The great advantage telescopic cylinders have over any other type of cylinders is their ability to provide an exceptionally long stroke from a compact initial package. The collapsed length of typical telescopic cylinders varies between 20% to 40% of their extended length. Thus, when mounting space is limited, and the application needs a long stroke, a telescopic cylinder is a logical solution.
For example, assume a dump body needs to be tilted 60° in order to empty completely. If the body or trailer is fitted with a conventional rod-type cylinder — with a one-piece barrel and stroke long enough to attain that angle — the dump body could not return to a horizontal orientation for highway travel because of the cylinder's length, even when fully retracted. A telescopic cylinder easily solves this problem.
Telescopic hydraulic cylinders are relatively simple devices, but their successful application requires an understanding of this components' idiosyncrasies. Knowledge of how telescopic cylinders work and which special application criteria to consider will enable you to design them safely and economically into equipment.
Main and stages
As the name infers, telescopic cylinders are constructed like a telescope. Sections of steel tubing with successively smaller diameters nest inside each other. The largest diameter section is called the main or barrel; the smaller-diameter sections that move are called stages; the smallest stage is also called the plunger. The maximum practical number of moving stages seems to be six. Theoretically, cylinders with more stages could be designed, but their stability problem would be daunting.
Telescopic cylinders normally extend from the largest stage to the smallest. This means the largest stage — with all the smaller stages nested inside it — will move first, and complete its stroke before the next stage begins to move. This procedure will continue for each stage until the smallest-diameter stage is fully extended. Conversely, when retracting, the smallest-diameter stage will retract fully before the next stage starts to move. This continues until all stages are nested back into the main.
As with conventional cylinders the two basic types of telescropic hydraulic cylinders are single- and double-acting. Single-acting telescopic cylinders extend under hydraulic pressure and rely on gravity or some external mechanical force for retraction. Single-acting cylinders are used in applications where some form of load is always on the cylinders. The classic single-acting telescopic applications are dump trucks and dump trailers. Pressurized oil extends the telescopic cylinder to raise one end of the dump body. When pressure is released, the weight the dump body forces oil out of the cylinder, it retracts.
Double-acting telescopic cylinders are powered hydraulically in both directions. They can be used in applications where neither gravity nor external force can retract the cylinder. They are well suited to non-critical positioning applications requiring extension and retraction movement of a substantial load.
A classic application is the packer-ejector cylinder in refuse vehicles and transfer trailers. The horizontally mounted cylinder pushes a platen to compress the load, then must retract with the platen so more material can be added. Gravity cannot help, so a double-acting cylinder is used.
Bearings and seals
Each stage is supported within each successively larger stage by at least two bearings. One is at the the next larger stage. The distance between these two bearings determines the degree by which one stage overlaps the next. Generally, this distance must increase as overall stroke increases in order to resist deflection caused by the weight of extended stages and the load.
There are several designs for sealing telescopic cylinders. One of the most common designs is the use of several hinged chevron V seals, one-piece, multi-lip seals with hinged lips molded in place, or both. These seals are held in place by a stop ring or snap ring and packing nut and they use guide bearings on the sleeve piston. The internal diameter of each stage is sealed against the outer diameter of the next smaller stage nested inside it.
The style and placement of these seals varies among cylinder manufactures. The style of seal also depends on its particular function. Zero-leakage, multiple-lip soft seals are usually found in the internal diameter at the packing section of the main and moving stages. Low-leakage hard seals are found on the piston end of double-acting telescopic cylinders. These piston seals allow the cylinder to retract under pressure.
Another design used on some single-acting telescopic cylinders is soft, zero leakage seals on the piston, which in turn use the full bore of the next larger stage as the effective area for extend force. These same seals contain the oil in the cylinder. The upper end of the cylinder, where the soft seals normally would be found, now contains a bearing for guidance. If any type of seal is used in the upper end of this telescopic cylinder design,-it is usually a wiper/seal combination to exclude contaminants from entering the cylinders. With either type, the many sealing surfaces must compensate for normal deflection of stages as the cylinder extends.
