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Pressure-compensated, variable-volume vane pumps
Figure 8-13 shows cutaway views and symbols for a pressure-compensated vane pump. Vane pumps are one type of fixed-volume pump that can be made to function as variable volume and/or pressure compensated. The pumping action is the same as the fixed-volume, unbalanced vane pump previously discussed. The difference is that the cam ring is not fixed but can move in relation to the rotor. An adjustable force spring holds the cam ring in its offset position until enough pressure builds inside it to push against the spring and drive it toward center. As the cam ring moves closer to center, output flow decreases until it finally stops. The cam ring never makes it all the way to center because some flow is always needed to make up for internal bypass.
Internal leakage in fixed-volume pumps passes into the case and back into the inlet flow. Internal leakage in variable-volume pumps also passes into the case but has no passageway to return to the inlet line. All internal leakage must be drained from the case directly to tank through a full-flow drain line. This case-drain line should exit from the highest point on the pump so the case stays full of fluid at all times. Always fill the case of a newly installed pump to make sure it has lubrication at startup. Also, make sure the case-drain line terminates below fluid level in the tank so it cannot suck air.
Some pressure-compensated pumps have a maximum-volume adjusting screw to prevent the cam ring from going to full stroke. This feature makes it possible to adjust the maximum flow when pressure is below the compensator setting. The feature could be used to limit maximum horsepower when only a small portion of a higher flow pump is required. (In most circuits this feature has no use because flow is usually controlled by flow controls or actuator size.)
Two symbols can indicate pressure-compensated pumps schematically. The complete symbol on the left shows all the functions, while the simplified symbol on the right omits the case drain and shows the compensating arrow inside the pump circle. Because most schematic drawings now are done on CAD systems that automatically produce the complete symbol, the simplified symbol seldom appears today.
Pressure-compensated pumps normally do not need a relief valve to protect the system from over pressure. However, many circuits with pressure-compensated pumps use a relief valve just in case the pump hangs on flow. When a relief valve, for whatever reason, is used with a pressure-compensated pump, it is imperative that it be set 100 to 150 psi higher than the pump compensator. If the relief valve is set lower than the compensator, the circuit will operate as a fixed-volume setup and quickly overheat the fluid. If the relief valve is set at the same pressure as the compensator, it is possible that the relief valve will start to dump at the same time the compensator starts to reduce flow. Then the pressure drop lets the relief valve shut and the compensator asks for more flow. These oscillations can continue until the pump fatigues and fails.
Setting the relief valve and compensator is a four-step operation.
- Set the relief valve at maximum pressure.
- Set the pump compensator at a pressure that is 200 to 300 psi higher than final system pressure.
- Set the relief valve 100 to 150 higher than the final compensator setting.
- Set the pump compensator at system pressure.
The other reason often stated for using a relief valve in a pressure-compensated pump circuit is because of pressure spikes. When a pressure-compensated pump has to instantaneously shift from full flow to no flow, fluid leaving the pump while it is shifting to center has no place to go. Because pressure is resistance to flow and resistance is a maximum at this point, pressure can climb very high. These full-flow to no-flow spikes can easily go as high as five to seven times the pump compensator setting (depending on the pump volume). Adding a relief valve to this scenario can reduce the spikes because a relief valve will respond much faster than a pressure-compensated pump. However, a pilot-operated relief valve still has some response time and will often spike two to three times its setting before opening fully.
A better way to protect the pump and circuit is to install a small accumulator at the pump outlet and pre-charge it to approximately 80% of set pressure. Now when the pump must react rapidly, the accumulator provides a place for excess fluid to go. An accumulator also helps actuator response time at cycle start because there is a ready supply of fluid even though the pump is at no flow.
Piston-type, fixed-displacement pumps
There are two types of piston pumps in use today. The oldest design is the radial-piston type. Radial-piston pumps come in two different configurations. The one shown in Figure 8-14 is sometime called a check valve or eccentric pump. The design in Figure 8-15 is what usually comes to mind when radial pumps are mentioned.
The cutaway in Figure 8-14 shows how the pistons move fluid when the eccentric turns and strokes them forward, while springs return them. Check valves at the piston ends allow flow from the inlet chamber and exit flow to the outlet port.
Many of these type pumps are capable of very high pressures -- up to and exceeding 10,000 psi. At the same time they usually flow low volume -- below 6 gpm. They are highly efficient pumps, with unidirectional flow. In fact cw or ccw shaft rotation produces the same flow rate and direction. (An eccentric pump can be made pressure compensated and/or variable volume by restricting inlet flow or pressurizing the area under the pistons to keep the springs from fully extending them.)