow at high pressure. This is because power is a product of flow and pressure; increase pressure and you can reduce flow proportionately but still get the same power output. For example, 100 liters/min at 200 bar equates to the same power output as 50 liters/min at 400 bar.<br /> <br /> Higher pressures mean higher force and torque is available from smaller components. And because these components are smaller in displacement, higher speeds are possible from smaller flows. Smaller flows mean pipework, valving and even the tank can be made smaller - remember, the old rule of thumb for tank size (largely ignored these days) is 3 to 5 times pump flow/min.<br /> <br /> So the power density of individual components and the system as a whole increases with pressure. But there are a number of disadvantages with higher operating pressures:</p> <ul> <li>The inherent heat dissipation of the system is lower because the surface area of the tank (it&#39;s smaller in volume), pipework and components are less. In other words, a bigger heat exchanger is required for a high-pressure system of the equivalent power and efficiency.</li> <li>Greater variation in fluid volume (compression) at higher pressures means reduced stiffness of the system and less favorable dynamic response.</li> <li>Higher noise levels as a result of higher peak pressures and greater energy transmission for a given mass.</li> <li>The potential for greater friction and wear, resulting from heavier loads on bearings and sliding surfaces, and more severe damage resulting from aeration, cavitation and micro-dieseling due to higher compression ratios.</li> </ul> <p>In the majority of applications though, the advantages presented by higher operating pressures outweigh the disadvantages. Which is why for several decades now, we&#39;ve seen the average operating pressures of hydraulic equipment increase. But clearly, it comes with some design problems. Here&#39;s a few that spring to mind:</p> <ul> <li>Heavier hose construction, i.e., less flexible lines, longer bend radii and possibly, special fittings and assembly methods.</li> <li>Heavier valve bodies, actuators, pumps, pipes -- or the use of more exotic, and expensive, materials in their construction.</li> <li>More advanced seal materials, new groove designs and closer tolerances will be required to ensure sealing integrity doesn&#39;t suffer.</li> <li>Greater attention to reservoir configuration, conductor selection and component locations to accommodate components resonating with more energy and emitting higher sound pressure levels.</li> </ul> <p>Beyond these material-strength and noise issues, also consider for a moment how increasing operating pressures will impact reliability. We know that force in a hydraulic system is a product of pressure and area. So when operating pressure increases - so do loads on lubricated surfaces.<br /> <br /> Oil viscosity and film strength are vital to maintain full-film lubrication between heavily loaded contacts. I already consider the oil to be THE most important component of any hydraulic system. But this will definitely be the case for machines operating at higher pressures. Oil selection AND maintenance will be critical for optimum reliability.<br /> <br /> Similarly, contamination control will be more important than ever. Because the more heavily loaded the lubricated contacts - the more susceptible they are to wear and damage from water and particle contamination.<br /> <br /> For machine designers, issues such as tank size, installed cooling capacity, filtration, contamination control, and oil recommendations will be even more important than they are now. And the impact of mistakes or omissions at the design stage on equipment reliability will be even more significant.<br /> <br /> For hydraulic equipment users whose maintenance practices are unsophisticated or non-existent - their hydraulic equipment operating costs can only go up. Due to a likely higher incidence of premature failures resulting from temperature, oil degradation, lubrication and contamination issues. In other words, the absence of proactive maintenance will be more costly than ever. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/why-high-pressure-means-high-maintenance#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 17 Nov 2015 00:55:00 +0000 35121 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulics & Pneumatics Products of the Week (11/13-11/20) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/hydraulics-pneumatics-products-week-1113-1120 <div class="node-body gallery-body"><p>H&amp;P&#39;s products of the week include mini solenoid pinch valves, steel adapters, and compact pneumatic cylinders.&nbsp;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/hydraulics-pneumatics-products-week-1113-1120#comments Products Cylinders & Actuators Fittings & Couplings Hydraulic Valves Pneumatic Valves Fri, 13 Nov 2015 17:45:00 +0000 35101 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Tech Skills Get a Lift from Donated Hydraulic Training Stands http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/training/tech-skills-get-lift-donated-hydraulic-training-stands <div class="node-body article-body"><p>Comments in this year&rsquo;s <a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/salarysurvey" target="_blank"><strong><em>Salary Survey</em></strong></a> revealed that many fluid-power professionals had one particular concern in common: Newcomers in the industry do not have adequate hands-on training or experience to learn quickly on the job. <a href="https://www.hydrotech.com/" target="_blank">Hydrotech Inc.</a> tackled this issue head on by donating four new hydraulic training stands to <a href="http://www.cincinnatistate.edu/" target="_blank">Cincinnati State Technical and Community College</a>. The aim is to help students gain experience in fluid-power testing, design, and troubleshooting before they graduate college.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/new-spin-hydraulics-education ">A New &ldquo;Spin&rdquo; on Hydraulics Education</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/fluid-power-course-covers-hydraulic-essentials">Fluid-Power Course Covers Hydraulic Essentials</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/cfc-training-hits-25-year-milestone">CFC Training Hits 25-year Milestone</a></p> </div> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Hydrotech%20Cincinnati%20State%20hydraulic%20units_0.jpg" style="font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; text-decoration: underline;" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Hydrotech%20Cincinnati%20State%20hydraulic%20units.jpg" style="margin: 3px; font-size: 12.8px; width: 349px; height: 233px; float: left;" title="1. People listen to a demonstration on one of four brand-new hydraulic training stands. The training assemblies, valued at $30,000 per unit, will be used by students in Cincinnati State’s Electro-Mechanical Engineering Technologies program to build modern manufacturing skills." /></a></p> <p>&quot;These students may be working for us someday or for one of our local clients or partners,&quot; says Pete Jones, Hydrotech CEO. &quot;It&#39;s a blessing to us that we can help them develop the crucial skills necessary to be successful. Cincinnati State has a wonderful program that&#39;s dedicated to advancing manufacturing in this area. Everyone can benefit from that.&quot;</p> <p>The donation of hydraulic training assemblies comes on the heels of last year&rsquo;s donation of pneumatic trainers to Cincinnati State. Both assemblies are used in Hydrotech factory testing, giving students the most authentic experience possible.</p> <p>&ldquo;I let them start on the old equipment, then put them on the new stuff,&quot; says Prof. David Simmermon, a Cincinnati State faculty member who uses the lab frequently in his classes. &quot;They can create so many more circuits and have a better understanding of new versus old technology.&rdquo;&nbsp;</p> <p>The hope is, after using the trainers over the course of their education, Cincinnati graduates will get a boost in confidence when they see &ldquo;2 years of experience&rdquo; on job postings: Four of the most dreaded words to entry-level job seekers.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/training/tech-skills-get-lift-donated-hydraulic-training-stands#comments Circuits Training News Fri, 13 Nov 2015 16:19:00 +0000 35091 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com <p>People listen to a demonstration on&nbsp;one of four brand-new hydraulic training stands. The training assemblies, valued at $30,000 per unit, will be used by students in Cincinnati State&rsquo;s Electro-Mechanical Engineering Technologies program to build modern manufacturing skills.</p> Troubleshooting Challenge: Accumulator Pre-Charge Changing http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-accumulator-pre-charge-changing <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/troubleshooting-challenge-accumulator-pre-charge-changing-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/DSC_0484.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 396px;" /></p> <p>A farmer in Texas grows mushrooms in an abandoned salt mine. It was surprising to learn how many hydraulic systems they use in the processing of their product. They have a simple hydraulic power unit (HPU) with a piston-type accumulator to supplement pump flow. This feeds a three-stage, single-acting telescopic cylinder to raise large tubs of mushrooms up 30 ft. to a conveyor that then transports them up to the surface for processing.</p> <p>The HPU recharges the accumulator during the retract cycle. Workers send the lift back up again as soon as they reload it. However, a problem arose when the lift began requiring more time to lift the load the required 30 ft. The additional time was robbing production, so something had to be done.&nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Trouble.png" style="width: 596px; height: 834px;" /></p> <p>Workers decided the pump was probably wearing out, so they replaced it. When this didn&rsquo;t fix the problem, they checked to see if the accumulator still held a pre-charge. The pre-charge was about 250 psi higher than what the schematic called for (see the figure), so they reduced it back to the correct pre-charge pressure of 500 psi.</p> <p>This still did not fix the problem. What would you do next?</p> <p><strong>FIND THE SOLUTION</strong></p> <p>Think you know the answer to this month&rsquo;s problem?</p> <p>Submit your solution by email to Mindy Timmer at <a href="mailto:timmer@cfc-solar.com">timmer@cfc-solar.com</a>. All correct solutions submitted by Nov. 20, 2015, will be entered into a random drawing for a $50 gift card. The winner will be notified, and his or her name will be printed in a future issue. Only one gift card will be awarded to any participant within a calendar year.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>SOLUTION TO SEPTEMBER&rsquo;S PROBLEM</strong></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-pump-noise-intermittent" target="_blank"><strong>PUMP NOISE IS INTERMITTENT</strong></a></p> <p>A cylinder with a 5-in. bore and 3&frac12;-in. diameter rod takes twice the oil to fully extend compared to what it takes to retract. Maintenance workers asked the same question most people would: Is a low oil level causing aeration noise in the pump? The sight gauge indicated the oil level was comfortably above the low-level mark, so they replaced the pump. When the new pump didn&rsquo;t solve the problem, they called their local hydraulic service shop for help.</p> <p>The hydraulic technician instructed a mechanic to remove the filler breather and confirm the oil level. Much to the mechanic&rsquo;s surprise, the tank was low on oil.</p> <p>Many sight gauges stain and turn dark when warm oil is present, making it difficult to determine if oil is present or not. If the maintenance people would have cycled the cylinder while observing the oil level in sight gauge, they would have seen that the oil level did not change as the cylinder extended and retracted. No movement on the gauge would have alerted them to the problem.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/troubleshooting-challenge-accumulator-pre-charge-changing#comments Accumulators Agricultural Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Fri, 13 Nov 2015 14:46:00 +0000 35071 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com November 2015 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulics-pneumatics/2015-11-13 <div class="node-body magazine_issue-body"></div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-mag-teasers"> <div class="field-mag-teaser"> <a href="/hydraulic-valves/bluetooth-and-smartphone-configure-hard-reach-hydraulic-valves">Bluetooth and Smartphone Configure Hard-to-Reach Hydraulic Valves</a> <a href="/news/simple-bio-inspired-actuator-emulates-muscular-hydrostat">Simple Bio-Inspired Actuator Emulates Muscular Hydrostat</a> <a href="/cylinders-actuators/accommodating-cylinder-motion">Accommodating Cylinder Motion</a> </div> </fieldset> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-publication-info"><legend>Publication Info</legend> </fieldset> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> Fri, 13 Nov 2015 05:00:00 +0000 35111 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Air Cylinders Lend Themselves to Processing Machines http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/air-cylinders-lend-themselves-processing-machines <div class="node-body article-body"><p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/AutoDirect-promo.jpg" target="_blank"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/AutoDirect-promo.jpg" style="width: 366px; height: 246px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" title="Food processing and packaging equipment, such as this citrus-handling conveyor line, make extensive use pneumatics for actuation. Automation Direct serves this competitive market by offering its G Series double-acting air cylinders (inset), which are available in a wide variety of mounting configurations, bores, and strokes." /></a>Packaging equipment makes extensive use of pneumatics technology because of its many benefits, and pneumatic cylinders prove especially versatile. They provide an economical and compact means of generating linear motion and also are clean, safe, and reliable.</p> <p>Force applied by the cylinder is easily controlled by regulating pressure, and using an electronic regulator provides adjustable force on demand. Speed can be adjusted using simple needle valves or an electronic proportional valve that varies flow based on a control signal.