The demands placed on hydraulic systems constantly change as industry requires greater efficiency and speed at higher operating temperatures and pressures. Selecting the best hydraulic fluid requires a basic understanding of each particular fluid's characteristics in comparison with an ideal fluid. An ideal fluid would have these characteristics:
- thermal stability
- hydrolytic stability
- low chemical corrosiveness
- high anti-wear characteristics
- low tendency to cavitate
- long life
- total water rejection
- constant viscosity, regardless of temperature, and
- low cost.
Although no single fluid has all of these ideal characteristics, it is possible to select one that is the best compromise for a particular hydraulic system. This selection requires knowledge of the system in which a hydraulic fluid will be used. The designer should know such basic characteristics of the system as:
- maximum and minimum operating and ambient temperatures
- type of pump or pumps used
- operating pressures
- operating cycle
- loads encountered by various components, and
- type of control and power valves
Each of the following factors influences hydraulic fluid performance:
Viscosity - Maximum and minimum operating temperatures, along with the system's load, determine the fluid's viscosity requirements. The fluid must maintain a minimum viscosity at the highest operating temperature. However, the hydraulic fluid must not be so viscous at low temperature that it cannot be pumped.
Wear - Of all hydraulic system problems, wear is most frequently misunderstood because wear and friction usually are considered together. Friction should be considered apart from wear.
Wear is the unavoidable result of metal-to-metal contact. The designer's goal is to minimize metal breakdown through an additive that protects the metal. By comparison, friction is reduced by preventing metal-to-metal contact through the use of fluids that create a thin protective oil or additive film between moving metal parts.
Note that excessive wear may not be the fault of the fluid. It may be caused by poor system design, such as excessive pressure or inadequate cooling.
Anti-wear - The compound most frequently added to hydraulic fluid to reduce wear is zinc dithiophosphate (ZDP), but today, ashless anti-wear hydraulic fluids have become popular with some companies and in certain states to reduce loads on waste treatment plants. No ZDP or other type heavy metals have been used in the formulation of ashless anti-wear fluids.
The pump is the critical dynamic element in any hydraulic system, and each pump type (vane, gear, piston) has different requirements for wear protection. Vane and gear pumps need anti-wear protection. With piston pumps, rust and oxidation (R & O) protection is more important. This is because gear and vane pumps operate with inherent metal-to-metal contact, while pistons ride on an oil film.
When two or more types of pumps are used in the same system, it is impractical to have a separate fluid for each, even though their operating requirements differ. The common fluid selected, therefore, must bridge the operating requirements of all pump types.
Foaming - When foam is carried by a fluid, it degrades system performance and therefore should be eliminated. Foam usually can be prevented by eliminating air leaks within the system. However, two general types of foam still occur frequently:
- surface foam, which usually collects on the fluid surface in a reservoir, and
- entrained air.
Surface foam is the easiest to eliminate, with defoaming additives or by proper sump design so that foam enters the sump and has time to dissipate.
Entrained air can cause more serious problems because this foam is drawn into the system. In worst cases, it causes cavitation, a hammering action that can destroy parts. Entrained air is usually prevented by properly selecting the additive and base oils. Caution: certain anti-foam agents, when used at a high concentration to reduce surface foam, will increase entrained air.
Also linked to the foam problem, is fluid viscosity, which determines how easily air bubbles can migrate through the fluid and escape.
R & O - Most fluids need rust and oxidation inhibitors. These additives both protect the metal and contain anti-oxidation chemicals that help prolong fluid life.
Corrosion - Two potential corrosion problems must be considered: system rusting and acidic chemical corrosion. System rusting occurs when water carried by the fluid attacks ferrous metal parts. Most hydraulic fluids contain rust inhibitors to protect against system rusting. The tests used to measure this capability are ASTM D 665 A and B. To protect against chemical corrosion, other additives must be considered. The additives must also exhibit good stability in the presence of water (hydrolytic stability) to prevent break down and acidic attack on system metals.
Oxidation and thermal stability - Over time, fluids oxidize and form acids, sludge, and varnish. Acids can attack system parts, particularly soft metals. Extended high-temperature operation and thermal cycling also encourage the formation of fluid decomposition products. The system should be designed to minimize these thermal problems, and the fluid should have additives that exhibit good thermal stability, inhibit oxidation, and neutralize acids as they form.
Although not always practical or easy to attain, constant moderate temperature and steady-state operation are best for system and fluid life.
Water retention - Large quantities of water in a hydraulic fluid system can be removed by draining the sump periodically. However, small amounts of water can become entrained, particularly if the sump is small. Usually, demulsifiers are added to the fluid to speed the separation of water. Filters can then physically remove any remaining water from the hydraulic fluid. The water should leave the fluid without taking fluid or additives with it.
Temperature - System operating temperature varies with job requirements. Here are a few general rules: the maximum recommended operating temperature usually is 150° F. Operating temperatures of 180° to 200° F are practical, but the fluid will have to be changed two to three times as often. Systems can operate at temperatures as high as 250° F, but the penalty is fairly rapid decomposition of the fluid and especially rapid decomposition of the additives - sometimes within 24 hours!
Most fluids are evaluated based on their ratings for rust and oxidation (R & O), thermal stability, and wear protection, plus other characteristics that must be considered for efficient operation:
Seal compatibility - In most systems, seals are selected so that when they encounter the fluid they will not change size or they will expand only slightly, thus ensuring tight fits. The fluid selected should be checked to be sure that the fluid and seal materials are compatible, so the fluid will not interfere with proper seal operation.
Fluid life, disposability - There are two other important considerations that do not directly relate to fluid performance in the hydraulic system, but have a great influence on total cost. They are fluid life and disposability.
Fluids that have long operating lives bring added savings through reduced maintenance and replacement-fluid costs. The cost of changing a fluid can be substantial in a large system. Part life should also be longer with the higher-quality, longer-lived fluid.
Longer fluid life also reduces disposal problems. With greater demands to keep the environment clean, and ever-changing definitions of what is toxic, the problem of fluid disposability increases. Fluids and local anti-pollution laws should both be evaluated to determine any potential problems.
Synthesized hydrocarbon (synthetic) hydraulic fluids contain no waxes that congeal at low temperatures nor compounds that readily oxidize at high temperatures which are inevitable in natural mineral oils. Synthetic hydraulic fluids are being used for applications with very low, very high, or a very wide range of temperatures.