The cylinder design with the bearing on the piston and the seal on the other end is called a displacement-type cylinder. The single-acting design with a seal on the piston and a bearing at what normally would be the packing end approaches the classification of ram-type cylinder. Performance is similar to a double-acting rod-type cylinder with pressurized oil being supplied only to the piston side. All the telescopic stages would stroke in this way.
Double-acting telescopic cylinders
Normally, extension of a doubleacting telescopic cylinder occurs in the same manner as with the single-acting type. Retraction of double-acting telescopic cylinders is made possible by sealing each moving stages piston area outside diameter with the next larger stages inside diameter and building internal oil-transfer holes into each moving stage. The oil-transfer holes are located just above the pistons in the body of the stage. The retraction port normally is located in the top of the smallest stage. Oil flows through this port and into the smallest stage. The oiltransfer hole allows oil to enter and pressurize the volume between the next stages internal diameter and the smaller stages outer diameter. Pressure in this volume generates the force to move or retract the smaller stage into the larger stage.
Once this stage is fully retracted, the oil-transfer hole in the next larger stage is exposed to allow oil flow for it to retract. This retraction process continues automatically until all stages have retracted into the main. The seal on each stage selects the areas against which pressure will work.
Locating the retract port on the top of the smallest stage is the simplest way to design a double-acting telescopic cylinder, but this port location typically requires an arrangement of hoses, hose protection, and hose reels to deliver oil to the moving stage. To avoid having fluid power ports spaced far apart when the cylinder is fully extended, most double-acting telescopic cylinder designs locate both fluid ports in the smallest stage or plunger. The cylinder is then mounted so that the smallest stage or plunger is stationary and the larger and heavier stages would be the ones that move as the cylinder extends.
In some instances, a double-acting telescoping cylinder can be designed where both ports are located in the stationary main barrel. Cylinder size (diameter and stroke) and the number of moving stages determine whether this is possible. If it is, the more-complicated internal passages for oil flow require a double wall and or a special trombone type telescopic design.
Piston seals on double-acting telescoping cylinders are normally manufactured from a hard substance-such as cast iron, ductile iron, or glass-reinforced nylon. The hard seals are needed to limit abrasion between the oil transfer holes and ports over which they must pass.
Single-and double-acting combinations
There are a few unusual types of telescoping cylinders designed for specific applications. For example, a manufacturer of oil well equipment uses a type composed of both single-and double-acting stages to position a work-over rig. The work-over rig is a derrick or tower that is transported horizontally to the well site on a trailer. There, telescopic cylinders extend to swing the rig into a vertical position. When the rigs work is done, the telescopic cylinder pulls the rig to begin the transition from vertical back to horizontal. However, once the rig has started to tilt, no more pull force is need because of the rigs weight, and gravity will continue to retract the cylinder. In other words, the cylinder needs hydraulic power for the first part of its retraction stroke, but then operates as a single-acting unit.
In this type of design, the smallest moving stage is designed to be double-acting; the others are single-acting. The small stage can then provide push force to raise the rig, and pull force to start it back down. It is not unusual to design this type cylinder as a skip-asleeve design. Skip-a-sleeve (as its name implies) is where a sleeve or stage is skipped during design. Normally a telescopic stage diameter increases approximately every inch, example; sleeve diameter may be 3.75-in., fits into a 4.25-in. bore; 4.75-in. fitting into 5.25-in. bore, etc. In a skip-a-sleeve design, a sleeve is removed to increase the effective area and the retract force of the smallest sleeve or plunger, example; plunger diameter is 2.75-in. and fits into the 4.25-in. bore of the 4.75-in. sleeve, thus increasing effective area and retract force.
Constant thrust, constant speed
A special telescopic cylinder — known as a constant-thrust/constant-speed cylinder — is configured so that all moving stages will extend at the same time, providing an overall constant speed as well as a constant push force throughout its stroke when extending or retracting. This type of cylinder has been used to drive a drill head in underground mining, where such performance parameters are necessary, and space is at a premium. The more complicated design accomplishes the required action by trapping oil internally, matching extend and retract areas, and limiting the number of moving stages.