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="/cylinders-actuators/pushing-cheese-production">Pushing Cheese Production</a></p> <p><a href="/cylinders-actuators/all-stainless-air-cylinders-are-ideal-washdown-applications">All-Stainless Air Cylinders Are Ideal for Washdown Applications</a></p> <p><a href="/food-beverage/simpler-system-soups-productivity-0">Simpler System Soups Up Productivity</a></p> </div> <p>Nitra brand pneumatic cylinders, offered by <a href="http://www.automationdirect.com/adc/Home/Home" target="_blank">Automation Direct</a>, Cumming, Ga., now include <a href="http://www.automationdirect.com/adc/Overview/Catalog/Pneumatic_Components/Pneumatic_Air_Cylinders/ISO_15552_Air_Cylinders_%28G-Series%29" target="_blank">G-Series double-acting cylinders</a>, which lend themselves for use packaging, food processing and other high-speed machinery. These air cylinders have a 145-psi operating pressure and are interchangeable with other popular brands. The series was developed with a fully metric design to meet ISO 15552. Features include adjustable cushions for end-of-stroke deceleration for extension and retraction, internal magnetic material for sensor switching, G-thread (BSPP) female ports, and three sides of longitudinal slots for inserting and securing sensors.</p> <p>All of Automation Direct&rsquo;s G-Series cylinders have aluminum-alloy barrels and end caps, C45 chrome-plated piston rods, and die-cast aluminum heads. The series includes bore from 32mm to 100mm and maximum stroke from 25mm to 600mm. Mounting configurations include flange, rod clevis, rod eye, foot mount, spherical rear pivot, or rear pivot mounting options.</p> <p><em>For more information on Nitra G-series cylinders, call Automation Direct at (800) 633-0405, or visit <a href="http://www.automationdirect.com/air-cylinders" target="_blank">www.automationdirect.com/air-cylinders</a></em>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/air-cylinders-lend-themselves-processing-machines#comments Food & Beverage Cylinders & Actuators Packaging Wed, 11 Nov 2015 16:22:00 +0000 35061 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Accommodating Cylinder Motion http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/accommodating-cylinder-motion <div class="field-byline"> Jerry Walling, Fabco-Air Inc. </div> <div class="field-deck"> When addressing the motion elements of a cylinder, are there special movements, sensing, or side loads being applied that will require special modifications? If so, you'll need to accommodate them. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/accommodating-cylinder-motion-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Pneumatic technology holds many advantages as a practical form of power transmission. Pneumatics is often the lowest-cost solution for machine automation, and it can&rsquo;t be beat for quick, repetitive motions back and forth. This is why pneumatics is usually associated with pick-and-place motion installation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/high-speed-cylinders-get-soft-landing">High-Speed Cylinders Get a Soft Landing</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/pneumatic-valves/10-safety-products-every-pneumatic-tool-kit">10 Safety Products for Every Pneumatic Tool Kit</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/pneumatic-cylinder-design-factors">Pneumatic Cylinder Design Factors</a></p> </div> <p>But pneumatics can easily stop at one, two, or more intermediate positions without having to use any sensors, switches, or sophisticated electronics. They are also available in different designs to serve a wide variety of applications. Here is a guide to which cylinders should be used for different situations:</p> <p><em>Must the load stop at any intermediate position?</em></p> <p><strong>Three-position cylinders. </strong>You can get three or more rod positions from a single cylinder. Many cylinder styles are offered with three position options.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig1_0.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 323px;" /></p> <p>The short-stroke tie-rod cylinder (<em>Fig. 1</em>) is essentially two cylinder bodies combined in a single package. You can specify the same or different stroke lengths to set your work positions as required <em>(Fig. 2)</em>.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig2_0.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 487px;" /></p> <p><strong>Four-position cylinders. </strong>You can also get numerous cylinder styles in back-to-back configurations that enable positioning at up to four endpoints (<em>Fig. 3</em>). As the name implies, two single-rod cylinders are assembled with their back endcaps attached. By anchoring one rod end and allowing the cylinder body to &ldquo;float,&rdquo; four distinct endpoints can be obtained <em>(Fig. 4)</em>.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig3.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 638px;" /><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig4.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 490px;" /></p> <p><em>Can the load be allowed to rotate slightly? </em></p> <p><strong>Non-rotating options. </strong>For applications in which anti-rotation and registration are critical, there are solutions. Maintaining the load&rsquo;s fixed orientation can be accomplished in several ways.</p> <p><em>Figure 5</em> shows one method used on tie-rod cylinders. Two guide pins incorporated inside the cylinder pass through the piston head. These guide pins prevent rotation of the rod with a tolerance of &plusmn;1 deg. A rubber disk is included at the end of each guide pin to take up end play and firmly seat the pins in the precision guide-pin holes.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig5.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 536px;" /></p> <p>Because the guide pins are inside the cylinder, they are protected from the environment, physical damage, and are lubricated by the system lubrication. They require no additional space, leaving the rod-end area free for attachments and tooling as required by your application.</p> <p><strong>External non-rotating options. </strong>Another solution uses an external guide block securely attached to the piston rod <em>(Fig. 6).</em> A steel guide shaft, attached to the guide block, assures anti-rotation of less than 0.8 deg.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig6.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 352px;" /></p> <p><strong>Twin-rod, non-rotating options.</strong> In <em>Fig. 7</em>, twin piston rods are incorporated into the cylinder head to provide anti-rotation. The rods are securely fastened to the piston and tied together externally by a rod-end tool bar. The tool bar ensures that the rods move in tandem and provides an ideal mounting surface for attachments required by your application. The tool bar is furnished with threaded mounting holes or optional counter-bored mounting holes.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig7.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 398px;" /></p> <p><strong>Stroke adjustment.</strong> Stroke-adjust styles may also be needed when the stroke can change either on the extension or the retraction of the unit.</p> <p><strong>Adjustable retract stroke. </strong>An adjusting screw with a thread-sealing locknut mounted in the rear endcap <em>(Fig. 8) </em>provides a simple, yet rugged adjustment of the cylinder stroke in the retract direction. A fine thread on the adjusting screw will provide precision adjustment. Adjustable retract strokes are offered as optional features for many cylinder styles.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig8.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 592px;" /></p> <p><strong>Adjustable extend stroke.</strong> It is possible to use the back end of a double-rod cylinder to adjust the extend stroke. A stop collar, bumper, and some kind of impact plate could do the trick. However, if taking this approach, use caution and consider a safety cover to avoid leaving the pinch point exposed <em>(Fig. 9)</em>.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig9.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 756px;" /></p> <p><strong>Position sensing.</strong> Sensing can often change the cylinder based on the type of sensing needed. Standard electronic switching will require magnets to be added to the piston. Proximity switching may require internal or external changes to the cylinder so that the sensing probes will have targets which they can read.&nbsp; Transducers may also require a variety of internal or external changes to a unit.</p> <p><strong>Side loads. </strong>Side loads often suggest a need for items such as stop tubes or heavier bushings because of the wear produced when the cylinder is in motion.</p> <p><em>Will the cylinder have strong side loading or heavy overhung loading? </em></p> <p>Cylinder piston rods are supported by a bearing in the front head of the cylinder and the piston itself running inside the cylinder walls <em>(Fig. 10)</em>. As the rod nears full extension, the distance (&ldquo;d&rdquo;) between support surfaces becomes shorter. The piston rod assembly tends to cock, causing uneven wear on the bearing surfaces and shortening seal life.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig10.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 335px;" /></p> <p><strong>Stop tubes.</strong> One solution to the problem is to install an internal stop tube <em>(Fig. 11)</em>. The stop tube blocks the piston from reaching the front head, thereby increasing the minimum distance between support points. Component wear is reduced and cylinder operating life is extended.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig11.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 384px;" /></p> <p>However, in order to maintain the same work stroke, the length of the cylinder body must be increased by the length of the stop tube. Dealing with the increased package size may present issues.</p> <p><strong>Double-rod cylinders. </strong>If you have room available, a double-rod cylinder <em>(Fig. 12)</em> gives you the best piston-rod assembly support.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/fig12.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 384px;" /></p> <p>You&rsquo;ll have rod bearings in both end caps reducing the load on the piston. And you&rsquo;ll have maximum distance between support points.</p> <p><em>Jerry Walling is Marketing Director at Fabco-Air Inc., Gainesville, Fla. For more information, call (352) 373-3578 or visit <a href="http://www.fabco-air.com" target="_blank">www.fabco-air.com</a>.</em></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/cylinders-actuators/accommodating-cylinder-motion#comments Cylinders & Actuators Wed, 11 Nov 2015 13:57:00 +0000 35041 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com 6 Ways Your Hydraulic Components Wear Out http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/6-ways-your-hydraulic-components-wear-out <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>From the moment they&#39;re installed and commissioned, hydraulic components start to wear out. Often slowly at first, then quickly. Here are 6 ways it happens:<br /> <br /> <strong>Abrasive wear</strong> is the scuffing and scoring of a lubricated surface. It can be further divided into two-body abrasion and three-body abrasion. Two-body abrasion occurs when two lubricated surfaces come into direct contact with each other-usually as a result of loss of the lubricating oil film. Three-body abrasion occurs when the clearance between two lubricated surfaces is bridged by one or more hard particles. In this case it&#39;s the clearance-sized hard particles that are responsible for scoring the lubricated surface(s).<br /> <br /> <strong>Adhesive wear</strong> is usually a progression of two-body abrasion. If the oil film between two lubricated surfaces moving relative to each other is lost, the two surfaces begin to scuff (two-body abrasion). This scuffing results in friction which creates heat. If the friction and heat is sufficient, the two surfaces can begin to adhere (friction weld) to each other. Although complete seizure is possible, adhesive wear typically results in the transfer of metal from one surface to the other, as the asperites (microscopic high points) adhere and are then torn from their parent-metal surface.<br /> <br /> <strong>Fatigue wear </strong>can occur in heavily loaded lubricated contacts-especially bearings and gears. Point loading can cause elastic deformation of the component&#39;s surface. And the resulting stress concentration causes surface cracking and eventually, spalling (break away) of the surface material.<br /> <br /> <strong>Erosive wear</strong> occurs when the hydraulic fluid is contaminated with large amounts of silt-sized (&lt; 2-micron) hard particles. As the contaminated hydraulic fluid moves past lubricated surfaces at relatively high velocities, it works like an abrasive slurry, polishing (eroding) away these surfaces and eventually, increasing the clearances between them. &nbsp;<br /> <br /> <strong>Cavitation wear</strong> occurs when oil-vapor bubbles (or air bubbles) form-at the pump inlet for example, and then collapse under pressure at the pump outlet. The micro-jet formed during bubble collapse is powerful enough to erode case-hardened steel. So if vapor or air bubbles collapse under pressure in proximity to any metal surface, erosion and metal loss result.<br /> <br /> <strong>Corrosive wear</strong> occurs when chemical reaction results in loss of surface material. Rusting of ferrous metals is an obvious example. But if the hydraulic oil has been degraded by water or heat, chemical by-products such as acids can chemically attack some metals. In addition, yellow metals (bronzes) can be susceptible to chemical attack by some oil additives - especially if water is present.<br /> <br /> Not being proactive in minimizing the effects of these 6 types of wear is a costly mistake in the long run. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/6-ways-your-hydraulic-components-wear-out#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 10 Nov 2015 00:24:00 +0000 35031 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hot Stabs: Quick Couplings on Steroids http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fittings-couplings/hot-stabs-quick-couplings-steroids <div class="field-byline"> Chauntelle Baughman, CFPHS </div> <div class="field-deck"> Connecting and disconnecting hydraulic equipment thousands of feet under the ocean surface requires components with high hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/hot-stabs-quick-couplings-steroids-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Picture that it&rsquo;s 10,000 feet subsea, and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) is navigating its way through the black, frigid waters of the ocean&rsquo;s aphotic midnight zone, far beyond the reach of sunlight, guided only by lights and cameras to its destination. The conditions are such where no human diver could survive. Then a white structure comes into the camera&rsquo;s view, with the paddle handles of subsea valves and black faces of subsea gauges becoming clearer as the ROV nears its target.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/software-helps-develop-subsea-systems">Software Helps Develop Subsea Systems</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/marine-offshore/deep-seas-push-hydraulic-system-boundaries">Deep Seas Push Hydraulic-System Boundaries</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/marine-offshore/new-weapon-battle-against-corrosion">A New Weapon in the Battle Against Corrosion</a></p> </div> <p>It slows to hover in front of the panel sitting on the sea floor. No obstructions are visible, and all gauges read zero. A human operator topside watches closely as the robotic arm of the ROV extends forward to pull out a dummy plug from the panel and then sets it into a holder on the side. A live hot stab is inserted in its place. Swiftly, gauges begin to move. Oil enters the hydraulic tubing, powered from an umbilical connected to a hydraulic power unit stationed topside. They are &ldquo;go&rdquo; for operation.</p> <p>Most hydraulic equipment operates far away from the corrosive environment and extreme ambient pressures of ocean waters&mdash;perhaps mining, transportation, or even wind energy. Yet, the oil and gas industry has made incredible advances in subsea technologies, bringing the capabilities of hydraulic equipment to the most extreme places on the earth. Hot stabs make this possible.</p> <p>A <em>hot stab</em> is a subsea hydraulic coupling device that transmits hydraulic fluid from a topside hydraulic power unit to energize subsea equipment. Essentially, it is a hydraulic quick-acting coupling designed for the deep-sea application. Two major types of stabs are used: <em>live</em> stabs and <em>plug</em> stabs. Both mate to a receptacle&mdash;the live stab creates a path for hydraulic fluid to flow, while the plug stab typically acts as a placeholder on subsea equipment to prevent water ingression into the hydraulic system.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Schilling-Robotics5.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 397px;" title="Designed to operate in extremes of pressure and temperature, this remotely operated vehicle (ROV) can work at depths of 4,000 m (13,000 ft) and ambient pressures to 21 MPa (3,000 psi). It performs multiple tasks, including enaging and disengaging hydraulic lines using hot-stab connectors. (Courtesy of FMC Technologies-Schilling Robotics)" /></p> <p>An ROV will remove the plug stab and set it into a designated place holder, then place the live hot stab into the female receptacle. Once the connection is sealed, fluid from the topside will run through an umbilical, through the live hot stab, and into the subsea equipment being activated. The configuration of the hot stab can vary greatly depending on its application, namely the porting, material composition, flow paths, and special testing requirements.</p> <p><strong>Hot-Stab Design</strong></p> <p>When specifying a hot stab, one of the first considerations concerns the flow path. Is high pressure at low flow needed, or low pressure at high? When all operating scenarios are evaluated, a standard hot-stab product offering may work for a majority of applications. The American Petroleum Institute&rsquo;s API 17H recommended practice for subsea production systems has several standard types of hot stabs and equipment with flow paths ranging from &frac14; to 3&frac12; in. Even at the bottom of the ocean, though, equipment must obey the laws of physics, and burst pressures and collapsing loads must be evaluated prior to being put into service.&nbsp;</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Hot-stab-Fig-2.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 433px;" title="This view shows one configuration of a hot-stab connector. The orange, T-shaped extension serves as a convenient handle for the ROV to grasp and manipulate." /></p> <p>Porting on the hot stabs and receptacles is what integrates the stab into the hydraulic system. The connection type and size need to be carefully selected to ensure that flow rates and designed working pressures are maintained. A wide variety of options is available to meet these requirements, from flanges and hubs to threaded connections and unions.</p> <p>Depending on the application, single- or multi-port stabs may be used. For applications that cannot tolerate ingression of sea water, integration of check valves into the hot stab help to prevent water from entering the hot stab.</p> <p><strong>Material Selection</strong></p> <p>As is the case with most subsea equipment, special materials are often necessary to withstand the corrosive combination of salt water and oxygen. In addition to corrosion, subsea equipment can be subject to embrittlement, making the metal vulnerable to cracking.</p> <p>Depending on the composition of the metal, temperature, galvanic reaction, and other factors, exposing the metal to hydrogen sulfide may cause catastrophic, premature equipment failure. Many corrosion-resistant alloys have a proven track record in subsea environments. Understanding when to use each one is critical to the success of a project.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Table_MarineHydraquip.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 276px;" /></strong></p> <p>The table shows several factors that may play into which material is selected for a hot stab. Strength and corrosion resistance are essential to the long-term survival of subsea hot stabs, but they can come with a significant price tag. Note that the table is based on my experience; different grades, forms, production methods, and level of annealing may result in variations. Always check with your supplier for mechanical properties.</p> <p><strong>Testing Requirements</strong></p> <p>Hot stabs and receptacles are often placed thousands of feet subsea, and it can take hours or even days for equipment to reach its final destination on the sea floor. Removing faulty equipment can be intensely time-consuming and expensive. Thus, most hot-stab equipment must go through an extensive testing process, including nondestructive examination (NDE), nondestructive testing (NDT), and destructive testing, depending on the application and materials selections.</p> <p><strong>NDE procedures</strong> may include both ultrasonic and dye-penetrant inspections. First, ultrasonic inspections are conducted on raw materials. Sound waves that are audible to humans typically fall in the 20- to 20,000-Hz range. Ultrasonic testing equipment produces ultrasonic waves (100,000 to 2,500,000 Hz) far beyond the range of human recognition, though, and can be used to detect imperfections. Technicians are able to scan raw materials and interpret the results to determine if items being inspected are of good quality. Imperfections could be cold shuts, porosity, or inclusions, all of which can affect the integrity and fatigue life of these components. Such discontinuities may cause the material to be rejected.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Hot-stab-Fig-4.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 795px;" title="This batch of hot-stab connectors undergoes pressure, leak, and other testing prior to shipment." /></p> <p>Once a raw material passes ultrasonic testing, it is sent back to the hot-stab manufacturer for machining before being shipped out for dye-penetrant inspection. During dye-penetrant inspection, sub-components are coated with a fluorescent dye. Capillary action then draws the dye into any imperfection. After a specified time period, excess dye is removed and a developing agent is applied. Technicians inspect each part for defects, ensuring that the machining process did not damage the integrity of the hot-stab materials. If a small line or other flaw is revealed by the penetrant dye, it could indicate a crack developed during a machining process, and may be cause for material rejection.</p> <p><strong>NDT procedures</strong> are a bit different, and include proof testing and hardness checks. Proof testing, or pressure testing, is usually conducted by applying hydraulic pressure to the hot stab&rsquo;s ports and taking them either up to the designed working pressure or beyond for a predetermined amount of time, depending on test requirements. Hardness checks are also critical for subsea equipment, because materials with a higher hardness may be more susceptible to cracking.</p> <p>A Rockwell hardness test is the most common for hydraulic components. It indicates hardness by measuring the depth of penetration of an indenter under a high load and comparing it to the penetration made by a preload. Different scales are used depending on the material. Steels are usually measured with the C scale, which applies a force of 120 kg<sub>f</sub> using a 120-deg. speroconical diamond indenter.</p> <p>As in most industries, the world of subsea equipment has no one-size-fits-all solution. Every application is different, and each hot stab must be tailored to meet the rigid demands of an unforgiving environment. Each location and operation presents its own set of challenges, and engineers are always on the lookout for features that can modify a product for optimal performance.</p> <p><em>Chauntelle Baughman Subsea &amp; Offshore Product Specialist at <a href="http://www.hydraquip.com" target="_blank">Hydraquip Inc.</a>, Houston, Texas, an exclusive distributor for DMIC hot-stab products. For more information, call her at (713) 680-1951, or email <a href="mailto:subsea@hydraquip.com">subsea@hydraquip.com</a>. </em></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/fittings-couplings/hot-stabs-quick-couplings-steroids#comments Fittings & Couplings Marine & Offshore Hydraulic Fluids Mon, 09 Nov 2015 15:10:00 +0000 35011 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Did You See the Whole Story? http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/did-you-see-whole-story <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>We published our first-ever reader Salary Survey last month. At least I&rsquo;m pretty sure it was our first one. Our first issue was published in 1948, and contrary to what some may think, I wasn&rsquo;t a member of the <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics</em> staff at that time. In fact, I wasn&rsquo;t even born yet. But I have at least skimmed over most of our back issues, and I never saw anything about a salary survey.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/perils-do-it-yourself-tagout">The Perils of Do-It-Yourself Tagout</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/latest-servohydraulic-design-guide-free-asking">Latest Servohydraulic Design Guide is Free for the Asking</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/what-you-don-t-know-can-kill-you-or-someone-else">What You Don&rsquo;t Know Can Kill You&mdash;or Someone Else!</a></p> </div> <p>Our space was limited in the printed magazine, so the article you may have read last month appears on four pages. But you can review much more of the information by <a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/salarysurvey" target="_blank">downloading the full 12-page report</a>.</p> <p><img alt="Alan Hitchcox" height="151" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/11/Alan.JPG" style="margin: 5px; float: left;" title="Alan Hitchcox" width="193" />Here&rsquo;s a quick summary of what you&rsquo;ll find in the downloadable PDF version. For instance, the top <strong>Concerns at Work</strong> are summarized on a full page. The No. 1 response was &ldquo;Finding the Optimal Components for My Designs.&rdquo; That&rsquo;s great news for me because if designers are still seeking the best components for their systems, then they have a strong impetus to read <em>Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics</em>. The second-highest response was &ldquo;Insufficient People to Get the Job Done.&rdquo; No surprise there, but the No. 3 response was a bit disconcerting: &ldquo;Having to Compromise My Design Approaches.&rdquo;</p> <p>Another full page was dedicated to <strong>Job Satisfaction</strong>, and other topics included <strong>Issues Keeping Engineers Up at Night</strong>; <strong>Outsourcing</strong>; <strong>Continuing Education</strong>; and <strong>Test and Measurement</strong>.</p> <p>And don&rsquo;t think a 12-page report will eat up a lot of time to read. It won&rsquo;t. The salary survey consists primarily of lively infographics, which are ideal for a quick read. Enjoy, and get the whole story!</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hitch-post">The Hitch Post</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/did-you-see-whole-story#comments The Hitch Post Fri, 06 Nov 2015 21:14:00 +0000 35001 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Bluetooth and Smartphones Configure Hard-to-Reach Hydraulic Valves (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/bluetooth-and-smartphones-configure-hard-reach-hydraulic-valves-pdf-download <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>Configuring an electrohydraulic system in a controlled environment is challenging enough, but fine-tuning equipment performance in the field presents an additional layer of difficulty.&nbsp;Carrying and maintaining up-to-date specialized equipment...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/08/full-wallchart.JPG" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics & Pneumatics Wall Chart</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=34991&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> Gold Fri, 06 Nov 2015 14:35:00 +0000 34991 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Hydraulic Power Conversion, Part 1 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-hydraulic-power-conversion-part-1 <div class="field-deck"> Power generated from hydraulic-fluid systems exhibits similar ac current-flow traits like that of its electrical counterparts. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/hydraulic-electric-analogies-hydraulic-power-conversion-part-1-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Electrical motors, generators, and alternators make use of Faraday&rsquo;s law of electromagnetic induction and its speed requirement. Hydraulic power converters, on the other hand, exploit Pascal&rsquo;s law and the mechanical advantage that comes from the use of differential areas to either multiply force or multiply speeds.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-motors-and-generators-part-6">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Motors and Generators, Part 6</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-dc-motors-part-5">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: DC Motors, Part 5</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-torque-speed-behavior-part-4">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Torque-Speed Behavior, Part 4</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-power-sources-part-3">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Power Sources, Part 3</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-power-sources-part-2">Hydraulic-Electric Analogies: Power Sources, Part 2</a></p> </div> <p>Hydraulic fluid power, i.e., the transmission via hydraulic fluid, is based on the principle of positive displacement. The laws of energy conservation prevent any hydraulic power-converting machine from multiplying both force and speed at the same time without having more power added into the process.</p> <p>Pascal&rsquo;s law states that in a closed container without flow, pressure is transmitted in all directions, undiminished, barring changes in elevation. Changes in elevation can be a problem in some high-pressure hydraulic systems, but is usually negligible. The exceptions to this practice usually apply to the pump inlet portions of their circuits.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/HPmotionControl1.png" style="width: 596px; height: 565px;" title="1. Pascal’s pressure law is used to multiply force while attenuating the amount of displacement by using different-sized pistons in tight-fitting bores." /></p> <p>In Figure 1, two different diameter pistons (area ratio is 32 to 1) can multiply the force when the inputs are <em>F</em>1 and <em>X</em>, and the outputs are <em>F</em>2 and an attenuated displacement of only <em>X</em>/32. That is, the pressure is created by the exertion of <em>F</em>1 on the smaller piston, and that pressure, in turn, transmits in all directions throughout the incompressible liquid. It also acts on the bottom of the larger piston and will generate a substantially larger force (<em>F</em>2), which is 32 times larger than the input force (<em>F</em>1).</p> <p>From a mathematical perspective, since energy must be conserved <em>and</em> the fluid is incompressible, any fluid displaced by the small piston must be absorbed by the movement of the large piston:</p> <p><em>F</em><sub>1</sub> <em>X</em><sub>1</sub> = <em>F</em><sub>2</sub> <em>X</em><sub>2</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (1)</p> <p>The incompressibility of the fluid also requires that volume must be conserved, thus:</p> <p><em>X</em><sub>1</sub> <em>A</em><sub>1</sub> = <em>X</em><sub>2</sub> <em>A</em><sub>2</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (2)</p> <p>This equation is in fact a statement of the positive displacement principle. That is, the fluid displaced by one piston must move something, namely the other piston, to conserve volume.</p> <p>Rearranging Equations 1 and 2 and substituting yields:</p> <p><em>F</em><sub>1</sub> / <em>F</em><sub>2</sub> = <em>X</em><sub>2</sub> / <em>X</em><sub>1</sub> = <em>A</em><sub>1</sub> / <em>A</em><sub>2</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (3)</p> <p>With incompressible fluid, no energy is stored in the fluid, so it follows from Equation 1 that the input power has to equal the output power. Therefore, by dividing both sides of that equation by an arbitrary time to get the velocity:</p> <p><em>F</em><sub>1</sub> <em>V</em><sub>1</sub> = <em>F</em><sub>2</sub> <em>A</em><sub>2</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (4)</p> <p>where <em>V</em>1 and <em>V</em>2 are the velocities of piston 1 and piston 2, respectively.</p> <p>By making the force-voltage and velocity-current analogies, the equations are identical to those of the electrical transformer. The analogy applies further in noting that the piston area ratio is perfectly analogous to the turns ratio in the transformer. The analogy fails only when comparing the applications. The electrical transformer will work only on ac voltages; however, the dual-piston system in Figure 1 works quite well using dc force and velocity.</p> <p>But now, the idea of Pascal&rsquo;s law and the conservation of energy show the fundamental principles of hydraulic incompressible fluid power. The positive displacement principle is also seen in the figure and its analysis.</p> <p>It is worth noting, at the possible expense of being redundant, that hydraulic fluid is compressible, although by a relatively small amount. For many steady-state calculations, perfect incompressibility is assumed, usually with insignificant error. Incompressibility is measured by the fluid&rsquo;s bulk modulus. For mineral-based hydraulic oils, that value is about 200,000 psi, which leads to the rule of thumb that fluid compresses about 0.5% per 1,000 psi.</p> <p><strong>A Simple, but Practical, Pump</strong></p> <p>Figure 2 shows a check-valve piston pump that uses reciprocating, mechanical input to move the pumping piston. Two check valves prevent flow in the reverse direction (the official ISO term is non-return valve) when the pumping piston is being withdrawn. This keeps the load cylinder advancing upward with each succeeding stroke of the pump, and locks it into position when pumping stops. A release valve allows the load on the output cylinder to push fluid down and back into the reservoir while simultaneously letting the load descend gradually.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/HPmotionControl2.png" style="width: 596px; height: 565px;" title="2. The single-acting check-valve pump is typical of the type used, for example, to raise a vehicle to change a tire. All necessary elements are present." /></p> <p>The reciprocating input in this kind of pump is usually done manually by a human. As the input handle is, say, moved to the left, a partial vacuum is created inside the cylinder where the piston is being withdrawn from the bore. That is, the volume increases on the blank side of the piston. Atmospheric pressure acting on the surface of the fluid in the reservoir, being higher than the partial vacuum in the expanding pumping chamber, pushes fluid out of the reservoir and into the expanding volume. This is the filling portion of the pumping cycle.</p> <p>At some point, the leftward handle movement stops and motion reverses to force the piston back into the pumping chamber. This causes a slight increase in that chamber&rsquo;s pressure, which forces check valve CV2 into its seat and, in turn, blocks flow from returning to the reservoir, also called the tank. As rightward travel continues, the pumping chamber&rsquo;s internal pressure increases further.</p> <p>Assuming the human operator is strong enough, eventually the pressure reaches a level where it equals and just exceeds the pressure induced in the output cylinder, which is caused by some external load (not shown in Figure 2). When the load-induced pressure is exceeded by the pumping piston and the operator, check-valve CV1 lifts off its seat and conducts fluid into the load cylinder. Positive displacement ensures that any further movement of the input handle displaces fluid and forces the load piston and its load to move upward.</p> <p>Continued reciprocating input will result in progressive rising of the load. To return the load piston to its fully retracted position, the <em>release valve</em>, a device similar to an old-fashioned, screw-type kitchen or bathroom faucet, must be opened. This allows fluid to be pushed back to the reservoir by the output load. It should be apparent that if the release valve opens too far, the load will drop too rapidly. Some appropriate amount of restriction is desirable.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/HPmotionControl3.png" style="width: 596px; height: 596px;" title="3. When the reciprocating handle motion for the check-valve pump in Figure 2 is a sine wave, these are the resultant approximate wave shapes." /></p> <p>The wave shapes in Figure 3 are approximations that can be expected when a human operator or some other mechanism moves the input handle in sinusoidal manner. An assumption is made that before any motion of either the input handle or the output cylinder and its load occurs, the output piston is resting at its fully retracted position. Thus, the weight of the external load (shown in Figure 3 only as an arrow) is carried by the stationary parts of the cylinder, which means there&rsquo;s no pressure in the load cylinder blank end. Additionally, the release valve is assumed to be closed (shut off), preventing any fluid from the load pressure region of the piston from leaking back to the reservoir.</p> <p>Given those conditions, and that the handle is at its most leftward position, the input motion begins its sinusoidal velocity. Being a sinusoidal input motion, the output flow is likewise a sinusoid, at least during the first half of the input cycle. It is labeled as CV1 flow.</p> <p>The load pressure, as already stated, starts at 0.0 and any small motion of the pumping piston causes the pressure in the pumping cavity to rise very sharply, which opens CV1. As soon as the piston moves some tiny amount, the load pressure (<em>P</em><em>L</em>) is determined primarily by the external load because the pressure in the blank end of the cylinder carries the load. The piston will have been lifted off its mechanical resting place at the bottom of its travel.</p> <p>Meanwhile, the pressure in the blank end of the pumping piston (<em>P</em><em>C</em>) has an almost square shape due to the incompressible nature of the fluid. And small piston movement causes the pressure to rise until CV1 opens and the pressure is determined by the external load. This results in a nearly flat top for all practical purposes.</p> <p>As soon as the pumping piston stops moving, a precipitous drop occurs in the pumping chamber pressure, causing it to drop to zero. When the motion is reversed, the pressure in the blank end actually drops below zero, creating a partial vacuum. As a result, the external atmospheric pressure acts on the reservoir surface to push fluid into the expanding chamber.</p> <p>As the input motion proceeds, each forward stroke of the handle results in the load piston rising by an amount determined by the amount of volume displaced by the pumping piston and the area of the load piston. Continued pumping-handle input motion results in the steady rise of the load, but interspersed with pauses while the reversed input action allows the ejected fluid to be replenished on the fill portion of the cycle.</p> <p>When the input motion stops, the load piston is held in its last position because the fluid trapped in the load cylinder&rsquo;s blank end cannot escape. To lower the load, the release valve must be opened, which enables the trapped and pressurized fluid to be flushed back to the reservoir, motivated by the heavy external load.</p> <p><strong>A Double-Acting Variation </strong></p> <p>A second piston can be easily added to the manually operated piston pump <em>(Fig. 2, again)</em>, making it into a so-called double-acting piston pump <em>(Fig. 4)</em>. In other words, it will expel fluid from the pumping pistons into the load cylinder during each half cycle.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/HPmotionControl4.png" style="width: 596px; height: 436px;" title="4. When a second piston is added to the pump of Figure 2, it becomes a double-acting pump, providing output during each half cycle of the input handle." /></p> <p>Practitioners of the electronic arts will recognize immediately that the four check valves form a full-wave rectifier bridge. The bridge converts the reciprocating flow in each of the two pumping pistons into unidirectional (dc) flow in the load cylinder, albeit pulsating with each input half-cycle. When the handle moves to the right, CV1 opens, allowing displaced, pressurized fluid to be expelled into the load. During that same rightward motion, CV4 opens, due to the partial vacuum created by the expanding cylinder chamber, filling the left-side cylinder with unpressurized fluid. And so the cycle continues as input handle motion.</p> <p>Astute observers will also realize that in pumps, as well as generators, the outside world may exhibit unidirectional flow and direct current. However, within the innards of the machines, both electrical and hydraulic, it is an ac world.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hydraulic-electric-analogies-hydraulic-power-conversion-part-1#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Thu, 05 Nov 2015 16:39:00 +0000 34961 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com FAQ's on Pressure Sensor Diagnostics http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/faqs-pressure-sensor-diagnostics <div class="field-deck"> Sponsored by WIKA </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/11/wika_logo_blue-200.jpg" style="width: 200px; height: 64px; float: right;" />Can repair technicians check the health of a pressure sensor in the field? Can a pressure sensor tell you why it failed? Why should my company use a pressure sensor with diagnostics? What problems can occur when a pressure sensors signals are out of range?</p> <p>Download <em><strong>FAQ&#39;s on Pressure Sensor Diagnostics</strong></em> sponsored by <strong>WIKA </strong>to get the answers to these questions and more.</p> <p><br /> <script> document.write('<iframe style="height: 655px; width: 600px" frameBorder="0" src="http://pages.hydraulicspneumatics.com/HP_Digital_WIKA_PressSensorDiag_FAQ_DC_103015?partnerref=' + getParameterByName("partnerref") + "&elq=" + getParameterByName("elq2")+'" frameborder="0"></iframe>'); function getParameterByName(name) { var match = RegExp('[?&]' + name + '=([^&]*)') .exec(window.location.search); if(match == null) return ""; return match && decodeURIComponent(match[1].replace(/\+/g, ' ')); } </script></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/faqs-pressure-sensor-diagnostics#comments Design FAQs Other Technologies Wed, 04 Nov 2015 17:44:00 +0000 34931 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com The Pitfalls Of A "Not MY Problem" Mentality http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/pitfalls-not-my-problem-mentality <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Is a &quot;not my problem&quot; mentality damaging your hydraulic equipment and hurting your bottom line? Consider this very frank and revealing admission I received from a new member:<br /> <br /> <em>&quot;Just a note to say thanks for the information and keep up the great work. I am a fairly new entrant into the ownership side of hydraulic equipment and it is amazing the change in my view from operator to owner/operator.<br /> <br /> When someone else was paying the repair and upkeep (not to mention the staggering initial outlay!) I would run a machine until it just wouldn&#39;t go; now I sense every squeak, smell, vibration and even the operational emotional state of my equipment.<br /> <br /> I have been a mechanic in the field for most of those years as well (that should have made a difference too) but I still suffered from the &quot;not my problem&quot; mentality.<br /> <br /> Now they are all my problems. And I truly welcome any and all advice, constructive criticism, and scolding from an individual like yourself who has fought the good fight.&quot;</em><br /> <br /> You&#39;ve gotta admire this guy&#39;s honesty. And there are few things that will force a change in perspective like connecting outcomes to one&#39;s own bank account--as has happened here.<br /> <br /> But this confession is a slap in the face for anyone who owns hydraulic equipment and employs others to operate and maintain it: the skill and attitude of your crew can have a big impact on your bottom line. In other words, it doesn&#39;t matter how clever your operators and mechanics are, if they don&#39;t give a damn, it can be very costly for you.<br /> <br /> I have long advocated that getting the &#39;buy-in&#39; of machine operators is essential to the success of any equipment maintenance and reliability program. But as the above revelation shows, you can&#39;t just assume that your mechanics or other dedicated maintenance people are on automatically &#39;on board&#39; either!&nbsp;<br /> <br /> So if you own or are financially accountable for significant hydraulic assets, how does your team stack up in terms of skill and attitude? Tolerating the wrong culture can be a very costly mistake. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/pitfalls-not-my-problem-mentality#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 03 Nov 2015 00:18:00 +0000 34951 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hydraulics Fit for Industry 4.0 http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/hydraulics-fit-industry-40 <div class="field-byline"> Markus Rukaber, Bosch Rexroth GmbH </div> <div class="field-deck"> Combination of hydraulics, electrical engineering, and open communication for networked solutions. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The fusion of the physical world of production with the virtual world of information technology into Industry 4.0 is becoming increasingly important. The requirements placed on automation technology have been clearly defined: Decentralized intelligence and autonomous behavior, open communication standards, rapid networkability, and context integration in real time.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/iot-intends-revolutionize-hydraulics-and-pneumatics">The IoT Intends to Revolutionize Hydraulics and Pneumatics</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/internet-uncertainty ">The Internet of Uncertainty</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/paul-cooke-appointed-president-and-ceo-bosch-rexroth-us">Paul Cooke Appointed President and CEO of Bosch Rexroth U.S.</a></p> </div> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Motion%20controls.jpg" style="margin: 3px; float: left; height: 233px; width: 350px;" title="1. Motion controls for hydraulics from Rexroth are provided with decentralized intelligence and communicate with higher-level systems via open interfaces." />Together with digital control technology and open communication, hydraulics meets these requirements. Industry 4.0 also opens the physical advantages of hydraulics, such as high-power density, modular design, and robust, long-lasting performance to networked solutions.</p> <p>The crucial step for integrating hydraulics into Industry 4.0 has already been taken: connecting hydraulic actuators to digital control electronics to shift functions to software. All of the features of the fluid technology are already stored in the software in the form of algorithms. They automatically offset the non-linearity of hydraulic drive technology.</p> <p>Controller modules to support functions such as the transition from path control to force control or for synchronized motion, e.g., in presses, come pre-programmed. The advantage of this decentralized intelligence is that the hydraulic drives behave autonomously and adapt to changing process parameters on their own.</p> <p><strong>Software for Quick Networking</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Integrated%20axis.jpg" style="margin: 3px; font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; width: 350px; height: 243px; float: left;" title="2. IAC (Integrated Axis Controller) is a digital controller for hydraulic drives integrated in the valve with control algorithms with the necessary sensors for pressure, force, position, and flow control. " /></p> <p>Bosch Rexroth has been a leader in introducing and advancing distributed, drive-based intelligence in multiple technologies, including hydraulics. Beginning in the early 1990s, the company introduced the first electrohydraulic linear axes with decentralized intelligence.</p> <p>Bosch Rexroth has consistently invested in developing this capability, drawing on decades of practical experience to improve subsequent software generations. For example,&nbsp; Rexroth pre-defined the default hydraulic functions in the company&rsquo;s best-in-class controllers so that end-users can configure them directly.</p> <p>This makes startup of systems using hydraulic axes simpler and easier, and allows hydraulic solutions to be quickly networked and optimally calibrated online to meet individual requirements.</p> <p><strong>Drives with Decentralized Intelligence</strong></p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Variable-speed.jpg" style="width: 350px; height: 230px; margin: 3px; float: left;" title="3. Variable-speed pump drives like Rexroth’s Sytronix open up additional options in the area of decentralized intelligence by combining the benefits of state-of-the-art drive electronics with hydraulics. " />Variable-speed pump drives open up additional options in the area of decentralized intelligence. They combine the benefits of state-of-the-art drive electronics with hydraulics. The drives in the Rexroth Sytronix family variable speed pump drive systems generate flow as needed and reduce power consumption in the hydraulics compared to conventional solutions by up to 80%.</p> <p>Depending on the application, the Sytronix can take over the positioning of the cylinder directly. This reduces system costs, increases flexibility and simplifies start-up.</p> <p>Rexroth continues to expand this approach to decentralized hydraulics with self-sustaining hydraulic linear axes. These ready-made cylinder assemblies come with their own fluid circuit with variable-speed pump. The cylinder generates linear movements without wear and is protected from overloading.</p> <p>Self-sustaining axes are modular and can be installed as simply as electric drives: A cable just has to be connected to the power supply and the axis connected to the control system. The result: these axes have all of the functions of purely electric drives, as well as offering all of the benefits of hydraulics, including wear-free, high power density.</p> <p><strong>Basic Requirements for Open Standards</strong></p> <p>There is growing agreement in many automation and manufacturing sectors that, to fully realize the potential of Industry 4.0, there needs to be broad-based deployment of standardized communication protocols and programming languages.</p> <p>Today&rsquo;s established field bus systems already connect various technologies such as electric drives, hydraulics and pneumatics with the control system. Numerous machine manufacturers have already taken it one step further and switched to real-time Ethernet protocols such as Sercos, Ethernet IP, and Profinet.</p> <p>In line with this industry direction, Rexroth not only supports bus connections, but also real-time connection to hydraulics through multi-Ethernet interfaces for the variable-speed pump drives and motion-controller systems currently offered.</p> <p>These include all current real-time protocols such as Sercos, EtherCat, Ethernet IP, Profinet RT, and VARAN&mdash;all interfaces made available on one controller component. Control systems and higher systems thus have total access to the hydraulics and allow system integration regardless of manufacturer.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/uploads/2015/11/industry-40.jpg" style="margin: 3px; font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; height: 240px; width: 350px; float: left;" title="4. Industry 4.0 opens the physical advantages of hydraulics, such as high power density, modular design, and robust, long-lasting performance to networked solutions." /></p> <p>Open standards also refer to programming. The PLC languages under IEC 61131 have already become standard in machinery and plant engineering. Industry 4.0 requires more. Rexroth has been the first control system manufacturer to bridge the gap between the worlds of automation and IT with Rexroth&rsquo;s Open Core Engineering solution.</p> <p>This platform allows automation systems to be independently programmed in high-level languages. To achieve this, Rexroth opened the core of its PLC systems. In initial applications, machine manufacturers completely skipped PLC programming and use smartphones or tablets for startup, in-service optimizations, and diagnostics for their application.</p> <p><strong>Remote Diagnostics and Condition Monitoring</strong></p> <p>Connecting hydraulics via Ethernet unlocks a broad range of remote diagnostics and remote maintenance options. All control electronics are uniquely identifiable. With the proper authorization, technicians can query device data regardless of their physical location, and even change parameters online.</p> <p>Decentralized intelligence also opens up new remote-condition monitoring capabilities. The electronics analyze sensor signals and the software determines the current operating status of the hydraulic system. If the measured values exceed defined tolerances, the system warns of reaching critical states. This allows maintenance technicians to take upcoming action in the windows that have already been planned before the machine shuts down.</p> <p><strong>Drive Physics No Longer &ldquo;Technology-Dependent&rdquo;</strong></p> <p>With decentralized intelligence and open standards, the software for hydraulic systems detects changing context of the product being worked on, and automatically adjusts the motion sequences. Drive physics no longer play a role for the higher control system: It does not matter whether the motion is electrical, electromechanical, or hydraulic&mdash;the drive has the intelligence to adapt motion of the axes it is driving to functional requirements.</p> <p>This means, for example, that hydraulic press stations can read RFID product data and flexibly adjust the press capacity to the individual workpieces without the need for an operator or higher control system to intervene.</p> <p>Through these developments, particularly in the area of making hydraulics motion control both decentralized and as intelligent as electric drive and motor solutions, hydraulics now matches electromechanical systems in terms of automation and the ability to meet the requirements of Industry 4.0.</p> <p>In addition, intelligent electrohydraulics adds the physical advantages unique to hydraulics: high power density, competitive precision motion, and reliable, long-lasting operation. It makes hydraulics ready and well-suited to integrate into current and future Industry 4.0 concepts when combined with electronics, software, and open standards.</p> <p><em>Markus Rukaber is head of sales-related product management in machinery applications and engineering at Bosch Rexroth GmbH, Lohr, Germany. For more information, visit <a href="http://www.boschrexroth-us.com/">www.boschrexroth-us.com</a>.</em></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/technologies/hydraulics-fit-industry-40#comments Technologies Controls & Instrumentation Mon, 02 Nov 2015 20:32:00 +0000 34941 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Coalition for Human-Scale Fluid Power Calls on Experts http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/events/coalition-human-scale-fluid-power-calls-experts <div class="node-body article-body"><p>The <a href="http://nfpa.us5.list-manage.com/track/click?u=71668c1a870ab6cda6e94a072&amp;id=94cdb13df6&amp;e=9b2feb992c" target="_blank">National Fluid Power Association (NFPA)</a> and <a href="http://nfpa.us5.list-manage.com/track/click?u=71668c1a870ab6cda6e94a072&amp;id=f345267179&amp;e=9b2feb992c" target="_blank">Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power (CCEFP)</a> are leading the charge to kick-start an industry coalition focused on advancing fluid power in human-scale applications. These include systems that operate at power levels of about 10 kW, with applications ranging from industrial automation, human-assist and therapeutic devices to medical devices and robots, exoskeletons, and military robots.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/simple-bio-inspired-actuator-emulates-muscular-hydrostat ">Simple Bio-Inspired Actuator Emulates Muscular Hydrostat</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/pneumatic-valves/robotic-handling-gets-boost-pneumatics ">Robotic Handling Gets a Boost from Pneumatics</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/SystemInstrumen/Article/False/88287/TechZone-SystemInstrumen">Hydraulic Robot Provides Precise Positioning</a></p> </div> <p>The two organizations will host a planning meeting at <strong>Vanderbilt University</strong> on <strong>December 9</strong> for NFPA members and companies interested in the future of small-scale fluid systems. The meeting objectives set by the NFPA are to &ldquo;form focused teams of industry and academics within discrete human-scale research areas that can credibly pursue federal funding,&rdquo; and to &ldquo;prioritize the government agencies where funding can best be sought.&rdquo;</p> <p>The meeting will be preceded by a dinner on December 8, and will be held on December 9 from <strong>8:00 AM to 3:00 PM</strong> at Vanderbilt&rsquo;s <a href="http://nfpa.us5.list-manage.com/track/click?u=71668c1a870ab6cda6e94a072&amp;id=a9595d0e9c&amp;e=9b2feb992c" target="_blank">Laboratory for Systems Integrity and Reliability</a> (LASIR). Additional details on the meeting may be provided upon RSVP to Eric Lanke at <a href="mailto:elanke@nfpa.com">elanke@nfpa.com</a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/events/coalition-human-scale-fluid-power-calls-experts#comments Technologies News Events Fri, 30 Oct 2015 14:48:00 +0000 34921 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Optimizing Performance & Cost When Selecting Metal-to-Metal Seals for Drilled Holes http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/seals/optimizing-performance-cost-when-selecting-metal-metal-seals-drilled-holes <div class="field-deck"> Sponsored by SFC KOENIG </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/SFC-logo-with-tag-180.jpg" style="width: 180px; height: 102px; float: right;" />Across industries such as transportation, fluid power, aerospace, medical and energy exploration, metal-to-metal sealing plugs fulfill mission critical functions. In any system constructed from a solid metal block, with channels that have been cast and drilled for fluid conveyance, proper sealing plug selection will prevent equipment damage, prevent fluid leakage, reduce energy consumption, save money and ensure proper system operation. This white paper provides details on the design considerations, risk factors and costs associated with some of the most common metal-to-metal seal options.</p> <p><br /> <script> document.write('<iframe style="height: 780px; width: 600px" frameBorder="0" src="http://pages.hydraulicspneumatics.com/HP_Digital_Koenig_SealingPlugs_WP_DC_102215?partnerref=' + getParameterByName("partnerref") + "&elq=" + getParameterByName("elq2")+'" frameborder="0"></iframe>'); function getParameterByName(name) { var match = RegExp('[?&]' + name + '=([^&]*)') .exec(window.location.search); if(match == null) return ""; return match && decodeURIComponent(match[1].replace(/\+/g, ' ')); } </script></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/seals/optimizing-performance-cost-when-selecting-metal-metal-seals-drilled-holes#comments White Papers Seals Wed, 28 Oct 2015 14:03:00 +0000 34901 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Expanded R&D Facility to Advance Sealing Product Line http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/expanded-rd-facility-advance-sealing-product-line <div class="node-body article-body"><p>To accommodate the ramp-up in requests for product testing and validation, <a href="http://www.trelleborg.com/en/" target="_blank">Trelleborg Sealing Solutions</a> added 1000 square feet to the Product Testing Laboratory at its HA Traub Technical (HAT) Center. The addition to the facility in Fort Wayne, Indiana will allow for more extensive testing of rotary seals, specialty aerospace sealing, and environmental testing.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/hawe-hydraulics-builds-new-production-facility">HAWE Hydraulics Builds New Production Facility</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/seals/trelleborg-embraces-digital-apps">Trelleborg Embraces Digital Apps </a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/trelleborgs-innovation-competition">Trelleborg&#39;s Innovation Competition</a></p> </div> <p>The Product Test Laboratory is a part of Trelleborg Sealing Solutions Research and Development Center for the Americas, which provides materials testing, materials development, product engineering, and product development for Trelleborg&rsquo;s sealing product line.</p> <p>&ldquo;We are very excited about this expansion, as it affords us the opportunity to leverage new opportunities and support the continued growth of our sealing business,&rdquo; says Colin Macqueen, Director of Technology for Trelleborg Sealing Solutions in the Americas. &ldquo;Well known for its decades of expertise and R&amp;D innovations in sealing solutions, this investment further demonstrates Trelleborg&rsquo;s commitment to quality, innovation, and operational excellence over the long term.&rdquo;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/expanded-rd-facility-advance-sealing-product-line#comments Seals News Tue, 27 Oct 2015 14:09:00 +0000 34911 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com 2 Important Facts About Pump Intake Isolation Valves http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/2-important-facts-about-pump-intake-isolation-valves <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>One of our readers wrote me with this question:<br /> <br /> <em>&quot;I&#39;d like to hear your opinion about isolation valves on pump intake lines. Within our company there is an ongoing debate over whether we should use a more expensive ball valve or a cheaper butterfly valve?&quot;</em><br /> <br /> At the root of this question is the negative effect of turbulence in the pump intake line. The argument for using a ball valve as an intake line isolation valve is, when it&#39;s open, the full bore of the valve is available for oil flow. So if you have a 2&quot; ball valve in a 2&quot; intake line, when the valve is open, from the oil&#39;s point of view at least, it&#39;s as if it wasn&#39;t there at all.<br /> <br /> A butterfly valve on the other hand, is not full bore. Even when fully open, the butterfly remains in the bore. So the butterfly presents a partial restriction which is irregular in shape. This causes turbulence - rapid variation of fluid velocity and pressure. The result is dissolved air can come out of solution in the intake line. If this happens, these air bubbles will collapse when exposed to pressure at the pump outlet. In other words, a butterfly valve may cause gaseous cavitation.<br /> <br /> So which is best: ball or butterfly valve? Well, like a lot of issues in hydraulics, it depends. In a perfect world I would always chose a ball valve ahead of a butterfly valve. And for intake line diameters up to about 3&quot; there&#39;s virtually no cost penalty involved in doing so.<br /> <br /> But when you get into 4&quot;, 6&quot; and 8&quot; diameters, ball valves are VERY expensive in comparison to their butterfly counterparts. And they take up a LOT more space - particularly in overall length. So, in a mobile application for example, not only may the cost of a large diameter ball valve be prohibitive - there may not even be enough space between the tank outlet and the pump inlet to install it!<br /> <br /> But there is third alternative - which I am a big advocate of. The whole issue of intake line isolation valves is one where people tend to get blinkers on. By that I mean, like suction strainers, they wrongly believe they are essential. When in reality, but for a few exceptions, they are not.<br /> <br /> So my preferred approach is: fit neither ball valve nor butterfly valve if you can get away with it. If you have to have one, use a ball valve if cost or space aren&#39;t an issue. But if either of these things are a problem, then a butterfly valve is the only choice you have left.<br /> <br /> <strong>Bottom line</strong>: installing a pump intake isolation valve, or the wrong type of valve, can be a mistake. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/2-important-facts-about-pump-intake-isolation-valves#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 27 Oct 2015 00:47:00 +0000 34891 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Electro-hydraulic Motion Controller Enables Precise Automotive Tester http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/electro-hydraulic-motion-controller-enables-precise-automotive-tester <div class="field-byline"> Richard Meyerhoefer, Delta Computer Systems Inc. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p>In automotive component stress testing applications, perfectly-tuned hydraulic systems are often essential to providing reliable, repeatable results. One developer of special purpose machines for assembly, fabrication and testing of automobiles is <strong><a href="http://www.seapl.in/" target="_blank">Suyash Engineers &amp; Automation Pvt Ltd</a></strong> (SEAPL) of Pune, India.&nbsp; They are a supplier to the Tata Motors Ltd. Engineering Research Center, a unit of <strong><a href="http://www.tatamotors.com/" target="_blank">Tata Motors</a></strong>, India&#39;s largest automobile manufacturer. The Engineering &amp; research Center deals with prototype development and testing activities.</p> <p>Since the company&rsquo;s founding in 2003, SEAPL has designed and manufactured several test benches and servohydraulic test rigs running up to 10-kHz frequencies for:</p> <ol> <li>Lateral runout testing of automotive brake disc assemblies</li> <li>Hub bearing endurance testing</li> <li>Leakage testing machines for cast liners and pump casings</li> <li>Endurance and durability testing of lift axles</li> </ol> <ol> <li value="5">Endurance and durability testing of leaf springs and suspension</li> </ol> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/products/motion-controller-provides-synchronized-motion-multiple-axes">Motion Controller Provides Synchronized Motion of Multiple Axes</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/electronic-controls-elicit-smoother-punching">Electronic Controls Elicit Smoother Punching</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-amp-instrumentation/advances-electronic-control-hydraulic-servo-systems">Advances in Electronic Control of Hydraulic Servo Systems</a></p> </div> <p>SEAPL has used different controllers to operate their test systems over the years, from various local and foreign sources.&nbsp; Many of their test systems have used PCI-, PXI-, and PCIE-compatible interface hardware to connect with PCs running <a href="http://www.ni.com" target="_blank">National Instruments</a>&rsquo; <a href="http://www.ni.com/labview/" target="_blank">LabVIEW</a> software for data logging and analysis.&nbsp; The platform changes were necessary because the systems often provided less than satisfactory results.</p> <p>&ldquo;We were facing problems like&nbsp;inaccuracy in position and load, sluggish response, the need for frequent re-tuning of PID parameters, complications in programming logic and so on,&rdquo; said Sujay Wayse, SEAPL Managing Director. &ldquo;To eliminate all the above problems and to bring the desired accuracy and precision in testing we thought about packaged solutions from big name industrial control companies like MTS, Instron and Moog, but frankly speaking, they were too expensive and we wanted to integrate the test rig with our own architecture and component selections.&rdquo;</p> <p>A recent project gave them the opportunity to develop a new solution.&nbsp; SEAPL was asked to develop a system for testing leaf spring suspension assemblies to be used in a wide range of utility vehicles, from small trucks to heavy trucks. The system needed to perform fatigue/endurance testing of various springs under simulated road conditions in order to verify spring quality and provide the manufacturer with information on the component life cycles. To ensure that road conditions are being modeled exactly, load data was acquired during rigorous road testing and then the same loading is applied precisely to the suspension assemblies under test for a specified number of cycles.</p> <p>The response of the spring force is logged to learn the component failure point, to measure hysteresis in deflection or load as the test progresses (which can be an early warning of impending component failure), and to also know the initial stiffness and change in stiffness after a certain number of cycles (which is also an indicator of component quality).&nbsp; Therefore, the system needed to not only apply a predetermined amount of force and count the cycles, but it also needed to be able to monitor precisely how the test specimen responds to the force.&nbsp; The tester does this by measuring the deflection of the spring that occurs each cycle,</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/RMC75E%20with%20MA1%20and%20AP2_1.jpg" style="font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; margin: 3px; width: 350px; height: 350px; float: left;" title="1. RMC75E two-axis motion controller" />In light of the problems that SEAPL had with other hydraulic controllers, they sought out a new solution to control the hydraulics of the leaf spring tester. &ldquo;We had a pretty good experience with a controller manufactured by Delta Computer Systems when we were working with a servohydraulic compression molding press in 2002,&rdquo; said Sujay Wayse. &ldquo;So we searched for Delta motion controllers on the internet and contacted the company to receive more information.&rdquo;&nbsp;The controller that they selected was an RMC75E two-axis unit (Figure 1).</p> <p>To complete the spring test system, the RMC75E controller was paired with the following system components: To apply the force on the leaf spring under test, SEAPL manufactured a 1-tonne servohydraulic cylinder with &plusmn;100 mm stroke. To control the cylinder, it was important to use a proportional servovalve so that different amounts of fluid can be metered out to the cylinder, allowing for very precise force to be applied to the specimen.&nbsp; For this task, SEAPL selected a 170 lpm unit manufactured by <strong><a href="http://www.atos.com/" target="_blank">Atos SpA</a></strong>.&nbsp; To measure the displacement of the specimen, the company chose a 200mm LVDT from <strong><a href="http://www.gefran.com/" target="_blank">Gefran SpA</a></strong>. To measure force, the system uses a model 15T load cell from <strong><a href="http://www.adiartech.com/" target="_blank">ADI Artech</a></strong>. &nbsp;The completed test system is shown in Figure 2.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/DSC00864%20WEB.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 446px; margin: 3px;" title="2. The SEAPL spring test apparatus" /></p> <p>The LabVIEW front end software application (Figure 3) was hosted on an <a href="http://www.advantech.com/" target="_blank">Advantech</a> industrial PC, which was connected via Ethernet to the RMC75E. During a test sequence, the PC downloads the motion instructions to the motion controller and then the PC reads force and position information from data registers in the motion controller as the test proceeds. Delta Computer Systems&rsquo; <a href="http://www.deltamotion.com/products/software/rmclink.php" target="_blank">RMCLink</a> software is used to enable communication between the PC and the motion controller.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/OPERATING%20SCREEN.PNG" style="width: 595px; height: 336px; margin: 3px;" title="3. The test system operator interface was implemented using LabVIEW on an attached PC." /></p> <p>&ldquo;The installation and commissioning of the Delta <a href="http://www.deltamotion.com/products/motion/rmc70/cpu75e.php" target="_blank">RMC75E</a>&nbsp;was really one of the best experiences for us,&rdquo; said Sujay Wayse. &ldquo;Because the controller interfaces directly to servo valves and transducers, putting the system together is virtually &lsquo;plug and play.&rsquo;&nbsp; After some configuration, the test rig started running the very next moment.&rdquo;</p> <p>&ldquo;The Auto tuning feature that is supported by <a href="http://www.deltamotion.com/products/software/rmctools.php" target="_blank">Delta&rsquo;s RMCTools</a> software was the most exciting thing in commissioning,&rdquo; continued Wayse. &ldquo;Our past experiences with other controllers were bitter enough, but tuning with the RMC Software was done in a matter of minutes.&rdquo;&nbsp; Delta&rsquo;s AutoTuning software computes a system model that accurately represents the system during its normal operation, and then calculates the gains for the P, I and D and Feedforward gain terms in the control loop equation.&nbsp; The software provides a slider bar that the user can use to adjust the P, I and D gains to vary the &ldquo;stiffness&rdquo; of the system response.<img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/delta_position_graph%20WEB.png" style="font-size: 12.8px; line-height: 20px; margin: 3px; width: 595px; height: 336px;" title="4. Motion plot provided by Delta Computer Systems RMCTools Plot Manager. When the actual motion plot (blue curve) precisely overlaps the target motion (red curve), then the system is tuned precisely." /></p> <p>As the motion control parameters were changed and the tests re-run during the development cycle, the SEAPL engineers would plot the motion using the Plot Manager provided in Delta&rsquo;s RMCTools software package. When the &ldquo;actual position&rdquo; curve precisely overlaps the &ldquo;target position&rdquo; curve, then the motion is tuned precisely.</p> <p>The new test system has met all of SEAPL&rsquo;s requirements.&nbsp; &ldquo;Since our leaf spring test system was developed, we have completed &nbsp;500,000 trials using a test cycle frequency of 0.5 Hz and spring displacement of &plusmn;76 mm, with a positioning accuracy of &plusmn; 0.5 mm, achieved as per specification,&rdquo; said Sujay Wayse. &ldquo;And our load accuracy of &plusmn;50 kg over a full testing range of 8,000 kg is achieved and is well within allowable limits.&nbsp; Overall, our experience using the Delta controller has been wonderful. It made our life easy.&rdquo;</p> <p>&ldquo;Our next project consists of simulating the vehicle suspension under road load conditions with four actuators,&rdquo; said SujayWayse.&nbsp; &ldquo;It will require the synchronization of simultaneous multi-axis motion, and for that project we will likely use the Delta <a href="http://www.deltamotion.com/products/motion/rmc150/" target="_blank">RMC150</a> eight-axis motion controller.&rdquo;</p> <p><em>Rick Meyerhoefer is Regional Sales Manager at Delta Computer Systems, Battle Ground, Wash. For more information, call (360) 254-8688, or visit <strong><a href="http://DeltaMotion.com" target="_blank">DeltaMotion.com</a></strong>.</em></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/controls-instrumentation/electro-hydraulic-motion-controller-enables-precise-automotive-tester#comments Controls & Instrumentation Fri, 23 Oct 2015 16:11:00 +0000 34871 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Simple Bio-Inspired Actuator Emulates Muscular Hydrostat http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/simple-bio-inspired-actuator-emulates-muscular-hydrostat <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/hmmmm.png" style="width: 180px; height: 180px; margin: 3px; float: left;" />A 3D-printed actuator, made from photopolymerizable elastomeric material, uses pneumatics to mimic an octopus tentacle&mdash;without requiring complex internal parts. The work done by a team of engineers at <a href="http://cornell.edu" target="_blank">Cornell University</a> was published in a special issue of <em>Bioinspiration and Biomimetics Journal</em>, which focuses on bioinspired soft robots. The <a href="https://cornell.app.box.com/softactuators/1/4929651481/40142266489/1" target="_blank">report</a> claims that the actuator adopts the function of muscular hydrostats with response times that are comparable to living muscle. Other muscular hydrostat systems are found in tongues and elephant trunks.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/hydraulic-quadruped-uses-mini-servovalves">Hydraulic Quadruped Uses Mini Servovalves</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/pet-food-production-perks-pneumatic-valves">Pet-Food Production Perks Up with Pneumatic Valves</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/air-compressors/determine-cost-compressed-air-your-plant">Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant</a></p> </div> <p>The actuator is especially groundbreaking because it is a non-homogenous piece that can be printed using layer-by-layer, digital-mask-projection stereolithography. This method employs a single nozzle and directs visible light at different intensities to cure the photopolymerizable elastomer with different levels of viscosity.</p> <p><strong>Watch the demonstration of the pneumatic tentacle in the following video, curated by <a href="http://www.engineeringtv.com/" target="_blank">Engineering TV</a>:</strong></p> <p><iframe frameborder="0" height="366" scrolling="no" src="http://www.engineeringtv.com/video/3D-Printed-Tentacle-Achieves-Hi/player?layout=&amp;read_more=1" width="595"></iframe></p> <p><strong>Pneumatics and Hydrostat Pressure</strong></p> <p>Stacked chambers arranged in separate columns are filled with fluidic elastomer, so that they will maintain the same volume while experiencing changes in pneumatic pressure. In turn, cross-section and length of the chambers inversely change during pressurization, enabled by the pleated shape of the actuator.</p> <p>During bending, pressure is increased in one chamber and decreased in another. For the column of chambers that experience decreased pressure, a pleat enables an increase in cross-section and shortens in length. Meanwhile, the pressurized column elongates and cross-section decreases in response to heightened pressure. The internal, incompressible fluid eliminates the need for skeletal structure.</p> <p>The most developed prototype includes two layers that contain pairs of antagonistic chambers aligned at 90 degrees to achieve four degrees of freedom. Each pair is pressurized by its own pneumatic source, both of which supply opposite signs of pressurization for even bending.&nbsp; Other degrees of motion are possible with this device, such as torsion with the introduction of helically arranged chambers.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/simple-bio-inspired-actuator-emulates-muscular-hydrostat#comments News Fri, 23 Oct 2015 13:44:00 +0000 34881 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com How To Tie Up A Supertanker... With Teflon Tape http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-tie-supertanker-teflon-tape <div class="node-body blog-body"><p>Old hands know this, but I am often asked why Teflon tape should NOT be used on tapered-thread hydraulic adaptors. Here, one of our members explains why:<br /> <br /> <em>&quot;I had a big handful of trouble on a ship because incompetent yard mechanics (they are abundant!) used Teflon tape to seal connections. The tape got into the check valve of the control block of a spring-return valve actuator, making it creep into the non-tensioned position. Everything can be solved, but this problem cost us large sums because we only had few hours to find the fault, and long periods of impatient waiting for the next boarding opportunity of the supertanker. I&#39;d like to share this so others can avoid making this mistake.&quot;</em><br /> <br /> There you go. A $1.00 roll of Teflon tape can tie up a supertanker. Metaphorically speaking of course.<br /> <br /> The best thing you can do with tapered-thread connections is get rid of &#39;em. Engineer them out. The reality is however, in legacy hydraulic systems, this is usually easier said than done. Which means they must be sealed. And resealed. Which is why a hydraulics pro never leaves home without a tube of thread sealing compound in his toolbox. My preferred goop, based on performance in the field, is Loctite 577. It doesn&#39;t really matter which one you use, so long as it works.<br /> <br /> As for thread tape, it should only ever be used on hydraulic adaptors as a last resort. And if you do have to use it, REMEMBER the old plumber&#39;s rule for applying it: one and a half turns; one and a half threads back. In other words, don&#39;t apply it anywhere near the end of the adaptor, lest it enter the hydraulic system and end up who knows where. And to discover six other costly mistakes you want to be sure to avoid with your hydraulic equipment, <a href="http://www.hydraulicsupermarket.com/track?p=handp&amp;w=smr"><strong>get &quot;Six Costly Mistakes Most Hydraulics Users Make... And How You Can Avoid Them!&quot; available for FREE download here</strong></a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"><ul class="links"><li class="og_links first last"><a href="/blog/hydraulics-work">Hydraulics At Work</a></li> </ul></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/how-tie-supertanker-teflon-tape#comments Hydraulics At Work Tue, 20 Oct 2015 00:43:00 +0000 34861 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Hybrid-Drive Transmission Surpasses EPA Standards http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hybrid-drive-transmission-surpasses-epa-standards <div class="field-deck"> Parker-Hannifin's RunWise reduces fuel consumption by 43% versus conventional diesel-fuel refuse haulers. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/10/CNG%20Demo%20Truck%20WEB.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 397px;" /></p> <p>A standard recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) calls for large diesel-powered vehicles (e.g., refuse trucks) manufactured from 2021-2027 to use 16% to 24% less fuel, depending on their size, by 2027. Trucks that use the RunWise hydraulic hybrid-drive transmission from <a href="http://www.parker.com" target="_blank">Parker Hannifin Corp.</a> are reported to surpass this fuel-economy standard twofold, reducing fuel consumption by 43% versus conventional diesel-fuel refuse haulers.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related Content</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/blog/sweet-spot-hydraulic-hybrids">The Sweet Spot for Hydraulic Hybrids</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/pneumatic-valves/weather-resistant-valves-give-buses-lift">Weather-Resistant Valves Give Buses a Lift</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/rail-truck-bus/more-hydraulic-hybrids-horizon">More Hydraulic Hybrids on the Horizon</a></p> </div> <p>The RunWise transmission has also been approved by the California Air Resources Board. The technology is being looked at to improve fuel economy and efficiency in California refuse fleets by up to 50%, when paired with Cummins Engine Co.&rsquo;s 2015 model-year engine.</p> <p>The hybrid-drive transmission reuses as much as 71% of braking energy for propulsion to reduce fuels and CO2 emissions. It&rsquo;s powered by a three-speed power-drive unit with integrated traction control and end-user diagnostic capability. In addition, the transmission integrates with existing ABS systems and has a single-point electrical interface to the chassis.</p> <p>&ldquo;Since introducing the 18 RunWise-equipped refuse trucks into our fleet two years ago, we&rsquo;ve experienced tremendous savings on fuel consumption of 47% and estimate paring pollutants by more than 5,300 tons over a 10-year span,&rdquo; says Daryl Greenlee, fleet manager for the City of Orlando, Fla. &ldquo;The technology continues to play an important role in achieving our Green Works Orlando goal to upgrade our entire fleet with sustainable green technology.&rdquo;</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/hybrid-drive-transmission-surpasses-epa-standards#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Thu, 15 Oct 2015 20:48:00 +0000 34841 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Component Manufacturer’s Partnerships Expedite Service and Repairs http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/component-manufacturer-s-partnerships-expedite-service-and-repairs <div class="field-byline"> Staff </div> <div class="field-deck"> Companies join forces with goal of creating a strong North American Service Network. </div> <div class="node-body article-body"><p><a href="https://www.hawe.com/en-us" target="_blank">HAWE Hydraulik</a>, North America announced that Fluid Concepts Inc. and Central Hydraulics will be its first-ever service-partner distributors. The two partners will market, distribute, install, and service HAWE&rsquo;s full line of fluid-power products, helping HAWE to broaden its after-market service support and capabilities.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related Content</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/hawe-creates-new-service-division">HAWE Creates New Service Division</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/construction/demos-take-center-stage-icuee-2015">Demos Take Center Stage at ICUEE 2015</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/pump-and-controller-economically-moderates-engine-temps">Pump and Controller Economically Moderates Engine Temps</a></p> </div> <p>Fluid Concepts specializes in press refurbishing, field and machining services, bench repair, and troubleshooting. It stocks a large inventory of spare parts, offering 24/7 service to reduce downtime in critical conditions. Meanwhile, Central Hydraulics focuses primarily on servicing central Pennsylvania and the Marcellus Shale market. The company owns a fleet of service vehicles and multiple stocking locations to expedite services and repairs.</p> <p>&ldquo;Strengthening our ability to provide fast support in the aftermarket is a major initiative for HAWE Hydraulik North America,&rdquo; says Scott Dodson, HAWE service solutions business manager.&nbsp; &ldquo;We are extremely happy with the industry strength and service expertise that Fluid Concepts and Central Hydraulics bring to the HAWE Service Solutions network.&rdquo;</p> <p>The main goal of the partnerships is to create a strong North American Service Network.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/news/component-manufacturer-s-partnerships-expedite-service-and-repairs#comments News Thu, 15 Oct 2015 20:23:00 +0000 34831 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Determine the Cost of Compressed Air for Your Plant http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/air-compressors/determine-cost-compressed-air-your-plant <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/determine-cost-compressed-air-your-plant-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Most industrial facilities need some form of compressed air, whether for running a simple air tool or for more complicated tasks such as operation of pneumatic controls. A survey by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) showed that for a typical industrial facility, approximately 10% of the electricity consumed is for generating compressed air.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/air-compressors/compressed-air-guide-pull-don-t-push">Compressed Air Guide: Pull, Don&rsquo;t Push</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/other-technologies/efficiently-dry-compressed-air">Efficiently Dry Compressed Air</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/air-compressors/compressed-air-may-be-more-efficient-you-think">Compressed Air May be More Efficient than You Think</a></p> </div> <p>For some facilities, compressed-air generation may account for 30% or more of the electricity consumed. Compressed air is an on-site generated utility. Very often the cost of generation is not known; however, some companies use a value of 30 cents to 50 cents per 1,000 cubic feet of air.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Compressed-air-Cost.gif" style="width: 350px; height: 350px;" title="Typical lifetime compressed air costs in perspective." /></p> <p>Compressed air is one of the most expensive sources of energy in a plant. The overall efficiency of a typical compressed air system can be as low as 10% to 15%. For example, to operate a 1-hp air motor at 100 psig, approximately 7 to 8 hp of electrical power is supplied to the air compressor.</p> <p>To calculate the cost of compressed air in your facility, use the following formula:</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/1015_AutoWithAir_EQ1.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 45px;" /></p> <p>where hp<sub>b</sub> = compressor shaft horsepower (frequently higher than the motor nameplate horsepower&mdash;check equipment specification),</p> <p>Percent time = percentage of time running at this operating level,</p> <p>Percent full-load hp<sub>b</sub> = hp<sub>b</sub> as percentage of full-load hp<sub>b</sub> at this operating level, and</p> <p>Motor efficiency = Efficiency of the electric motor at this operating level.</p> <p><strong>Example</strong></p> <p>A typical manufacturing facility has a 200 hp compressor (which requires 215 hp<sub>b</sub>) that operates for 6,800 hr annually. It is fully loaded 85% of the time (motor efficiency is 95%) and unloaded the rest of the time (25% full-load hp<sub>b</sub> and motor efficiency is 90%). The aggregate electric rate is $0.10/kWhr.</p> <p>Cost when fully loaded:</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/1015_AutoWithAir_EQ2.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 45px;" /></p> <p>Cost when partially loaded:</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/1015_AutoWithAir_EQ3.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 45px;" /></p> <p>Annual energy cost = $97,584 + $4,544 = $102,128</p> <p>For additional information on industrial energy efficiency measures, visit <a href="http://www.energy.gov/eere/amo/compressed-air-systems" target="_blank">www.energy.gov/eere/amo/compressed-air-systems</a>.</p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/air-compressors/determine-cost-compressed-air-your-plant#comments Air Compressors Thu, 15 Oct 2015 19:07:00 +0000 34801 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Valve Adds Safety to Pneumatic Circuits http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/pneumatic-valves/valve-adds-safety-pneumatic-circuits <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/valve-adds-safety-pneumatic-circuits-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/Advance-Automation-FireChek-spotlight.jpg" style="width: 595px; height: 566px;" title="Assured Automation’s FireChek valve uses a shape-memory alloy to quickly shift process-valve actuators to their fail-safe condition in the event of high heat or fire. " /></p> <p>Many piping systems for hazardous or flammable fluids use pneumatically operated, quarter-turn actuators for the safety of keeping electricity out of the area. <a href="https://assuredautomation.com/index.php" target="_blank">Assured Automation</a>, Clark, N.J., offers its FireChek shutoff valve to add another level of safety to these applications. When mounted in the pneumatic supply line, the FM Global-approved FireChek valve quickly responds to heat in the event of a fire and automatically exhausts pressure in the actuator&rsquo;s pilot line to close the supply line.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="http:/hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-valves/10-essential-pneumatic-safety-products">10 Essential Pneumatic Safety Products</a></p> <p><a href="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/pneumatic-valves/heat-automatically-closes-pneumatic-safety-valve">Heat Automatically Closes Pneumatic Safety Valve</a></p> <p><a href="http:///hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/TechZone/PneumaticValves/Article/False/83974/TechZone-PneumaticValves">Valves Enhance Machine and Worker Safety</a></p> </div> <p>An element made of shape-memory alloy inside the FireChek undergoes a martensitic phase transformation when it is heated above 135&deg;, 150&deg;, or 165&deg; F. This change releases stored strain energy to produce the necessary force to shift the valve; no other power source is involved. The element is 100% reliable because the shape memory effect is intrinsic to the alloy. Shape-memory alloys have performed successfully for decades in military, industrial, and consumer product applications.</p> <p>For testing, the FireChek valve can be actuated with a hot-air gun, then, after a cool-down period, reset manually for continued protection. Because the FireChek valve can be tested and reset, it has an advantage over emergency isolation valves that rely on fusible links or plastic burn-through tubing. Furthermore, the FireChek valve responds to heat, not flame, so it offers better protection than plastic tubing burn-through.</p> <p><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/1015_Automate_Normal.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 401px;" /><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/03/1015_Automate_e-stop.gif" style="width: 595px; height: 451px;" title="The illustrations show a standard FireChek valve in a process-valve actuator circuit to close the process valve in the event of fire or high temperature." /></p> <p>When the FireChek valve senses excessive heat from a nearby fire, it closes the air-supply line preventing the air from feeding the fire and simultaneously vents the spring-return actuator so it can return to its on, off, or throttling fail-safe position. The FireChek valve reacts within 25 sec. at a temperature rise rate of 30 ̊ F/min. and can exhaust 1-l of air in less than 1 sec. at 125 psi (8.62 bar).</p> <p>The FireChek valve is available in three different configurations. The standard valve mounts directly between the pneumatic supply line and spring-return valve actuator via two &frac14;-in. connections. A quick-exhaust version has a larger exhaust port, which increases the valve&rsquo;s flow coefficient from 0.56 to 3.3 for quicker response time. The FireChek Plus version combines the FireChek valve with a SIL Class III pilot valve, either with or without a solenoid operator. It comes with either a piped connection to the actuator or a NAMUR mounting interface for direct mounting of the pilot to the actuator. They are available for actuators with port sizes from &frac14; to 1 in. &nbsp;</p> <p><em>For more information on Assured Automation&rsquo;s </em><em>FireChek</em><em> safety shutoff valve, call Assured Automation at (800) 899-0553 or visit <a href="http://assuredautomation.com/firechek" target="_blank">http://assuredautomation.com/firechek</a>.</em></p> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/pneumatic-valves/valve-adds-safety-pneumatic-circuits#comments Pneumatic Valves Thu, 15 Oct 2015 16:50:00 +0000 34781 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Lighter Cylinders Increase Design Possibilities (.PDF Download) http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/datasheet/lighter-cylinders-increase-design-possibilities-pdf-download-0 <div class="node-body datasheet-body"><p>The demand for more compact, lighter, yet more powerful machines is unrelenting and requires continuous advancements in component designs and higher-strength materials. For in-plant machines, the higher pressures can often be accommodated by...</p> <p><strong>Register or sign in below to download the full article in .PDF format, including high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</strong></p> <div class="gatedLogin well"> <div class="contentPadding clearfix"> <h2>Register for Complete Access (Valid Email Required)</h2> <p><p><img height="auto" src="http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/08/full-wallchart.JPG" width="100%" />By registering on Hydraulics &amp; Pneumatics now, you&#39;ll not only gain access to , you&#39;ll also receive a complimentary copy of <em>Hydraulics & Pneumatics Wall Chart</em>.</p> </p> <div class="gatedLoginButtons gated-register-button"> <div class="button-region"> <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/user/register?source=gated&nid=34751&regmode=1" class="ctools-use-modal btn btn-branded btn-wide ctools-modal-register" title="Register at this site.">Register</a> </div> <div class="loginLinkText"> Already registered? <a href="/penton_ur/nojs/login" class="ctools-use-modal ctools-modal-log_in" title="">Log In</a> here. </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> Gold Tue, 13 Oct 2015 14:47:00 +0000 34751 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com Servopump Holds Potential to Slash Energy Consumption by 70% http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/servopump-holds-potential-slash-energy-consumption-70 <div class="node-body article-body"><table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="570"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="41"><img src="http://insidepenton.com/electronic_design/adobe-pdf-logo-tiny.png" /></td> <td style="padding-left: 0px;" width="459"><a href="/datasheet/servopump-holds-potential-slash-energy-consumption-70-pdf-download">Download this article in .PDF format</a><br /> This file type includes high resolution graphics and schematics when applicable.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Today&rsquo;s industrial hydraulic systems generally require tight control, which translates to fast response and pinpoint repeatability. Electrohydraulic servovalves have served these demanding applications for decades. However, as electric servodrives have become more powerful, hydraulic drives have lost ground in small- to medium-size machines&mdash;&nbsp;especially in injection molding and die casting. The reason is simple: poor efficiency of hydraulic servovalve drives. Moreover, electric servodrives are becoming even more powerful, further threatening the application of industrial hydraulic drives.</p> <div class="related-content"> <div class="related-label">Related</div> <p><a href="/hydraulic-pumps-motors/mitigating-noise-hydraulic-systems">Mitigating Noise in Hydraulic Systems</a></p> <p><a href="/hydraulic-pumps-motors/pump-tolerates-torsional-vibration">A Pump that Tolerates Torsional Vibration</a></p> <p><a href="/hydraulic-pumps-motors/torsional-vibration-analysis-critical-tier-4-engine-and-powertrain-system-suc">Torsional Vibration Analysis Critical to Tier-4 Engine and Powertrain-System Success</a></p> </div> <p>Conventional hydraulic servovalve drives have been the first choice for precise control of heavy loads for so long because they were the only choice for precisely controlling loads far more massive than those within the capabilities of electromechanical drives. Efficiency wasn&rsquo;t an issue because hydraulics was the only solution. But electromechanical servodrives have benefitted from advances in materials and technology over the last several years, and the result has been the application of drives in areas that long had been the domain of hydraulics.</p> <p>Fortunately, hydraulics has not been sitting dead in the water&mdash;not by a long shot. Hydraulic servodrives have entered the scene to raise the bar on hydraulic performance. These drives combine the high power capability of hydraulics with the precision and efficiency of electric servodrives. The result is that hydraulics now stands to regain much of the ground that had been lost to electric drives. Considering the many hydraulic servodrives we&rsquo;ve described recently, it probably would not be a stretch to say that a drive revolution is occurring in industrial hydraulics.</p> <p>These hydraulic servodrives use a servomotor to drive a hydraulic pump at variable speeds. Controlling rotational speed, torque, and direction of these motors translates to flow and pressure from the pump that rivals that of a servovalve&rsquo;s output. The big difference is much higher efficiency with the hydraulic servodrive. The biggest difference is during dwell periods. With a hydraulic servovalve drive, the pump consumes significant power just to maintain pressure&mdash;even if no work is being performed. With the hydraulic servodrive, the servomotor consumes very little power during dwell periods because it only needs to transmit enough torque (not speed) to maintain pressure. So during dwell periods, the servomotor essentially becomes a torque motor.</p> <h3>Less Energy, Higher Productivity</h3> <p><a href="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Voith_Servo_PumpLR.jpg"><img alt="" src="/site-files/hydraulicspneumatics.com/files/uploads/2015/02/Voith_Servo_PumpLR.jpg" style="width: 333px; height: 293px; float: right; margin-left: 4px; margin-right: 4px;" title="Voith’s hydraulic servopump can be retrofit into existing machines that formerly used hydraulic servovalves. The result would be up to 70% lower energy consumption and noise reduction as much as 20 dBA." /></a>The latest major player in the hydraulic servodrive market is <a href="http://voith.com/en/index.html" target="_blank">Voith Turbo H + L Hydraulic GmbH</a>, Rutesheim, Germany. Introduced at the 2015 Hannover Fair, Voith&rsquo;s servopump adjusts to the power actually needed over varying volume flows and motor speeds. This provides clear advantages over conventional systems, particularly in the part load range, with a uniformly high volume flow that is needed only rarely within an operating cycle. Optimized operation reduces energy consumption by up to 70% and the total cost of ownership (TCO) of the entire hydraulic system by up to 35%. Voith officials say the cost of the servopump is usually amortized within one to two years.</p> <p>The servopump system consists of three main components: a servo inverter, a synchronous servomotor, and a Voith internal gear pump. The servo inverter analyzes and processes the set point and the actual values of pressure and speed. It controls the highly responsive servomotor, which supplies the required torque to match load pressure. This power is transmitted to the hydraulic system as a function of the pressure or flow through the gear pump. As a result, classic valves are unnecessary, reducing the complexity of the system and the cooling capacity needed. At the same time, the reliability and lifetime increase.</p> <p>Keys to the performance of the hydraulic servodrive are the low mass moment of inertia of the servomotor and the internal gear pump. This shortens the cycle time of the actuators as much as 50% to increase throughput of the machine. In addition to lower energy consumption, the Voith servopump reduces the noise emissions of the system by up to 20 dB<sub>A</sub>. The result is lower cost and effort for noise abatement measures. Voith officials say that in many cases, workplace guidelines are met without any additional measures.</p> <p>The Voith servopump is offered as a turnkey solution. Pressure and flow are individually adjusted to the specific cycle data and synchronized with existing control concepts and systems. The system, therefore, lends itself as a retrofit to existing machines. Typical applications for the servopump include plastics and die-casting machines, machine tools, and presses. Because it is the central component of machines and systems, it continuously measures operating parameters, making it well suited as node for integration within Industry 4.0.</p> <div> <p><em>For more information, contact Voith Turbo H + L Hydraulic GmbH, Rutesheim, Germany, via its website at <strong><a href="http://www.voith.com" target="_blank">www.voith.com</a></strong>.</em></p> </div> </div> <div class="og_rss_groups"></div> http://hydraulicspneumatics.com/hydraulic-pumps-motors/servopump-holds-potential-slash-energy-consumption-70#comments Hydraulic Pumps & Motors Tue, 13 Oct 2015 14:19:00 +0000 34681 at http://hydraulicspneumatics.com